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The West: Encounters & Transformations Concise Edition is a brief version of the comprehensive book. It explores the changing definition and identity of the West throughout history, emphasizing the encounters between different cultures, beliefs, ideas, and peoples that shaped Western civilization, both outside the West and within it.
1. The Beginnings of Civilization: 10,000—2000 B.C.E.
Culture, Agriculture, and Civilization.
The Birth of Civilization in Southwest Asia.
The Emergence of Egyptian Civilization.
The Transformation of Europe.
Conclusion: Civilization and the West.
Justice in History: Gods and Kings in Mesopotamian Justice.
2. The International Bronze Age and Its Aftermath: Trade, Empire, and Diplomacy, 1600—550 B.C.E.
The Civilization of the Nile: The Egyptian Empire.
The Civilizations of Anatolia and Mesopotamia: The Hittite, Assyrian, and Babylonian Empires.
The Civilizations of the Mediterranean: The Minoans and the Mycenaeans
The End of the International Bronze Age and Its Aftermath.
Conclusion: The International Bronze Age and the Emergence of the West.
Justice in History: Egyptian Tomb Robbers on Trial.
3. Building the Classical World: Hebrews, Persians, and Greeks, 1100—336 B.C.E.
Hebrew Civilization and Religion.
Classical Persia: An Empire on Three Continents.
Greece Rebuilds, 1100—479 B.C.E.
The Classical Age of Greece, 479—336 B.C.E.
Conclusion: Classical Foundations of the West.
Justice in History: The Trial and Execution of Socrates the Questioner.
4. The Hellenistic Age, 336—31 B.C.E.
The Warlike Kingdom of Macedon.
Hellenistic Society and Culture.
Rome’s Rise to Power.
Beginnings of the Roman Revolution.
Conclusion: Defining the West in the Hellenistic Age.
Justice in History: A Corrupt Roman Governor Is Convicted of Extortion.
5. Enclosing the West: The Early Roman Empire and Its Neighbors, 31 B.C.E.—235 C.E.
The Imperial Center.
Life in the Roman Provinces: Assimilation and Resistance.
The Frontier and Beyond.
Society and Culture in the Imperial Age.
Conclusion: Rome Shapes the West.
Justice in History: The Trial of Jesus in Historical Perspective.
6. Late Antiquity: The Age of New Boundaries, 250—600.
Crisis and Recovery in the Third Century.
Christianizing the Empire.
New Christian Communities and Identities.
The Breakup of the Roman Empire.
Conclusion: A Transformed World.
Justice in History: Two Martyrdoms: Culture and Religion on Trial.
7. Byzantium , Islam, and the Latin West: The Foundations of Medieval Europe , 550—750.
Byzantium: The Survival of the Roman Empire.
The New World of Islam.
The Birth of Latin Christendom.
Conclusion: Three Cultural Realms.
Justice In History: “Judgment Belongs to God Alone”: The Battle and Arbitration at Siffin.
8. Empires and Borderlands: The Early Middle Ages, 750 — 1050.
Invasions and Recovery in the Latin West.
Byzantium and Eastern Europe.
The Dynamism of Islam.
Conclusion: An Emerging Unity in the Latin West.
Justice in History: Revealing the Truth: Oaths and Ordeals.
9. The West Asserts Itself: The High Middle Ages, 1050 – 1300.
The West in the East: The Crusades.
The Consolidation of Roman Catholicism.
Strengthening the Center of the West.
Medieval Culture: The Search for Understanding.
Conclusion: Asserting Western Culture.
Justice in History: Inquiring into Heresy: The Inquisition in Montaillou.
10. The West in Crisis: The Later Middle Ages.
A Time of Death.
A Cold Wind from the East.
Economic Depression and Social Turmoil.
A Troubled Church and the Demand for Religious Comfort.
An Age of Warfare.
The Culture of Loss.
Conclusion: Looking Inward.
Justice in History: The Trial of Joan of Arc.
11. The Italian Renaissance and Beyond: The Politics of Culture.
The Cradle of the Renaissance: The Italian City-States.
The Influence of Ancient Culture.
Antiquity and Nature in the Arts.
The Early Modern European State System.
Conclusion: The Politics of Culture.
Justice in History: Vendetta as Private Justice.
12. The West and the World: The Significance of Global Encounters, 1450—1650.
Europeans in Africa.
Europeans in the Americas.
Europeans in Asia.
The Beginnings of the Global System.
Conclusion: The Significance of the Global Encounters.
Justice in History: The Difficulties of a Transatlantic Marriage.
13. The Reformation of Religion, 1500—1560.
Causes of the Reformation.
The Lutheran Reformation.
The Diversity of Protestantism.
The Catholic Reformation.
The Reformation in the Arts.
Conclusion: Competing Understandings.
Justice in History: The Trial of Anne Boleyn: The Dynastic Crime.
