The Western Heritage: Teaching and Learning Classroom Edition, Volume 2 (Since 1648) / Edition 6

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This highly visual brief survey of Western civilization presents an exceptionally balanced survey of the political, social, and cultural developments in Western history--both strengths and weaknesses, as well as the controversies surrounding it. The Teaching & Learning Classroom edition of the highly successful The Western Heritage, Tenth Edition provides your students with the most help available in reading, comprehending, and applying the material in the text and in class. A series of pedagogical aids within the text, in addition to presentational and assessment support for instructors, makes this text the perfect choice for those looking to make history come alive for their students.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205728930
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/29/2009
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 544
  • Sales rank: 373,366
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958–1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.

Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Public Interest 158 (2005).

Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 13 European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

Urban Prosperity

Economic Decline

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

Charles I

The Long Parliament and Civil War

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

The “Glorious Revolution”

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule


King by Divine Right

Louis’s Early Wars

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies

Louis’s Later Wars

France after Louis XIV

Central and Eastern Europe

Poland : Absence of Strong Central Authority

The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

The Romanor Dynasty

Peter the Great

The Ottoman Empire

Religious Toleration and Ottoman Government

The End of Ottoman Expansion


Compare & Connect: The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority
Encountering the Past: Early Controversy over Tobacco and Smoking

CHAPTER 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

The New Science and Religious Faith

The Case of Galileo

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith

The English Approach to Science and Religion

Continuing Superstition

Witch-Hunts and Panic

Village Origins

Influence of the Clergy

Who Were the Witches?

End of the Witch-Hunts

Baroque Art


Compare & Connect: Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise
Encountering the Past: Midwives

CHAPTER 15 Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Major Features of Life in the Old Regime

Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

The Aristocracy

Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege

Aristocratic Resurgence

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs

Family Structures and the Family Economy


The Family Economy

Women and the Family Economy

Children and the World of the Family Economy

The Revolution in Agriculture

New Crops and New Methods

Expansion of the Population

The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century

A Revolution in Consumption

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain

New Methods of Textile Production

The Steam Engine

Iron Production

The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women

The Growth of Cities

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization

Urban Classes

The Urban Riot

The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto


Compare & Connect: Two Eighteenth-Century Writers Contemplate the Effects of Differ-ent Economic Structures
Encountering the Past: Water, Washing, and Bathing

CHAPTER 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

Periods of European Overseas Empires

Mercantile Empires

Mercantilist Goals

French–British Rivalry

The Spanish Colonial System

Colonial Government and Regulation of Trade

Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs

Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy

The African Presence in the Americas

Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

The Experience of Slavery

Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

The War of Jenkins’s Ear

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748)

The “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756

The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763)

The American Revolution and Europe

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

The Crisis and Independence

American Political Ideas

Events in Great Britain

Broader Impact of the American Revolution


Compare & Connect: The Atlantic Passage
Encountering the Past: Sugar Enters the Western Diet


CHAPTER 17 The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment

Ideas of Newton and Locke

The Example of British Toleration and Political Stability

The Emergence of a Print Culture

The Philosophes

Voltaire—First among the Philosophes

The Enlightenment and Religion



Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity

Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment

Islam in Enlightenment Thought

The Enlightenment and Society

The Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic Improvement

Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law

The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress

Political Thought of the Philosophes

Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws

Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society

Enlightened Critics of European Empires

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment

Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art

Enlightened Absolutism

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Partition of Poland

The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe


Compare & Connect: Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria Debate Toleration
Encountering the Past: Coffeehouses and Enlightenment

CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution

The Crisis of the French Monarchy

The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes

Necker’s Report

Calonne’s Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables

Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General

The Revolution of 1789

The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly

Fall of the Bastille

The “Great Fear” and the Night of August 4

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The Parisian Women’s March on Versailles

The Reconstruction of France

Political Reorganization

Economic Policy

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Counterrevolutionary Activity

