The Western Heritage: Volume 2 / Edition 11

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Overview

An authoritative account of Western civilizations.

The Western Heritage provides the broadest possible introduction to Western civilization in a strong, clear narrative. It fosters lively debate about the West, defines how the West has interacted with other cultures, and shows how Western civilization can be used to understand global challenges today.

The text integrates social, cultural, and political history, and it provides a flexible presentation to accommodate different teaching and learning approaches.

The 11th edition is tied closely to MyHistoryLab, with icons connecting the main narrative to an array of MyHistoryLab resources, including documents, video segments, and interactive maps. The authors welcome Alison Frank, professor of history at Harvard University, to their team for this edition.

A better teaching and learning experience
This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience–for you and your students. Here’s how:

  • Personalize Learning — The new MyHistoryLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.
  • Improve Critical Thinking — Chapter opening and end-of-chapter study resources help students understand the themes and spark class discussion.
  • Engage Students — Box features included throughout the text encourage the use of visual and textual sources while promoting debate about the West.
  • Support Instructors — Instructor’s eText, MyHistoryLab, Instructor’s Resource Manual, Test Item File, MyTest, PowerPoint presentations, and Class Preparation are available.

For volume 1 of this text, search ISBN-10: 0205423868

For the combined volume of this text, search ISBN-10: 0205393926

Note: MyHistoryLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyHistoryLab, please visit: www.myhistorylab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MyHistorylab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205896324 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205896325.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“The book's greatest strength is how succinct it is. It covers all of the major topics in a clean and organized manner.”

-Derrick Griffey, Gadsden State Community College

“Accessible and to the point without diluting history or talking down to students.”

-Sigrun Haude, University of Cincinnati

“The most comprehensive treatment...that I know, delivered in a very detailed and intelligent prose, but also with a lot of attractive lively features, such as primary sources, timelines, maps, review questions and so forth. “

-Patricia Behre, Fairfield University

“Students like the book, and easily extract from it what the authors (and the instructors) intend them too.”

-Hans Broedel, University of North Dakota

“The text has (very) good chapter organization and the content is solid. The intro page to each chapter is helpful (for) previewing major chapter developments and outlining the key topics.”

-Jean Glockler, Moraine Valley Community College

“The selected documents, pictures, maps, and other supplements are wonderful tools for all readers. In short, it is an excellent work for college students.”

-Margarita Youngo, Pima Community College

Booknews
An overview of Western civilization that does justice to its richness and variety, and calls attention to certain themes: the development of political freedom, constitutional government, and concern for the rule of law and individual rights; the shifting relations among religion, society, and the state; the development of science and technology and their expanding impact on thought, social institutions, and everyday life; and the major religious and intellectual currents that have shaped Western culture. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205434510
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 10/22/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 11
  • Pages: 696
  • Sales rank: 319,462
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

DONALD KAGAN is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958 to 1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); and a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995) and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the Na-tional Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humani-ties to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.

STEVEN OZMENT is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard Univer-sity. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty For-tress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Pub-lic Interest, 158 (2005).

FRANK M. TURNER is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Direc-tor of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National En-dowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous arti-cles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern His-tory, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between 1996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

ALISON FRANK is professor of history at Harvard University. She is interested in transnational approaches to the history of Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Habsburg Empire and its successor states in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Her first book, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (2005), was awarded the Barbara Jelavich Book Prize, the Austrian Cultural Forum Book Prize, and was co-winner of the Polish Studies Association's Orbis Prize in Polish Studies. Her current book project, Invisible Empire: A New Global History of Austria, focuses on the Adriatic port city of Trieste and the Habsburg Monarchy's participation in global commerce in the long nineteenth century. Other interests include the Eastern Alps, the Mediterranean slave trade, and environmental history. She is associate director of the Center for History and Economics.

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Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents


1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

Documents   

Maps   

Preface   

About the Authors

What Is the Western Heritage?

