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Overview

An authoritative account of Western civilizations.

The Western Heritage provides the broadest possible introduction to Western civilization in a strong, clear narrative. It fosters lively debate about the West, defines how the West has interacted with other cultures, and shows how Western civilization can be used to understand global challenges today.

The text integrates social, cultural, and political history, and it provides a flexible presentation to accommodate different teaching and learning approaches.

The 11th edition is tied closely to MyHistoryLab, with icons connecting the main narrative to an array of MyHistoryLab resources, including documents, video segments, and interactive maps. The authors welcome Alison Frank, professor of history at Harvard University, to their team for this edition.

A better teaching and learning experience
This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience—for you and your students. Here’s how:

  • Personalize Learning – The new MyHistoryLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • Improve Critical Thinking – Chapter opening and end-of-chapter study resources help students understand the themes and spark class discussion.
  • Engage Students – Box features included throughout the text encourage the use of visual and textual sources while promoting debate about the West.
  • Support Instructors – Instructor’s eText, MyHistoryLab, Instructor’s Resource Manual, Test Item File, MyTest, PowerPoint presentations, and Class Preparation are available.

For volume 1 of this text, search ISBN-10: 0205423868

For volume 2 of this text, search ISBN-10: 0205434517

Note: MyHistoryLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyHistoryLab, please visit: www.myhistorylab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MyHistorylab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205896316/ ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205896318.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“The book's greatest strength is how succinct it is. It covers all of the major topics in a clean and organized manner.”

-Derrick Griffey, Gadsden State Community College

“Accessible and to the point without diluting history or talking down to students.”

-Sigrun Haude, University of Cincinnati

“The most comprehensive treatment...that I know, delivered in a very detailed and intelligent prose, but also with a lot of attractive lively features, such as primary sources, timelines, maps, review questions and so forth. “

-Patricia Behre, Fairfield University

“Students like the book, and easily extract from it what the authors (and the instructors) intend them too.”

-Hans Broedel, University of North Dakota

“The text has (very) good chapter organization and the content is solid. The intro page to each chapter is helpful (for) previewing major chapter developments and outlining the key topics.”

-Jean Glockler, Moraine Valley Community College

“The selected documents, pictures, maps, and other supplements are wonderful tools for all readers. In short, it is an excellent work for college students.”

-Margarita Youngo, Pima Community College

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205393923
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 10/26/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 1104
  • Sales rank: 697,690
  • Product dimensions: 9.30 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

DONALD KAGAN is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958 to 1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); and a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995) and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the Na-tional Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humani-ties to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.

STEVEN OZMENT is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard Univer-sity. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty For-tress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Pub-lic Interest, 158 (2005).

FRANK M. TURNER is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Direc-tor of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National En-dowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous arti-cles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern His-tory, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between 1996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

ALISON FRANK is professor of history at Harvard University. She is interested in transnational approaches to the history of Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Habsburg Empire and its successor states in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Her first book, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (2005), was awarded the Barbara Jelavich Book Prize, the Austrian Cultural Forum Book Prize, and was co-winner of the Polish Studies Association's Orbis Prize in Polish Studies. Her current book project, Invisible Empire: A New Global History of Austria, focuses on the Adriatic port city of Trieste and the Habsburg Monarchy's participation in global commerce in the long nineteenth century. Other interests include the Eastern Alps, the Mediterranean slave trade, and environmental history. She is associate director of the Center for History and Economics.

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Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

Documents   

Maps   

Preface   

About the Authors

What Is the Western Heritage?

PART 1: The Foundations of Western Civilization in the Ancient World to 400 C.E.

Chapter 1: The Birth of Civilization

Chapter 2: The Rise of Greek Civilization

Chapter 3: Classical and Hellenistic Greece

Chapter 4: Rome: From Republic to Empire

Chapter 5: The Roman Empire

PART 2: The Middle Ages, 476 C.E.—1300 C.E.