The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution

Emergence of the Jacobins

The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes

Europe at War with the Revolution

Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution

Suppression of Reform in Britain

The Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 1793, 1795

The Reign of Terror

War with Europe

The Republic Defended

The “Republic of Virtue” and Robespierre’s Justification of Terror

Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women


Revolutionary Tribunals

The End of the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction

Establishment of the Directory

Removal of the Sans-culottes from Political Life


Compare & Connect: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Opens the Door for Disadvantaged Groups to Demands Equal Civic Rights
Encountering The Past: The Metric System

CHAPTER 19 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

Early Military Victories

The Constitution of the Year VIII

The Consulate in France (1799–1804)

Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church

The Napoleonic Code

Establishing a Dynasty

Napoleon’s Empire (1804–1814)

Conquering an Empire

The Continental System

European Response to the Empire

German Nationalism and Prussian Reform

The Wars of Liberation

The Invasion of Russia

European Coalition

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement

Territorial Adjustments

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance

The Romantic Movement

Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason

Rousseau and Education

Kant and Reason

Romantic Literature

The English Romantic Writers

The German Romantic Writers

Romantic Art

The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-Gothicism

Nature and the Sublime

Religion in the Romantic Period


New Directions in Continental Religion

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History

Herder and Culture

Hegel and History

Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism


Compare & Connect: The Experience of War in the Napoleonic Age
Encountering the Past: Sailors and Canned Food

CHAPTER 20 The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815–1832)

The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism

The Emergence of Nationalism

Early Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism

Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Order

Conservative Outlooks

Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies

Postwar Repression in Great Britain

Bourbon Restoration in France

The Conservative International Order

The Congress System

The Spanish Revolution of 1820

Revolt against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans

The Wars of Independence in Latin America

Revolution in Haiti

Wars of Independence on the South American Continent

Independence in New Spain

Brazilian Independence

The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe

Russia : the Decembrist Revolt of 1825

Revolution in France (1830)

Belgium Becomes Independent (1830)

The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832)


Compare & Connect: Mazzini and Lord Acton Debate the Political Principles of Nationalism
Encountering the Past: Gymnastics and German Nationalism

CHAPTER 21 Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830–1850)

Toward an Industrial Society

Population and Migration


The Labor Force

The Emergence of a Wage Labor Force

Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism

Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution

The Family in the Early Factory System

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution

Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment

Changing Expectations in the Working-Class Marriage

Problems of Crime and Order

New Police Forces

Prison Reform

Classical Economics

Malthus on Population

Ricardo on Wages

Government Policies Based on Classical Economics

Early Socialism

Utopian Socialism



1848: Year of Revolutions

France : the Second Republic and Louis Napoleon

The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted

Italy : Republicanism Defeated

Germany : Liberalism Frustrated


Compare & Connect: Andrew Ure and John Ruskin Debate the Conditions of Factory Production
Encountering the Past: The Potato and the Great Hunger in Ireland


CHAPTER 22 The Age of Nation-States

The Crimean War (1853–1856)

Peace Settlement and Long-Term Results

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Italian Unification

Romantic Republicans

Cavour’s Policy

The New Italian State

German Unification


The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870–1871)

France : From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic

The Paris Commune

The Third Republic

The Dreyfus Affair

The Habsburg Empire

Formation of the Dual Monarchy

Unrest of Nationalities

Russia : Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings

Reforms of Alexander II


Great Britain : Toward Democracy

The Second Reform Act (1867)

Gladstone ’s Great Ministry (1868–1874)

Disraeli in Office (1874–1880)

The Irish Question


Compare & Connect: Two Faces of Nationalism and Drives for National Unity
Encountering the Past: The Arrival of Penny Postage

