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Table of Contents
PART ONE: DEPARTURE PREHISTORY TO 1000 BCE
Chapter 1: The Birth of Civilization
Larger Issue: How do environments shape human communities and human communities alter environments?
The Evolution of the Prehistoric Cultures
The Archaic States
The Origin of Civilization in Mesopotamia: Sumer
The Rise of Civilization in Egypt
Chapter 2: The Rise of Empires and the Beginning of the Iron Age
Larger Issue: Does civilization promote or intensify divisions among peoples?
The Transition States
Imperial Egypt: The New Kingdom
The Indo-Europeans and the Clash of Empires
The Bible and History
PART TWO: THE CLASSICAL ERA 2000 BCE to 30 CE
Chapter 3: Aegean Civilizations
Larger Issue: When does civilization in the West become “Western” civilization?
The Mycenaeans, Greece’s First Civilization
The Aegean Dark Age
The Hellenic Era
The Rise of the Mainland Powers
The Persian Wars: Crucible of a Civilization
Chapter 4: The Hellenic Era
Larger Issue: What did the Greeks contribute to the development of modern civilization?
Persian Wars as Catalyst
The Peloponnesian War
Intellectual and Artistic Life in the Polis
Chapter 5: The Hellenistic Era and the Rise of Rome
Larger Issue: What circumstances are likely to undermine governments by the people?
The Hellenistic Era
The Origin of Rome
The Roman Republic
Rome’s Civil War
Chapter 6: Rome’s Empire and the Unification of the Western World
Larger Issue: Do people prefer order to liberty?
The Augustan Era
Order and Continuity: The Dynastic Option
Order and Continuity: The Elective Option
Life in an Imperial Environment
The Decline of Rome
PART THREE: THE DIVISION OF THE WEST 300 TO 1300
Chapter 7: The West’s Medieval Civilizations
Larger Issue: Should freedom of religion be limited?
The Christian Element
The German Element
The Byzantine Empire of Constantinople
Chapter 8: The Emergence of Europe
Larger Issue: How did Europe build on its legacies from the ancient world?
The Merovingian Kingdom: Europe’s Nucleus
The Franks’ Neighbors
The Carolingian Era
Retrenchment and Reorganization
The Culture of Europe’s Dark Age
Chapter 9: Europe Turns Outward
Larger Issue: Was conflict among the medieval civilizations inevitable?
Islam’s Crest and Byzantium’s Resurgence
The Reorganization of Feudal Europe
The Eleventh-Century Turning Point
Chapter 10: Europe’s High Middle Ages
Larger Issue: Why are some societies more open to change than others?
The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century
Universities and Scholasticism
Religious Revival and Diversity of Opinion
The Artistic Vision of the High Middle Ages
Government in the High Middle Ages
PART FOUR: CHALLENGES, CONFLICTS, AND DEPARTURES 1300 to 1700
Chapter 11: Challenges to the Medieval Order
Larger Issue: What did the crises of the late medieval era reveal about the strengths and weaknesses of Europe’s civilization?
Challenges from Nature
Turmoil in the Middle East
Political Responses: The Burdens of War
Chapter 12: Renaissance and Exploration
Larger Issue: How should a society use its history?
The Context for the Renaissance
The Culture of the Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance
The Middle East: The Ottoman Empire
Europe and Atlantic Exploration
Chapter 13: Reformation, Religious Wars, and National Conflicts
Larger Issue: How do civilized societies justify war?
The Lutheran Reformation
The Swiss Reformation
The Catholic Reformation
The Habsburg-Valois Wars
England’s Ambivalent Reformation
Convergence of Foreign and Domestic Politics: England, Spain, and France
The Final Religious Upheaval
PART FIVE: THE REVOLUTIONARY IMPULSE
Chapter 14: The Early Modern State
Larger Issue: How do political systems reflect the structure of social and economic life?