14. The Age of Confessional Division, 1550—1618.
The People of Early Modern Europe.
Disciplining the People.
The Confessional States.
States and Confessions in Eastern Europe.
Conclusion: The Divisions of the West.
Justice in History: The Auto-da-Fé: The Power of Penance.
15. Absolutism and State Building in Europe , 1618—1715.
The Nature of Absolutism.
The Absolutist State in France and Spain.
Absolutism and State Building in Central and Eastern Europe.
Resistance to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic.
Conclusion: The Western State in the Age of Absolutism.
Justice in History: The Trial of Charles I.
16. The Scientific Revolution.
The Discoveries and Achievements of the Scientific Revolution.
The Search for Scientific Knowledge.
The Causes of the Scientific Revolution.
Developments Within Science.
Developments Outside Science.
The Intellectual Effects of the Scientific Revolution.
Humans and the Natural World.
Conclusion: Science and Western Culture.
Justice in History: The Trial of Galileo.
17. The West and the World: Empire, Trade, and War, 1650—1850.
European Empires in the Americas and Asia.
Warfare in Europe, North America, and Asia.
The Atlantic World.
Encounters Between Europeans and Asians.
The Crisis of Empire and the Atlantic Revolutions.
Conclusion: The Rise and Reshaping of the West.
Justice in History: The Trial of the Mutineers on the Bounty.
18. Eighteenth-Century Society and Culture.
Challenges to Aristocratic Dominance.
The Impact of the Enlightenment.
Conclusion: Change and Continuity in the Eighteenth Century.
Justice in History: A Case of Infanticide in the Age of the Enlightenment.
19. The Age of the French Revolution, 1789—1815.
The First French Revolution, 1789—1791.
The French Republic, 1792—1799.
Cultural Change in France During the Revolution.
The Napoleonic Era, 1799—1815.
Conclusion: The French Revolution and Western Civilization.
Justice in History: The Trial of Louis XVI.
20. The Industrial Revolution, 1760—1850.
The Nature of the Industrial Revolution.
Conditions Favoring Industrial Growth.
The Spread of Industrialization.
The Effects of Industrialization.
Industry, Trade, and Empire.
Conclusion: Industrialization and the West.
Justice in History: The Sadler Committee on Child Labor.
21. Ideological Conflict and National Unification, 1815—1871.
New Ideologies in the Early Nineteenth Century.
Ideological Encounters in Europe, 1815—1848.
National Unification in Europe and America, 1848—1871.
Ideology, Empire, and the Balance of Power.
Conclusion: The Ideological Transformation of the West.
Justice in History: Prostitution, Corporal Punishment, and Liberalism in Germany.
22. The Coming of Mass Politics: Industrialization, Emancipation, and Instability, 1870—1914.
Economic and Social Transformation.
Defining the Political Nation.
Broadening the Political Nation.
Outside the Political Nation? The Experience of Women.
Conclusion: The West in an Age of Mass Politics.
Justice in History: The Dreyfus Affair: Defining National Identity in France.
23. The West and the World: Cultural Crisis and the New Imperialism, 1870—1914.
Cultural Crisis: The Fin-de-Siècle and the Birth of Modernism.
The New Imperialism.
Conclusion: Reshaping the West: Expansion and Fragmentation.
Justice in History: The Trial of Oscar Wilde.
24. The First World War.
The Origins of the First World War.
The Experience of War.
War and Revolution.
Conclusion: The War and the West.
Justice in History: Revolutionary Justice: The Nontrial of Nicholas and Alexandra.
25. Reconstruction, Reaction, and Continuing Revolution: The 1920s and 1930s.
Out of the Trenches: Reconstructing Culture and Politics in the 1920s.
The Rise of the Radical Right.
The Polarization of Politics in the 1930s.
European Empires in the Interwar Era.
Conclusion: The Kingdom of Corpses.
Justice in History: The Trial of Adolf Hitler.
26. World War II.
The Coming of War.
Europe at War, 1939–1941.
The World at War, 1941–1945.
The Home Fronts: The Other Wars.
Conclusion: The New Europe, The New West.
Justice in History: The Trial of Adolf Eichmann.
27. Redefining the West After World War II.
A Dubious Peace, 1945–1949.
The West and the World: Decolonization and the Cold War.
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in the 1950s and 1960s.
The West: Consensus, Consumption, and Culture.
Western Culture and Thought in the Age of Consumption.
Conclusion: New Definitions, New Divisions.
Justice in History: Show Time: The Trial of Rudolf Slánsky.
28. The West in the Contemporary Era: New Encounters, New Identities.
Economic Stagnation and Political Change: The 1970s and 1980s.
Revolution in the East.
In the Wake of Revolution.
Rethinking the West.
Conclusion: Where Is the West Now?
Justice in History: The Sentencing of Salman Rushdie.