Chapter 13: European State -Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

PART 4: Enlightenment and Revolution, 1700—1850

Chapter 17: The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Chapter 18: The French Revolution

Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

Chapter 20: The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815—1832)

Chapter 21: Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830—1850)

PART 5: Toward the Modern World, 1850—1939

Chapter 22: The Age of Nation-States

Chapter 23: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I

Chapter 24: The Birth of Modern European Thought

Chapter 25: The Age of Western Imperialism

Chapter 26: Alliances, War, and a Troubled Peace

Chapter 27: The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression

PART 6: Global Conflict, Cold War, and New Directions, 1939—2012

Chapter 28: World War II

Chapter 29: The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe

Chapter 30: Social, Cultural, and Economic Challenges in the West through the Present

Glossary

Index


2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Documents   

Maps   

Preface   

About the Authors

What Is the Western Heritage?

Chapter 13: European State -Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

Urban Prosperity

Economic Decline

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

Charles I

The Long Parliament and Civil War

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

The “Glorious Revolution”

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule

Versailles

King by Divine Right

Louis’s Early Wars

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies

Louis’s Later Wars

France After Louis XIV

Central and Eastern Europe

Poland: Absence of Strong Central Authority

The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

The Romanov Dynasty

Peter the Great

Russian Expansion in the Baltic: The Great Northern War

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Early Controversy Over Tobacco and Smoking

VERSAILLES

The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority

Chapter 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

The New Science and Religious Faith

The Case of Galileo

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith

The English Approach to Science and Religion

Continuing Superstition

Witch Hunts and Panic

Village Origins

Influence of the Clergy

Who Were the Witches?

End of the Witch Hunts

Baroque Art

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

THE SCIENCES AND THE ARTS

Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise

Midwives

Chapter 15: Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Major Features of Life in the Old Regime

Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

The Aristocracy

Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege

Aristocratic Resurgence

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs

Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: The English Game Laws

Family Structures and the Family Economy

Households

The Family Economy

Women and the Family Economy

Children and the World of the Family Economy

The Revolution in Agriculture

New Crops and New Methods

Expansion of the Population

The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth

Century

A Revolution in Consumption

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain

New Methods of Textile Production

The Steam Engine

Iron Production

The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women

The Growth of Cities

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization

Urban Classes

The Urban Riot

The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

AN ARISTOCRATIC COUPLE

Two Eighteenth-Century Writers Contemplate the Effects of Different Economic Structures

Water, Washing, and Bathing

Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

Periods of European Overseas Empires

Mercantile Empires

Mercantilist Goals

French—British Rivalry

The Spanish Colonial System

Colonial Government

Trade Regulation

Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs

Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy

The African Presence in the Americas

Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

The Experience of Slavery

Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

The War of Jenkins’s Ear

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740—1748)

The “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756

The Seven Years’ War (1756—1763)

The American Revolution and Europe

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

The Crisis and Independence

American Political Ideas

Events in Great Britain

Broader Impact of the American Revolution

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Sugar Enters the Western Diet

A SUGAR PLANTATION IN THE WEST INDIES

The Atlantic Passage

The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, and Agriculture

PART 4: Enlightenment and Revolution, 1700—1850

Chapter 17: The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment

The Emergence of a Print Culture

The Philosophes

Philosophes and Patrons

The Enlightenment and Religion

Deism

Toleration

Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity

The Limits of Toleration

The Jewish Enlightenment

The Enlightenment and Society

The Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic Improvement

Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law

The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress

Political Thought of the Philosophes

Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws

Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society

Enlightened Critics of European Empires

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment

Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art

Enlightened Absolutism

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Partitions of Poland

The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Coffeehouses and Enlightenment

AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ARTIST APPEALS TO THE ANCIENT WORLD

Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria Debate Toleration

Chapter 18: The French Revolution

The Crisis of the French Monarchy

The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes

Necker’s Report

Calonne’s Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables

Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General

The Revolution of 1789

The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly

Fall of the Bastille

The “Great Fear” and the Night of August 4

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The Parisian Women’s March on Versailles

The Reconstruction of France

Political Reorganization

Economic Policy

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Counterrevolutionary Activity