Chapter 6: Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476—1000)

Chapter 7: The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000—1300)

Chapter 8: Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000—1300)

PART 3: Europe in Transition, 1300—1750

Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery

Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation

Chapter 12: The Age of Religious Wars

Chapter 13: European State -Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

PART 4: Enlightenment and Revolution, 1700—1850

Chapter 17: The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Chapter 18: The French Revolution

Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

Chapter 20: The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815—1832)

Chapter 21: Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830—1850)

PART 5: Toward the Modern World, 1850—1939

Chapter 22: The Age of Nation-States

Chapter 23: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I

Chapter 24: The Birth of Modern European Thought

Chapter 25: The Age of Western Imperialism

Chapter 26: Alliances, War, and a Troubled Peace

Chapter 27: The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression

PART 6: Global Conflict, Cold War, and New Directions, 1939—2012

Chapter 28: World War II

Chapter 29: The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe

Chapter 30: Social, Cultural, and Economic Challenges in the West through the Present

Glossary

Index


2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Documents   

Maps   

Preface   

About the Authors

What Is the Western Heritage?

PART 1: The Foundations of Western Civilization in the Ancient World to 400 C.E.

Chapter 1: The Birth of Civilization

Early Humans and Their Culture

The Paleolithic Age

The Neolithic Age

The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization

Early Civilizations to about 1000 B.C.E.

Mesopotamian Civilization

Egyptian Civilization

Ancient Near Eastern Empires

The Hittites

The Assyrians

The Second Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Babylonians

The Persian Empire

Cyrus the Great

Darius the Great

Government and Administration

Religion

Art and Culture

Palestine

The Canaanites and the Phoenicians

The Israelites

The Jewish Religion

General Outlook of Mideastern Cultures

Humans and Nature

Humans and the Gods, Law, and Justice

Toward the Greeks and Western Thought

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

BABYLONIAN WORLD MAP

Divination in Ancient Mesopotamia

The Great Flood

Chapter 2: The Rise of Greek Civilization

The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to about 1150 B.C.E.

The Minoans

The Mycenaeans

The Greek “Middle Ages” to about 750 B.C.E.

Greek Migrations

The Age of Homer

The Polis

Development of the Polis

The Hoplite Phalanx

The Importance of the Polis

Expansion of the Greek World

Magna Graecia

The Greek Colony

The Tyrants (about 700—500 B.C.E.)

The Major States

Sparta

Athens

Life in Archaic Greece

Society

Religion

Poetry

The Persian Wars

The Ionian Rebellion

The War in Greece

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Greek Athletics

THE TRIREME

Greek Strategy in the Persian War

Chapter 3: Classical and Hellenistic Greece

Aftermath of Victory

The Delian League

The Rise of Cimon

The First Peloponnesian War: Athens Against Sparta

The Breach with Sparta

The Division of Greece

Classical Greece

The Athenian Empire

Athenian Democracy

The Women of Athens: Legal Status and Everyday Life

Slavery

Religion in Public Life

The Great Peloponnesian War

Causes

Strategic Stalemate

The Fall of Athens

Competition for Leadership in the Fourth Century B.C.E.

The Hegemony of Sparta

The Hegemony of Thebes: The Second Athenian Empire

The Culture of Classical Greece

The Fifth Century B.C.E.

The Fourth Century B.C.E.

Philosophy and the Crisis of the Polis

The Hellenistic World

The Macedonian Conquest

Alexander the Great

The Successors

Hellenistic Culture

Philosophy

Literature

Architecture and Sculpture

Mathematics and Science

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Going to Court in Athens

Athenian Democracy–Pro and Con

THE ERECHTHEUM: PORCH OF THE MAIDENS

Chapter 4: Rome: From Republic to Empire

Prehistoric Italy

The Etruscans

Government

Religion

Women

Dominion

Royal Rome

Government

The Family

Women in Early Rome

Clientage

Patricians and Plebeians

The Republic

Constitution

The Conquest of Italy

Rome and Carthage

The Republic’s Conquest of the Hellenistic World

Civilization in the Early Roman Republic

Religion

Education

Slavery

Roman Imperialism: The Late Republic

The Aftermath of Conquest

The Gracchi

Marius and Sulla

The Fall of the Republic

Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, and Cicero

The First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar and His Government of Rome

The Second Triumvirate and the Triumph of Octavian

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

LICTORS

Two Roman Festivals: The Saturnalia and Lupercalia

Did Caesar Want to Be King?