CHAPTER 23 The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I

Population Trends and Migration

The Second Industrial Revolution

New Industries

Economic Difficulties

The Middle Classes in Ascendancy

Social Distinctions within the Middle Classes

Late-Nineteenth-Century Urban Life

The Redesign of Cities

Urban Sanitation

Housing Reform and Middle-Class Values

Varieties of Late-Nineteenth-Century Women’s Experiences

Women’s Social Disabilities

New Employment Patterns for Women

Working-Class Women

Poverty and Prostitution

Women of the Middle Class

The Rise of Political Feminism

Jewish Emancipation

Differing Degrees of Citizenship

Broadened Opportunities

Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I

Trade Unionism

Democracy and Political Parties

Karl Marx and the First International

Great Britain : Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs

France : “Opportunism” Rejected

Germany : Social Democrats and Revisionism

Russia : Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism


Compare & Connect: Bernstein and Lenin Debate the Character of Tactics of European Socialism
Encountering the Past: Bicycles: Transportation, Freedom, and Sport

CHAPTER 24 The Birth of Modern European Thought

The New Reading Public

Advances in Primary Education

Reading Material for the Mass Audience

Science at Mid-century

Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

Science and Ethics—Social Darwinism

Christianity and the Church under Siege

Intellectual Skepticism

Conflict between Church and State

Areas of Religious Revival

The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World

Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought

Toward a Twentieth-Century Frame of Mind

Science: The Revolution in Physics

Literature: Realism and Naturalism

Modernism in Literature

The Coming of Modern Art

Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against Reason

The Birth of Psychoanalysis

Retreat from Rationalism in Politics


Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism

Women and Modern Thought

Anti-feminism in Late-Nineteenth-Century Thought

New Directions in Feminism


Compare & Connect: The Debate over Social Darwinism
Encountering the Past: The Birth of Science Fiction

CHAPTER 25 The Age of Western Imperialism

The Close of the Age of Early Modern Colonization

The Age of British Imperial Dominance

The Imperialism of Free Trade

British Settler Colonies

India —The Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire

The “New Imperialism,” l870-1914

Motives for the New Imperialism

The Partition of Africa

Algeria , Tunisia, Morocco, and Libya

Egypt and British Strategic Concern about the Upper Nile

West Africa

The Belgian Congo

German Empire in Africa

Southern Africa

Russian Expansion in Mainland Asia

Western Powers in Asia

France in Asia

The United States Actions in Asia and the Pacific

The Boxer Rebellion

Tools of Imperialism


Conquest of Tropical Diseases


The Missionary Factor

Evangelical Protestant Missionaries

Roman Catholic Missionary Advance

Tensions between Missionaries and Imperial Administrators

Missionaries and Indigenous Religious Movements

Science and Imperialism






Compare & Connect: Two Views of Turn-of-the-Twentieth Century Imperial Expansion
Encountering the Past: Imperialism Determining the Application of Submarine Cable Communication

CHAPTER 26 Alliances, War, and a Troubled Peace

Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873–1890)

Bismarck’s Leadership

Forging the Triple Entente (1890–1907)

World War I

The Road to War (1908–1914)

Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June–August 1914)

Strategies and Stalemate; 1914–1917

The Russian Revolution

The Provisional Government

Lenin and the Bolsheviks

The Communist Dictatorship

The End of World War I

Germany’s Last Offensive

The Armistice

The End of the Ottoman Empire

The Settlement at Paris

Obstacles the Peacemakers Faced

The Peace

World War I and Colonial Empires

Evaluating the Peace


Compare & Connect: The Outbreak of World War I
Encountering the Past: War Propaganda and the Movies: Charlie Chaplin

CHAPTER 27 The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression

After Versailles: Demands for Revision and Enforcement

Toward the Great Depression in Europe

Financial Tailspin

Problems in Agricultural Commodities

Depression and Government Policy in Britain and France

The Soviet Experiment

War Communism

The New Economic Policy

The Third International

Stalin versus Trotsky

The Decision for Rapid Industrialization

The Collectivization of Agriculture

The Purges

The Fascist Experiment in Italy

The Rise of Mussolini

The Fascists in Power

German Democracy and Dictatorship

The Weimar Republic

Depression and Political Deadlock

Hitler Comes to Power

Hitler’s Consolidation of Power

Anti-Semitism and the Police State

Racial Ideology and the Lives of Women

Nazi Economic Policy

Trials of the Successor States in Eastern Europe

Economic and Ethnic Pressures

Poland : Democracy to Military Rule

Czechoslovakia : A Viable Democratic Experiment

Hungary : Turmoil and Authoritarianism

Austria : Political Turmoil and Nazi Occupation

Southeastern Europe : Royal Dictatorships


Compare & Connect: The Soviets and the Nazis Confront the Issues of Women and the Family
Encountering the Past: Cinema of the Political Left and Right