The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution

Emergence of the Jacobins

The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes

Europe at War with the Revolution

Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution

Suppression of Reform in Britain

The Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 1793, 1795

The Reign of Terror

War with Europe

The Republic Defended

The “Republic of Virtue” and Robespierre’s Justification of Terror

Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women

De-Christianization

Revolutionary Tribunals

The End of the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction

Establishment of the Directory

Removal of the Sans-culottes from Political Life

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

CHALLENGING THE FRENCH POLITICAL ORDER

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Opens the Door for Disadvantaged Groups to Demand Equal Civic Rights

The Metric System

Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

Early Military Victories

The Constitution of the Year VIII

The Consulate in France (1799—1804)

Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church

The Napoleonic Code

Establishing a Dynasty

The Haitian Revolution (1791—1804)

Napoleon’s Empire (1804—1814)

Conquering an Empire

The Continental System

European Response to the Empire

German Nationalism and Prussian Reform

The Wars of Liberation

The Invasion of Russia

European Coalition

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement

Territorial Adjustments

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance

The Romantic Movement

Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason

Rousseau and Education

Kant and Reason

Romantic Literature

English Romantic Writers

The German Romantic Writers

Romantic Art

The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-Gothicism

Nature and the Sublime

Religion in the Romantic Period

Methodism

New Directions in Continental Religion

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History

Herder and Culture

Hegel and History

Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

THE CORONATION OF NAPOLEON

Sailors and Canned Food

The Experience of War in the Napoleonic Age

Chapter 20: The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815—1832)

The Conservative Order

The Congress System

The Domestic Political Order

Conservative Outlooks

The Emergence of Nationalism and Liberalism

Nationalism

Early-Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism

Classical Economics

Relationship of Liberalism to Nationalism

Conservative Restoration in Europe

Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies

Postwar Repression in Great Britain

Bourbon Restoration in France

The Spanish Revolution of 1820

The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe

Revolt Against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans

Russia: The Decembrist Revolt of 1825

Revolution in France (1830)

Belgium Becomes Independent (1830)

The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832)

The Wars of Independence in Latin America

Wars of Independence on the South American Continent

Independence in New Spain

Brazilian Independence

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Mazzini and Lord Acton Debate the Political Principles of Nationalism

Gymnastics and German Nationalism

AN UNSUCCESSFUL MILITARY COUP IN RUSSIA

Chapter 21: Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830—1850)

Toward an Industrial Society

Population and Migration

Railways

The Labor Force

The Emergence of a Wage-Labor Force

Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism

Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution

The Family in the Early Factory System

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution

Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment

Changing Expectations in the Working-Class Marriage

Problems of Crime, Order, and Poverty

New Police Forces

Prison Reform

Government Policies Based on Classical Economics

Early Socialism

Utopian Socialism

Anarchism

Marxism

1848: Year of Revolutions

France: The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon

The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted

Italy: Republicanism Defeated

The German Confederation: Liberalism Frustrated

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

The Potato and the Great Hunger in Ireland

Andrew Ure and John Ruskin Debate the Conditions of Factory Production

THE GREAT EXHIBITION IN LONDON

The Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy

PART 5: Toward the Modern World, 1850—1939

Chapter 22: The Age of Nation-States

The Crimean War (1853—1856)

Peace Settlement and Long-Term Results

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Italian Unification

Romantic Republicans

Cavour’s Policy

The New Italian State

German Unification

Bismarck

The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870—1871)

France: From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic

The Paris Commune

The Third Republic

The Habsburg Empire

Formation of the Dual Monarchy

Unrest of Nationalities

Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings

Reforms of Alexander II

Revolutionaries

Great Britain: Toward Democracy

The Second Reform Act (1867)

Gladstone’s Great Ministry (1868—1874)

Disraeli in Office (1874—1880)

The Irish Question

In Perspective

Key Term

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

THE SUEZ CANAL

Nineteenth-Century Nationalism: Two Sides

The Arrival of Penny Postage

Chapter 23: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I

Population Trends and Migration

The Second Industrial Revolution

New Industries

Economic Difficulties

The Middle Classes in Ascendancy

Social Distinctions within the Middle Classes

Late-Nineteenth-Century Urban Life

The Redesign of Cities

Urban Sanitation

Housing Reform and Middle-Class Values

Varieties of Late-Nineteenth-Century Women’s Experiences

Women’s Social Disabilities

New Employment Patterns for Women

Working-Class Women

Poverty and Prostitution

Women of the Middle Class

The Rise of Political Feminism

Jewish Emancipation

Differing Degrees of Citizenship

Broadened Opportunities

Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I

Trade Unionism

Democracy and Political Parties

Karl Marx and the First International

Great Britain: Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs

France: “Opportunism” Rejected

Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism

Russia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Bicycles: Transportation, Freedom, and Sport