Chapter 5: The Roman Empire

The Augustan Principate

Administration

The Army and Defense

Religion and Morality

Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages

The Late Republic

The Age of Augustus

Imperial Rome, 14 to 180 C.E.

The Emperors

The Administration of the Empire

Women of the Upper Classes

Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House

The Culture of the Early Empire

The Rise of Christianity

Jesus of Nazareth

Paul of Tarsus

Organization

The Persecution of Christians

The Emergence of Catholicism

Rome as a Center of the Early Church

The Crisis of the Third Century

Barbarian Invasions

Economic Difficulties

The Social Order

Civil Disorder

The Late Empire

The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization

The Triumph of Christianity

Arts and Letters in the Late Empire

The Preservation of Classical Culture

Christian Writers

The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the West

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

SPOILS FROM JERUSALEM ON THE ARCH OF TITUS IN ROME

Chariot Racing

Christianity in the Roman Empire–Why Did the Romans Persecute the Christians? Ancient Warfare

PART 2: The Middle Ages, 476 C.E.—1300 C.E.

Chapter 6: Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476—1000)

The Byzantine Empire

The Reign of Justinian

The Spread of Byzantine Christianity

Persians and Muslims

Islam and the Islamic World

Muhammad’s Religion

Islamic Diversity

Islamic Empires

Byzantium’s Contribution to Islamic Civilization

The European Debt to Islam

On the Eve of the Frankish Ascendancy

Germanic Migrations

New Western Masters

Western Society and the Developing Christian Church

Monastic Culture

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy

The Religious Division of Christendom

The Kingdom of the Franks: From Clovis to Charlemagne

Governing the Franks

The Reign of Charlemagne (768—814)

Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom

Feudal Society

Origins

Vassalage and the Fief

Daily Life and Religion

Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

The Battle of the Sexes in Christianity and Islam

A MULTICULTURAL BOOK COVER

Medieval Cooking

Chapter 7: The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000—1300)

Otto I and the Revival of the Empire

Unifying Germany

Embracing the Church

The Reviving Catholic Church

The Cluny Reform Movement

The Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IV

The Crusades

The Pontificate of Innocent III (r. 1198—1216)

England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)

William the Conqueror

Henry II

Eleanor of Aquitaine and Court Culture

Baronial Revolt and Magna Carta

Philip II Augustus

France in the Thirteenth Century: The Reign of Louis IX

Generosity Abroad

Order and Excellence at Home

The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152—1272)

Frederick I Barbarossa

Henry VI and the Sicilian Connection

Otto IV and the Welf Interregnum

Frederick II

Romanesque and Gothic Architecture

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

EUROPEANS EMBRACE A BLACK SAINT

Christian Jihad, Muslim Jihad Pilgrimages

Chapter 8: Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000—1300)

The Traditional Order of Life

Nobles

Clergy

Peasants

Towns and Townspeople

The Chartering of Towns

The Rise of Merchants

Challenging the Old Lords

New Models of Government

Towns and Kings

Jews in Christian Society

Schools and Universities

University of Bologna

Cathedral Schools

University of Paris

The Curriculum

Philosophy and Theology

Women in Medieval Society

Image and Status

Life Choices

Working Women

The Lives of Children

Children as “Little Adults”

