The Western Heritage: Teaching and Learning Classroom Edition, Volume 1 (to 1740) / Edition 6

The Western Heritage: Teaching and Learning Classroom Edition, Volume 1 (to 1740) / Edition 6

by Donald . Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Steven E. Ozment

This highly visual brief survey of Western civilization presents an exceptionally balanced survey of the political, social, and cultural developments in Western history—both strengths and weaknesses, as well as the controversies surrounding it. The Teaching & Learning Classroom edition of the highly successful The Western Heritage, Tenth Edition provides your

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This highly visual brief survey of Western civilization presents an exceptionally balanced survey of the political, social, and cultural developments in Western history—both strengths and weaknesses, as well as the controversies surrounding it. The Teaching & Learning Classroom edition of the highly successful The Western Heritage, Tenth Edition provides your students with the most help available in reading, comprehending, and applying the material in the text and in class. A series of pedagogical aids within the text, in addition to presentational and assessment support for instructors, makes this text the perfect choice for those looking to make history come alive for their students.

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Table of Contents

PART 1: The Foundations of Western Civilization in the Ancient World 1,000,000 B.C.E.–400 C.E.

CHAPTER 1 The Birth of Civilization

Early Humans and Their Culture

The Paleolithic Age

The Neolithic Age

The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization

Early Civilizations to about 1000 B.C.E.

Mesopotamian Civilization

Egyptian Civilization

Ancient Near Eastern Empires

The Hittites

The Assyrians

The Second Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Babylonians

The Persian Empire

Cyrus the Great

Darius the Great

Government and Administration


Art and Culture


The Canaanites and the Phoenicians

The Israelites

The Jewish Religion

General Outlook of Mideastern Cultures

Humans and Nature

Humans and the Gods, Law, and Justice

Toward the Greeks and Western Thought


Compare & Connect: The Great Flood
Encountering the Past: Divination in Ancient Mesopotamia

CHAPTER 2 The Rise of Greek Civilization

The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to about 1150 B.C.E.

The Minoans

The Mycenaeans

The Greek “Middle Ages” to about 750 B.C.E.

Greek Migrations

The Age of Homer

The Polis

Development of the Polis

The Hoplite Phalanx

Expansion of the Greek World

The Greek Colony

The Tyrants (ca. 700–500 B.C.E.)

The Major States



Life in Archaic Greece




The Persian Wars

The Ionian Rebellion

The War in Greece


Compare & Connect: Greek Strategy in the Persian War
Encountering the Past: Greek Athletics

CHAPTER 3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece

Aftermath of Victory

The Delian League and the Rise of Cimon

The First Peloponnesian War: Athens against Sparta

The Breach with Sparta

The Division of Greece

Classical Greece

The Athenian Empire

Athenian Democracy

The Women of Athens: Legal Status and Everyday Life


Religion in Public Life

The Great Peloponnesian War


Strategic Stalemate

The Fall of Athens

Competition for Leadership in the Fourth Century B.C.E.

The Hegemony of Sparta

The Hegemony of Thebes: The Second Athenian Empire

The Culture of Classical Greece

The Fifth Century B.C.E.

The Fourth Century B.C.E.

Philosophy and the Crisis of the Polis

The Hellenistic World

The Macedonian Conquest

Alexander the Great

The Successors

Hellenistic Culture



Art and Architecture

Mathematics and Science


Compare & Connect: Athenian Democracy — Pro and Con
Encountering the Past: Going to Court in Athens

CHAPTER 4 Rome: From Republic to Empire

Prehistoric Italy

The Etruscans




Royal Rome


The Family and Gender in Early Rome


Patricians and Plebians

The Republic


The Conquest of Italy

Rome and Carthage

The Republic’s Conquest of the Hellenistic World

Civilization in the Early Roman Republic




Roman Imperialism: The Late Republic

The Aftermath of Conquest

The Gracchi

Marius and Sulla

The Fall of the Republic

Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, and Cicero

The First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar and his Government of Rome

The Second Triumvirate and the Triumph of Octavian


Compare & Connect: Did Caesar Want to be King?
Encountering the Past: Roman Comedy

CHAPTER 5 The Roman Empire

The Augustan Principate


The Army and Defense

Religion and Morality

Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages

The Late Republic

The Age of Augustus

Imperial Rome, 14 to 180 C.E.

The Emperors

The Administration of the Empire

Women of the Upper Classes

Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House

The Culture of the Early Empire

The Rise of Christianity

Jesus of Nazareth

Paul of Tarsus


The Persecution of Christians

The Emergence of Catholicism

Rome as a Center of the Early Church

The Crisis of the Third Century

Barbarian Invasions

Economic Difficulties

The Social Order

Civil Disorder

The Late Empire

The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization

The Triumph of Christianity

Arts and Letters in the Late Empire

The Preservation of Classical Culture

Christian Writers

The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the West


Compare & Connect: Christianity in the Roman Empire —Why Did the Romans Persecute the Christians?
Encountering the Past: Chariot Racing


CHAPTER 6 Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476—1000)

On the Eve of the Frankish Ascendancy

Germanic Migrations

New Western Masters

The Byzantine Empire

The Reign of Justinian

The Spread of Byzantine Christianity

Persians and Muslims

Islam and the Islamic World

Muhammad’s Religion

Islamic Diversity

Islamic Empires

The Western Debt to Islam

Western Society and the Developing Christian Church

Monastic Culture

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy

The Religious Division of Christiandom

The Kingdom of the Franks: From Clovis to Charlemagne

Governing the Franks

The Reign of Charlemagne (768—814)

Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom

Feudal Society


Vassalage and the Fief

Daily Life and Religion

Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty


Compare & Connect: The Battle of the Sexes in Christianity and Islam
Encountering the Past: Medieval Cooking

CHAPTER 7 The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000—1300)

Otto I and the Revival of the Empire

Unifying Germany

Embracing the Church

The Reviving Catholic Church

The Cluny Reform Movement

The Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IV

The Crusades

The Pontificate of Innocent III (r. 1198—1216)

England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)

William the Conqueror

Henry II

Eleanor of Aquitaine and Court Culture

Popular Rebellion and Magna Carta

Philip II Augustus

France in the Thirteenth Century: The Reign of Louis IX

Generosity Abroad

Order and Excellence at Home

The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152—1272)

Frederick I Barbarossa

Henry VI and the Sicilian Connection

Otto IV and the Welf Interregnum

Frederick II

Romanesque and Gothic Architecture


Compare & Connect: Christian Jihad, Muslim Jihad
Encountering the Past: Pilgrimage

CHAPTER 8 Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000—1300)

The Traditional Order of Life




Towns and Townspeople

The Chartering of Towns

The Rise of Merchants

Challenging the Old Lords

New Models of Government

Towns and Kings

Jews in Christian Society

Schools and Universities

University of Bologna

Cathedral Schools

University of Paris

The Curriculum

Philosophy and Theology

Women in Medieval Society

Image and Status

Life Choices

Working Women

The Lives of Children

Children as “Little Adults”

Children as a Special Stage


Compare & Connect: Faith and Love in the High Middle Ages
Encountering the Past: Warrior Games


CHAPTER 9 The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

The Black Death

Preconditions and Causes of the Plague

Popular Remedies

Social and Economic Consequences

New Conflicts and Opportunities

The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment

The Causes of the War

Progress of the War

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church

The Thirteenth-Century Papacy

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair

The Avignon Papacy (1309—1377)

John Wycliffe and John Huss

The Great Schism (1378—1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449

Medieval Russia

Politics and Society

Mongol Rule (1243—1480)


Compare & Connect: Who Runs the World: Priests or Princes?
Encountering the Past: Medieval Medicine

CHAPTER 10 Renaissance and Discovery

The Renaissance in Italy (1375—1527)

The Italian City-State


Renaissance Art

Slavery in the Renaissance

Italy ’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494—1527)

Charles VIII’s March through Italy

Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family

Pope Julius II

Niccolò Machiavelli

Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe




The Holy Roman Empire

The Northern Renaissance

The Printing Press


Humanism and Reform

Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

The Portuguese Chart the Course

The Spanish Voyages of Columbus

The Spanish Empire in the New World

The Church in Spanish America

The Economy of Exploitation

The Impact on Europe


Compare & Connect: Is the Renaissance Man a Myth?
Encountering the Past: The Garden

CHAPTER 11 The Age of Reformation

Society and Religion

Social and Political Conflict

Popular Religious Movements and Criticisms of the Church

Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525

Justification by Faith Alone

The Attack on Indulgences

Election of Charles V

Luther’s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms

Imperial Distractions: France and the Turks

How the Reformation Spread

The Peasants’ Revolt

The Reformation Elsewhere

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation

The Diet of Augsburg

The Expansion of the Reformation

Reaction against Protestants

The Peace of Augsburg

The English Reformation to 1553

The Preconditions of Reform

The King’s Affair

The “Reformation Parliament”

Wives of Henry VIII

The King’s Religious Conservatism

The Protestant Reformation under Edward VI

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation

Sources of Catholic Reform

Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits

The Council of Trent (1545-1563)

The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe

The Revolution in Religious Practices and Institutions

The Reformation and Education

The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women

Family Life in Early Modern Europe

Later Marriages

Arranged Marriages

Family Size and Birth Control

Wet Nursing

Loving Families?

Literary Imagination in Transition

Miguel De Cervantes Saaavedra: Rejection of Idealism

William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age


Compare & Connect: A Raw Deal for the Common Man, or His Just Desserts?
Encountering the Past: Table Manners

CHAPTER 12 The Age of Religious Wars

Renewed Religious Struggle

The French Wars of Religion (1562—1598)

Appeal of Calvinism

Catherine de Medicis and the Guises

The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre

The Edict of Nantes

Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556—1598)

Pillars of Spanish Power

The Revolt in the Netherlands

England and Spain (1553—1603)

Mary I (r. 1553—1558)

Elizabeth I (r. 1558—1603)

The Thirty Years’ War (1618—1648)

Preconditions for War

Four Periods of War

The Treaty of Westphalia


Compare & Connect: A Great Debate over Religious Tolerance
Encountering the Past: Going to the Theater

CHAPTER 13 European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

Urban Prosperity

Economic Decline

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

Charles I

The Long Parliament and Civil War

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

The “Glorious Revolution”

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule


King by Divine Right

Louis’s Early Wars

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies

Louis’s Later Wars

France after Louis XIV

Central and Eastern Europe

Poland : Absence of Strong Central Authority

The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

The Romanor Dynasty

Peter the Great

The Ottoman Empire

Religious Toleration and Ottoman Government

The End of Ottoman Expansion


Compare & Connect: The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority
Encountering the Past: Early Controversy over Tobacco and Smoking

CHAPTER 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

The New Science and Religious Faith

The Case of Galileo

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith

The English Approach to Science and Religion

Continuing Superstition

Witch-Hunts and Panic

Village Origins

Influence of the Clergy

Who Were the Witches?

End of the Witch-Hunts

Baroque Art


Compare & Connect: Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise
Encountering the Past: Midwives

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