Bernstein and Lenin Debate the Tactics of European Socialism

BLOODY SUNDAY, ST. PETERSBURG, 1905

Chapter 24: The Birth of Modern European Thought

The New Reading Public

Advances in Primary Education

Reading Material for the Mass Audience

Science at Midcentury

Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science

New Theories of Evolution: Lamarck, Lyell, Darwin, Wallace

Science and Ethics: Social Darwinism

Christianity and the Church Under Siege

Intellectual Skepticism

Conflict Between Church and State

Areas of Religious Revival

The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World

Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought

Toward a Twentieth-Century Frame of Mind

Science: The Revolution in Physics

Literature: Realism and Naturalism

Modernism in Literature

The Coming of Modern Art

Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against Reason

The Birth of Psychoanalysis

Retreat from Rationalism in Politics

Racism

Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism

Women and Modern Thought

Antifeminism in Late-Century Thought

New Directions in Feminism

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

The Birth of Science Fiction

The Debate over Social Darwinism

POPULAR RELIGION AND PILGRIMAGE

Chapter 25: The Age of Western Imperialism

The Close of the Age of Early Modern Colonization

The Age of British Imperial Dominance

The Imperialism of Free Trade

British Settler Colonies

India–The Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire

The “New Imperialism,” 1870—1914

Motives for the New Imperialism

The Partition of Africa

Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Libya

Egypt and British Strategic Concern about the Upper Nile

West Africa

The Belgian Congo

German Empire in Africa

Southern Africa

Russian Expansion in Mainland Asia

Western Powers in Asia

France in Asia

The United States’ Actions in Asia, the Pacific, and Latin America

The Boxer Rebellion

Tools of Imperialism

Steamboats

Conquest of Tropical Diseases

Firearms

The Missionary Factor

Missionary Movements

Tensions Between Missionaries and Imperial Administrators

Missionaries and Indigenous Religious Movements

Science and Imperialism

Botany

Zoology

Medicine

Anthropology

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

THE FRENCH IN MOROCCO

Two Views of Turn-of-the-Twentieth-Century Imperial Expansion

Submarine Cables

Imperialism: Ancient and Modern

Chapter 26: Alliances, War, and a Troubled Peace

Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873—1890)

Bismarck’s Leadership

Forging the Triple Entente (1890—1907)

World War I

The Road to War (1908—1914)

Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June—August 1914)

Strategies and Stalemate: 1914—1917

The Russian Revolution

The Provisional Government

Lenin and the Bolsheviks

The Communist Dictatorship

The End of World War I

Germany’s Last Offensive

The Armistice

The End of the Ottoman Empire

The Settlement at Paris

Obstacles the Peacemakers Faced

The Peace

World War I and Colonial Empires

Evaluating the Peace

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

The Outbreak of World War I

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARMORED TANK

War Propaganda and the Movies: Charlie Chaplin

Chapter 27: The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression

After Versailles: Demands for Revision and Enforcement

Toward the Great Depression in Europe

Financial Tailspin

Problems in Agricultural Commodities

Depression and Government Policy in Britain and France

The Soviet Experiment

War Communism

The New Economic Policy

The Third International

Stalin versus Trotsky

The Decision for Rapid Industrialization

The Collectivization of Agriculture

The Purges

The Fascist Experiment in Italy

The Rise of Mussolini

The Fascists in Power

German Democracy and Dictatorship

The Weimar Republic

Depression and Political Deadlock

Hitler Comes to Power

Hitler’s Consolidation of Power

Anti-Semitism and the Police State

Racial Ideology and the Lives of Women

Nazi Economic Policy

Trials of the Successor States in Eastern Europe

Economic and Ethnic Pressures

Poland: Democracy to Military Rule

Czechoslovakia: A Viable Democratic Experiment

Hungary: Turn to Authoritarianism

Austria: Political Turmoil and Nazi Occupation

Southeastern Europe: Royal Dictatorships

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Cinema of the Political Left and Right