Society in Early Modern Europe
Forging Centralized States
Absolutism in France
Constitutionalism in England
Wars of Empire and Global Markets
Central and Eastern Europe
Europe’s Declining Powers
Chapter 15: New World Views: Europe’s Scientific Revolution
Larger Issue: How does the study of the natural world influence religious belief and the understanding of truth?
The Medieval World View
Anticipating the New Science
New Directions in Astronomy and Physics
New Approaches to Truth
Theory and Application
Politics as Science
Science as Religion
Superstition and Its Victims
Chapter 16: The Age of Enlightenment: Rationalism and its Uses
Larger Issue: How do people construct ideas of progress?
Critiquing the Traditional Way of Life
Formulas for Improving Material Conditions
Critiquing the Enlightenment
The Arts in the Age of Reason
Chapter 17: Rebellion and Revolution: American Independence and the French Revolution
Larger Issue: Can political change occur without social and economic upheaval?
America Rejects Europe
Revolution in France
Napoleon Bonaparte and the Export of Revolution, 1799–1815
The French Revolution and the Americas
PART SIX: EUROPE TRIUMPHANT 1815-1914
Chapter 18: Industry, Society, and Environment
Larger Issue: How do technology and urbanization influences the relationship between humans and nature?
From Rural to Urban Lifestyles in Europe
Agriculture, Demographics, and Labor
Innovations in Production
The Social Consequences of Industrialization
Industry, the State, and Global Power
Chapter 19: The Age of Ideology in Western Europe
Larger Issue: What leads people to challenge conventional ideas and practices?
The Congress System and the Conservative Agenda
The Revolutions of 1848
Britain and Reform
The Romantic Movement
Utilitarianism and Utopian Socialism
The Marxist Challenge
Chapter 20: The Consolidation of Nation States
Larger Issue: Is nationalism a constructive force in the modern age?
The Creation of Modern Germany
Constitutional Change in France and Britain
The Waning of the Habsburg, Russian, and Ottoman Empires
The United States and Western Europe
Nationalism and Race
Chapter 21: Global Empire and European Culture
Larger Issue: How does the projection of power reflect wider cultural values?
The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods
The Scramble for Empire: Africa
The Scramble for Empire: South and East Asia
The Legacy of Empire
Imperialism, Intellectual Controversy, and European Culture
Transformation in the Arts
PART SEVEN: EUROPE IN CRISIS 1914-1945
Chapter 22: World War I: The End of Enlightenment
Larger Issue: Are nation states inherently adversarial?
The Alliance System
The Experience of Modern Warfare
The Eastern Front and Europe’s Empire
Naval War and American Entry
The Impact of Total War at Home
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
Peace Settlement and European Consciousness
Chapter 23: The Troubled Interwar Years
Larger Issue: Can personal liberty be maintained under conditions of material hardship?
Postwar Problems in Western Europe
The Price of Victory
The Great Depression, 1929–1939
Coping with the Depression
Italy: The First Fascist State
Authoritarian Regimes in Spain and Eastern Europe
The Emergence of Nazi Germany
The Soviet Union under Stalin
Chapter 24: World War II: Europe in Eclipse
Larger Issue: Can the force of ideas sustain a civilization under attack?
The Process of Appeasement, 1933–1939
Nazism Triumphant, 1939–1941: Europe and North Africa
The German Empire
The Destruction of the Jews
The Home Front and the Role of Women
War in Asia and the Pacific
The Tide Turns, 1942–1945
Planning for the Postwar World
PART EIGHT: THE POSTWAR WESTREN COMMUNITY 1945-2008
Chapter 25: Decolonization and the Cold War
Larger Issue: How does ideology shape public policy?
The Eclipse of Postwar Optimism
The End of European Empire
Expanding the Cold War
The Cold War and Nuclear Threat
Cuban Missile Crisis
Divisions and Detente
Chapter 26: Western Civilization and the Global Community
Larger Issue: Has the West defined the process of globalization?
The End of Communism
Science, Technology and the Envirnoment
Women and the Struggle for Equality
Religious Divides and Ethnic Nationalism
The Postindustrial West