Childhood as a Special Stage

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

THE JOYS AND PAINS OF THE MEDIEVAL JOUST

Children’s Games, Warrior Games

Faith and Love in the High Middle Ages

The Invention of Printing in China and Europe

PART 3: Europe in Transition, 1300—1750

Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

The Black Death

Preconditions and Causes of the Plague

Popular Remedies

Social and Economic Consequences

New Conflicts and Opportunities

The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment

The Causes of the War

Progress of the War

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church

The Thirteenth-Century Papacy

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair

The Avignon Papacy (1309—1377)

John Wycliffe and John Huss

The Great Schism (1378—1417) and the Conciliar Movement in the Church to 1449

Medieval Russia

Politics and Society

Mongol Rule (1243—1480)

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

A BURIAL SCENE FROM THE BLACK DEATH

Dealing with Death

Who Runs the World: Priests or Princes?

Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery

The Renaissance in Italy (1375—1527)

The Italian City-States

Humanism

High Renaissance Art

Slavery in the Renaissance 3

Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494—1527)

Charles VIII’s March Through Italy

Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family

Pope Julius II

Niccolò Machiavelli

Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

France

Spain

England

The Holy Roman Empire

The Northern Renaissance

The Printing Press

Erasmus

Humanism and Reform

Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

The Portuguese Chart the Course

The Spanish Voyages of Columbus

The Spanish Empire in the New World

The Church in Spanish America

The Economy of Exploitation

Mining

The Impact on Europe

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

The Renaissance Garden

LEONARDO PLOTS THE PERFECT MAN

Is the “Renaissance Man” a Myth?

Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation

Society and Religion

Social and Political Conflict

Popular Religious Movements and Criticism of the Church

Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525

The Attack on Indulgences

Election of Charles V

Luther’s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms

Imperial Distractions: War with France and the Turks

How the Reformation Spread

The Peasants’ Revolt

The Reformation Elsewhere

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation

The Diet of Augsburg

The Expansion of the Reformation

Reaction Against Protestants

The Peace of Augsburg

The English Reformation to 1553

The Preconditions of Reform

The King’s Affair

The “Reformation Parliament”

Wives of Henry VIII

The King’s Religious Conservatism

The Protestant Reformation under Edward VI

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation

Sources of Catholic Reform

Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits

The Council of Trent (1545—1563)

The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe

The Revolution in Religious Practices and Institutions

The Reformation and Education

The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women

Family Life in Early Modern Europe

Later Marriages

Arranged Marriages

Family Size

Birth Control

Wet Nursing

Loving Families?

Literary Imagination in Transition

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra: Rejection of Idealism

William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

A SAINT AT PEACE IN THE GRASP OF TEMPTATION

A Raw Deal for the Common Man, or Just Desserts?

Table Manners

Chapter 12: The Age of Religious Wars

Renewed Religious Struggle

The French Wars of Religion (1562—1598)

Appeal of Calvinism

Catherine de Médicis and the Guises

The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre

The Edict of Nantes

Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556—1598)

Pillars of Spanish Power

The Revolt in the Netherlands

England and Spain (1553—1603)

Mary I (r. 1553—1558)

Elizabeth I (r. 1558—1603)

The Thirty Years’ War (1618—1648)

Preconditions for War

Four Periods of War

The Treaty of Westphalia

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

BAROQUE AND PLAIN CHURCH: ARCHITECTURAL REFLECTIONS OF BELIEF

The Great Debate Over Religious Tolerance

Going to the Thea

Chapter 13: European State -Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

Urban Prosperity

Economic Decline

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

Charles I

The Long Parliament and Civil War

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

The “Glorious Revolution”

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule

Versailles

King by Divine Right

Louis’s Early Wars

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies

Louis’s Later Wars

France After Louis XIV

Central and Eastern Europe

Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority

The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

The Romanov Dynasty

Peter the Great

Russian Expansion in the Baltic: The Great Northern War

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Early Controversy Over Tobacco and Smoking

VERSAILLES

The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority

Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

The New Science and Religious Faith

The Case of Galileo

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith

The English Approach to Science and Religion

Continuing Superstition

Witch Hunts and Panic

Village Origins

Influence of the Clergy

Who Were the Witches?

