The Western Heritage: Since 1300 / Edition 10

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Overview

Written by leading scholars in the field, this authoritative text presents an engaging and balanced narrative of the central developments in Western history. Seamlessly integrating coverage of social, cultural, and political history, the presentation reflects a flexible chronological organization.

The Tenth Edition provides updated scholarship, expanded coverage of European imperialism prior to World War I, streamlined coverage of the period between the two World Wars, and a brand new feature—Compare & Connect—which presents students with two or more documents that reflect opposing viewpoints on a topic and engages them to become part of the historical discourse.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205705177
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/8/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 1008
  • Product dimensions: 9.30 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958–1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.

Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Public Interest 158 (2005).

Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

As we enter the twenty-first century, the heritage of Western civilization is a major point of departure for understanding our own epoch. The unprecedented globalization of daily life has occurred in large measure through the spread of Western technological, economic, and political influences. From the sixteenth through the end of the twentieth century the West exerted vast influences throughout the globe for both good and ill, and the global citizens of this new century live in the wake of that impact. It is the goal of this book to introduce its readers to the Western heritage so that they may be better informed and more culturally sensitive citizens of the emerging global age.

Since The Western Heritage first appeared, we have sought to provide our readers with a work that does justice to the richness and variety of Western civilization. We hope that such an understanding of the West will foster lively debate on its character, values, institutions, and global influence. Indeed, we believe such a critical outlook on their own culture has characterized the peoples of the West since its earliest history. Through such debates we define ourselves and the values of our culture. Consequently, we welcome the debate and hope that The Western Heritage, seventh edition, can help to foster a genuinely informed discussion through its overview of Western civilization, its strengths, weaknesses, and the controversies surrounding it.

Human beings make, experience, and record their history. In this edition as in past editions, our goal has been to present Western civilization fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice tothat great variety of human enterprise. History has many facets, no one of which alone can account for the others. Any attempt to tell the story of the West from a single overarching perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important part of that story. Like all authors, we have had to make selections for an introductory text, but we have attempted to provide the broadest possible coverage suitable to that task of introduction. To that end we hope that the vast array of documents included in this book will allow the widest possible spectrum of people over the course of the centuries to give personal voice to their experience and to allow our readers to enter into that experience.

We also believe that any book addressing the experience of the West must also look beyond its historical European borders. The students reading this book are drawn from a wide variety of cultures and experiences. They live in a world characterized by highly interconnected economies and instant communication between cultures. In this emerging multicultural society it seems both appropriate and necessary to recognize the ways in which Western civilization has throughout its history interacted with other cultures, influencing other societies and being influenced by them. Examples of this two-way interaction, such as that with Islam, appear throughout the text. To further highlight the theme of interaction, The Western Heritage includes a series of comparative essays, The West & the World. (For a fuller description, see below.)

Goals of the Text

Our primary goal has been to present a strong, clear narrative account of the central developments in Western history. We have also sought to call attention to certain critical themes:

  • The capacity of Western civilization from the time of the Greeks to the present to generate transforming self-criticism.
  • The development of political freedom, constitutional government, and concern for the rule of law and individual rights.
  • The shifting relations among religion, society, and the state.
  • The development of science and technology and their expanding impact on thought, social institutions, and everyday life.
  • The major religious and intellectual currents that have shaped Western culture.

We believe that these themes have been fundamental in Western civilization, shaping the past and exerting a continuing influence on the present.

FLEXIBLE PRESENTATION The Western Heritage, seventh edition, is designed to accommodate a variety of approaches to a course in Western civilization, allowing teachers to stress what is most important to them. Some teachers will ask students to read all the chapters. Others will select among them to re-enforce assigned readings and lectures. We have reorganized and rewritten the last two chapters (30 and 31) to permit instructors to end their course by emphasizing either social or political factors in the twentieth-century experience.

INTEGRATED SOCIAL, CULTURAL, AND POLITICAL HISTORY The Western Heritage provides one of the richest accounts of the social history of the West available today, with strong coverage of family life, the changing roles of women, and the place of the family in relation to broader economic, political, and social developments. This coverage reflects the explosive growth in social historical research in the past quarter century, which has enriched virtually all areas of historical study. In this edition we have again expanded both the breadth and depth of our coverage of social history through revisions of existing chapters, the addition of major new material, and the inclusion of new documents.