THE NAZI PARTY RALLY

The Soviets and the Nazis Confront the Issues of Women and the Family

PART 6: Global Conflict, Cold War, and New Directions, 1939—2012

Chapter 28: World War II

Again the Road to War (1933—1939)

Hitler’s Goals

Italy Attacks Ethiopia

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The Spanish Civil War

Austria and Czechoslovakia

Munich

The Nazi—Soviet Pact

World War II (1939—1945)

The German Conquest of Europe

The Battle of Britain

The German Attack on Russia

Hitler’s Plans for Europe

Japan and the United States Enter the War

The Tide Turns

The Defeat of Nazi Germany

Fall of the Japanese Empire

The Cost of War

Racism and the Holocaust

The Destruction of the Polish Jewish Community

Polish Anti-Semitism Between the Wars

The Nazi Assault on the Jews of Poland

Explanations of the Holocaust

The Domestic Fronts

Germany: From Apparent Victory to Defeat

France: Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance

Great Britain: Organization for Victory

The Soviet Union: “The Great Patriotic War”

Preparations for Peace

The Atlantic Charter

Tehran: Agreement on a Second Front

Yalta

Potsdam

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

The Munich Settlement

Rosie the Riveter and American Women in the War Effort

THE VICHY REGIME IN FRANCE

Chapter 29: The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe

The Emergence of the Cold War

Containment in American Foreign Policy

Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe

The Postwar Division of Germany

NATO and the Warsaw Pact

The Creation of the State of Israel

The Korean War

The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union

Khrushchev’s Domestic Policies

The Three Crises of 1956

Later Cold War Confrontations

The Berlin Wall

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Brezhnev Era

1968: The Invasion of Czechoslovakia

The United States and Détente

The Invasion of Afghanistan

Communism and Solidarity in Poland

Relations with the Reagan Administration

Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire

Major Areas of Colonial Withdrawal

India

Further British Retreat from Empire

The Turmoil of French Decolonization

France and Algeria

France and Vietnam

Vietnam Drawn into the Cold War

Direct United States Involvement

The Collapse of European Communism

Gorbachev Attempts to Reform the Soviet Union

1989: Revolution in Eastern Europe

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The Yeltsin Decade

The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War

Putin and the Resurgence of Russia

The Rise of Radical Political Islamism

Arab Nationalism

The Iranian Revolution

Afghanistan and Radical Islamism

A Transformed West

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

The Soviet Union and the United States Draw the Lines of the Cold War

Rock Music and Political Protest

COLLAPSE OF THE BERLIN WALL

Chapter 30: Social, Cultural, and Economic Challenges in the West through the Present

The Twentieth-Century Movement of Peoples

Displacement Through War

External and Internal Migration

The New Muslim Population

European Population Trends

Toward a Welfare State Society

Christian Democratic Parties

The Creation of Welfare States

Resistance to the Expansion of the Welfare State

New Patterns in Work and Expectations of Women

Feminism

More Married Women in the Workforce

New Work Patterns

Women in the New Eastern Europe

Transformations in Knowledge and Culture

Communism and Western Europe

Existentialism

Expansion of the University Population and Student Rebellion

The Americanization of Europe

A Consumer Society

Environmentalism

Art Since World War II

Cultural Divisions and the Cold War

The Christian Heritage

Neo-Orthodoxy

Liberal Theology

Roman Catholic Reform

Late-Twentieth-Century Technology: The Arrival of the Computer

The Demand for Calculating Machines

Early Computer Technology

The Development of Desktop Computers

The Challenges of European Unification

Postwar Cooperation

The European Economic Community

The European Union

Discord over the Union

New American Leadership and Financial Crisis

European Debt Crisis

In Perspective

Key Terms

Review Questions

Suggested Readings

MyHistoryLab Media Assignments

Muslim Women Debate France’s Ban on the Veil

Toys from Europe Conquer the United States

NAMELESS LIBRARY, VIENNA

ENERGY AND THE MODERN WORLD

Glossary

Index

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