End of the Witch Hunts

Baroque Art

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

THE SCIENCES AND THE ARTS

Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise

Midwives

Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Major Features of Life in the Old Regime

Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

The Aristocracy

Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege

Aristocratic Resurgence

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs

Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: The English Game Laws

Family Structures and the Family Economy

Households

The Family Economy

Women and the Family Economy

Children and the World of the Family Economy

The Revolution in Agriculture

New Crops and New Methods

Expansion of the Population

The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth

Century

A Revolution in Consumption

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain

New Methods of Textile Production

The Steam Engine

Iron Production

The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women

The Growth of Cities

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization

Urban Classes

The Urban Riot

The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

AN ARISTOCRATIC COUPLE

Two Eighteenth-Century Writers Contemplate the Effects of Different Economic Structures

Water, Washing, and Bathing

Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

Periods of European Overseas Empires

Mercantile Empires

Mercantilist Goals

French—British Rivalry

The Spanish Colonial System

Colonial Government

Trade Regulation

Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs

Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy

The African Presence in the Americas

Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

The Experience of Slavery

Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

The War of Jenkins’s Ear

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740—1748)

The “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756

The Seven Years’ War (1756—1763)

The American Revolution and Europe

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

The Crisis and Independence

American Political Ideas

Events in Great Britain

Broader Impact of the American Revolution

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Sugar Enters the Western Diet

A SUGAR PLANTATION IN THE WEST INDIES

The Atlantic Passage

The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, and Agriculture

PART 4: Enlightenment and Revolution, 1700—1850

Chapter 17: The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment

The Emergence of a Print Culture

The Philosophes

Philosophes and Patrons

The Enlightenment and Religion

Deism

Toleration

Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity

The Limits of Toleration

The Jewish Enlightenment

The Enlightenment and Society

The Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic Improvement

Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law

The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress

Political Thought of the Philosophes

Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws

Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society

Enlightened Critics of European Empires

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment

Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art

Enlightened Absolutism

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Partitions of Poland

The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Coffeehouses and Enlightenment

AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ARTIST APPEALS TO THE ANCIENT WORLD

Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria Debate Toleration

Chapter 18: The French Revolution

The Crisis of the French Monarchy

The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes

Necker’s Report

Calonne’s Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables

Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General

The Revolution of 1789

The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly

Fall of the Bastille

The “Great Fear” and the Night of August 4

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The Parisian Women’s March on Versailles

The Reconstruction of France

Political Reorganization

Economic Policy

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Counterrevolutionary Activity

The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution

Emergence of the Jacobins

The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes

Europe at War with the Revolution

Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution

Suppression of Reform in Britain

The Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 1793, 1795

The Reign of Terror

War with Europe

The Republic Defended

The “Republic of Virtue” and Robespierre’s Justification of Terror

Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women

De-Christianization

Revolutionary Tribunals

The End of the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction

Establishment of the Directory

Removal of the Sans-culottes from Political Life

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

CHALLENGING THE FRENCH POLITICAL ORDER

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Opens the Door for Disadvantaged Groups to Demand Equal Civic Rights

The Metric System

Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

Early Military Victories

The Constitution of the Year VIII

The Consulate in France (1799—1804)

Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church

The Napoleonic Code

Establishing a Dynasty

The Haitian Revolution (1791—1804)

Napoleon’s Empire (1804—1814)

Conquering an Empire

The Continental System

European Response to the Empire

German Nationalism and Prussian Reform

The Wars of Liberation

The Invasion of Russia

European Coalition

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement

Territorial Adjustments

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance

The Romantic Movement

Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason

Rousseau and Education

Kant and Reason

Romantic Literature

English Romantic Writers

The German Romantic Writers

Romantic Art

The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-Gothicism

Nature and the Sublime

Religion in the Romantic Period

Methodism

New Directions in Continental Religion

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History

Herder and Culture

Hegel and History

Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism

In Perspective

Key Terms

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