While strongly believing in the study of the social experience of the West, we also share the conviction that internal and external political events have shaped the Western experience in fundamental and powerful ways. The experiences of Europeans in the twentieth century under fascism, national socialism, and communism demonstrate that influence, as has, more recently, the collapse of communism in the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. We have also been told repeatedly by teachers that no matter what their own historical specialization, they believe that a political narrative gives students an effective tool to begin to organize their understanding of the past. Consequently, we have made every effort to integrate the political with the social, cultural, and intellectual.

No other survey text presents so full an account of the religious and intellectual development of the West. People may be political and social beings, but they are also reasoning and spiritual beings. What they think and believe are among the most important things we can know about them. Their ideas about God, society, law, gender, human nature, and the physical world have changed over the centuries and continue to change. We cannot fully grasp our own approach to the world without understanding the intellectual currents of the past and their influence on our thoughts and conceptual categories.

CLARITY AND ACCESSIBILITY Good narrative history requires clear, vigorous prose. As in earlier editions, we have paid careful attention to the quality of our writing, subjecting every paragraph to critical scrutiny. Our goal was to make our presentation fully accessible to students without compromising vocabulary or conceptual level. We hope this effort will benefit both teachers and students.

Changes in the
Seventh Edition

INTRODUCING ART & THE WEST A beautiful and important new feature enhances students' understanding of the artistic heritage of the West. In every chapter we highlight a work of art or architecture and discuss how the work illuminates and reflects the period in which it was created. In Chapter 5, for example, a portrait of a young woman on the wall of a house in Pompeii and the accompanying essay provide a glimpse into the life of well-to-do young women in the Roman Empire (p. 161). In Chapter 7, two views of Salisbury Cathedral illustrate an essay on Gothic architecture (p. 248). In Chapter 16, two paintings tell contrasting stories about domestic life in eighteenth-century France (p. 526), and in Part 4, works by Turner, Manet, and Seurat illustrate both the power of the new industrialism and its effects on European social life. Part 5 includes discussions of paintings by Grosz, Magritte, and Picasso. In Chapter 30, Bread, painted by the Soviet realist Tatjiana Yablonskaya, and Jackson Pollock's One (Number 31, 1950), offer starkly contrasting views of twentieth-century culture (p. 1040). (See p. xxiv for a complete list of Art & The West essays.)

THE WEST & THE WORLD In this feature, we focus on six subjects, comparing Western institutions with those of other parts of the world, or discussing the ways in which developments in the West have influenced cultures in other areas of the globe. In the seventh edition, the essays are:

  • Part 1: Ancient Warfare (new) (p. 186)
  • Part 2: The Invention of Printing in China and Europe (new) (p. 284)
  • Part 3: The Columbian Exchange (new) (p. 582)
  • Part 4: The Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy (p. 736)
  • Part 5: Imperialism: Ancient and Modern (p. 928)
  • Part 6: Energy and the Modern World (new) (p. 1116)

RECENT SCHOLARSHIP As in previous editions, changes in this edition reflect our determination to incorporate the most recent developments in historical scholarship and the concerns of professional historians. Of particular interest are expanded discussions of:

  • Women in the history of the West. Adding to our longstanding commitment to the inclusion of the experience of women in Western civilization, this edition presents new scholarship on women in the ancient world and the Middle Ages, women and the scientific revolution, and women under the authoritarian governments of the twentieth century. (See, especially, chapters 3, 4, 5, 7, 14, 30. )
  • The Scientific Revolution. Chapter 14, which addresses the rise of the new science, has been wholly revised and rewritten to clarify the new scientific theory arising from the Copernican revolution, the new understanding of the Galileo case, the role of women in the new science, and the social institutions of the new science.
  • The Dutch Golden Age. A new section in Chapter 15 discusses the United Netherlands during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  • Africa and the transatlantic economy. An extensive section in Chapter 17 explores the relationship of Africa to the transatlantic economy of the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. We examine the role of African society and politics in the slave trade, the experience of Africans forcibly transported to the Americas, and the incorporation of elements of African culture into the New World.
  • Jewish thinkers in the Enlightenment. A new section in Chapter 18 discusses the thought of Spinoza and Moses Mendelsohn as they relate to the role of Jewish religion and society in the wider European culture.
  • The Holocaust. The discussion of the Holocaust has been significantly expanded in two ways. Chapter 29 provides more analysis of the causes of the Holocaust, and Chapter 30 includes an extensive new narrative of the particular case of the destruction of the Jews of Poland.
  • Twentieth-century social history. The seventh edition of The Western Heritage presents the most extensive treatment of twentieth-century social history available in a survey text. We examine, in Chapter 30, the experiences of women under authoritarian governments, the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, the destruction of the Polish Jewish community, and European migration. The chapter concludes with a new section on the coming of the computer and the impact of new technology on European life.
  • The history of the Cold War and Europe at the start of the twenty-first century. Chapter 31, on the Soviet-American rivalry and the collapse of communism, has been wholly rewritten and includes the conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Instructors may close their course with either of the twentieth-century chapters, depending on the issues they wish to emphasize.