CHAPTER 28 World War II

Again the Road to War (1933–1939)

Hitler’s goals

Italy Attacks Ethiopia

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The Spanish Civil War

Austria and Czechoslovakia


The Nazi-Soviet Pact

World War II (1939–1945)

The German Conquest of Europe

The Battle of Britain

The German Attack on Russia

Hitler’s Plans for Europe

Japan and the United States Enter the War

The Tide Turns

The Defeat of Nazi Germany

Fall of the Japanese Empire

The Cost of War

Racism and the Holocaust

The Destruction of the Polish Jewish Community

Polish Anti-Semitism Between the Wars

The Nazi Assault on the Jews of Poland

Explanations of the Holocaust

The Domestic Fronts

Germany : From Apparent Victory to Defeat

France : Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance

Great Britain : Organization for Victory

The Soviet Union: “The Great Patriotic War”

Preparations for Peace

The Atlantic Charter

Tehran : Agreement on a Second Front




Compare & Connect: The Munich Settlement
Encountering the Past: Rosie the Riveter and American Women in the War Effort

CHAPTER 29 The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe

The Emergence of the Cold War

Containment in American Foreign Policy

Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe

The Postwar Division of Germany

NATO and the Warsaw Pact

The Creation of the State of Israel

The Korean War

The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union

Khruschev’s Domestic Policies

The Three Crises of 1956

Later Cold War Confrontations

The Berlin Wall

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Brezhnev Era

1968: The Invasion of Czechoslovakia

The United States and Détente

The Invasion of Afghanistan

Communism and Solidarity in Poland

Relations with the Reagan Administration

Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire


Further British Retreat from Empire

The Turmoil of French Decolonization

France and Algeria

France and Vietnam

Vietnam Drawn into the Cold War

Direct United States. Involvement

The Collapse of European Communism

Gorbachev Attempts to Reform the Soviet Union

1989: Revolution in Eastern Europe

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The Yelstsin Decade

The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War

Putin and the Resurgence of Russia

The Rise of Radical Political Islamism

Arab Nationalism

The Iranian Revolution

Afghanistan and Radical Islamism

A Transformed West


Compare & Connect: The Soviet Union and the United States Draw the Lines of the Cold War
Encountering The Past: Rock Music and Political Protest

CHAPTER 30 The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century

The Twentieth-Century Movement of Peoples

Displacement through War

External and Internal Migration

The New Muslim Population

European Population Trends

Toward a Welfare State Society

Christian Democratic Parties

The Creation of Welfare States

Resistance to the Expansion of the Welfare State

New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women


More Married Women in the Workforce

New Work Patterns

Women in the New Eastern Europe

Transformations in Knowledge and Culture

Communism and Western Europe


Expansion of the University Population and Student Rebellion

The Americanization of Europe

A Consumer Society


Art Since World War II

Cultural Divisions and the Cold War

Memory of the Holocaust

The Christian Heritage


Liberal Theology

Roman Catholic Reform

Late-Twentieth-Century Technology: The Arrival of the Computer

The Demand for Calculating Machines

Early Computer Technology

The Development of Desktop Computers

The Challenges of European Unification

Postwar Cooperation

The European Economic Community

The European Union

Discord over the Union

New American Leadership and Financial Crisis


Compare & Connect: Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair Debate the Government Social Responsibility for Welfare
Encountering the Past: Toys from Europe Conquer the United States

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