Chapter-by-Chapter Revisions

Chapter 1 The treatment of the origins of humankind has been completely rewritten to reflect the newest scholarship.

Chapters 3, 4, 5 contain new sections on Women in Homeric Society; Aspasia, Pericles' Common-law Wife; Greek Slavery; Women in Early Rome; Women of the Upper Classes in later Roman history.

Chapter 9 contains a discussion of medieval Russia.

Chapter 12 includes a shorter, rewritten discussion of The Thirty Years' War.

Chapter 14 has a wholly rewritten discussion of the Scientific Revolution and of the impact of the Scientific Revolution on philosophy, new or extensively rewritten sections on women and early modern science, the new institutions associated with the emerging scientific knowledge, religious faith and the new science, with an expanded discussion of the Galileo case.

Chapter 15 contains an extensive new section on the Dutch Golden Age, including the impact of its overseas empire on its prosperity.

Chapter 16 has a new section on The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women.

Chapter 17 includes a much expanded and revised section on African Slavery, the experiences of Africans in the Americas, and the cultural institutions they brought with them.

Chapter 18 has a new section on Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment with emphasis on Spinoza and Moses Mendelsohn.

Chapter 22 has a refocused discussion of Karl Marx's thought.

Chapter 25 expands the treatment of racial thinking and the non-Western world.

Chapter 28 includes a rewritten discussion of the Soviet Experience in the 1930s.

Chapter 29 expands the discussion of the Holocaust.

Chapter 30 is a largely new chapter on twentieth-century social history, with major new sections on state violence, women under authoritarian governments, the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, the destruction of the Polish Jews, and the impact of the computer.

Chapter 31 has been extensively rewritten and reorganized to reflect the latest scholarship on the Cold War through the collapse of communism. It ends with a discussion of Europe at the Opening of the Global Century.

The last two chapters are written so that instructors, though teaching both chapters, may choose to close their course with either, depending upon their personal emphasis. Those instructors wishing to emphasize social history might end the course with Chapter 30 and those wishing to emphasize political development and great power relations may choose to conclude with Chapter 31.

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS To help students understand the relationship between geography and history, we have added relief features to approximately one-half of the maps. All 90 maps have been carefully edited for accuracy. The text also contains close to 500 color and black and white illustrations, many of them new to the seventh edition.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES This edition retains the pedagogical features of the last edition, including part-opening comparative timelines, a list of key topics at the beginning of each chapter, chapter review questions, and questions accompanying the more than 200 source documents in the text. Each of these features is designed to make the text more accessible to students and to reinforce key concepts.

  • Illustrated timelines open each of the six parts of the book summarizing, side-by-side, the major events in politics and government, society and economy, and religion and culture.
  • Primary source documents, more than one third new to this edition, acquaint students with the raw material of history and provide intimate contact with the people of the past and their concerns. Questions accompanying the source documents direct students toward important, thought-provoking issues and help them relate the documents to the material in the text. They can be used to stimulate class discussion or as topics for essays and study groups.
  • Each chapter includes an outline, a list of key topics, and an introduction. Together these features provide a succinct overview of each chapter.
  • Chronologies follow each major section in a chapter, listing significant events and their dates.
  • In Perspective sections summarize the major themes of each chapter and provide a bridge to the next chapter.
  • Chapter review questions help students review the material in a chapter and relate it to broader themes. They too can be used for class discussion and essay topics.
  • Suggested readings lists following each chapter have been updated with new titles reflecting recent scholarship.

A NOTE ON DATES AND TRANSLITERATIONS This edition of The Western Heritage continues the practice of using B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) instead Of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno domini, the year of the Lord) to designate dates. We also follow the most accurate currently accepted English transliterations of Arabic words. For example, today Koran is being replaced by the more accurate Qur'an; similarly Muhammad is preferable to Mohammed and Muslim to Moslem.

Ancillary Instructional
Materials

The ancillary instructional materials that accompany The Western Heritage include print and multimedia supplements that are designed to reinforce and enliven the richness of the past and inspire students with the excitement of studying the history of Western civilization.

Print Supplements for the Instructor

INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL WITH TEST ITEMS The Instructor's Manual contains chapter summaries, key points and vital concepts, and information on audio-visual resources that can be used in developing and preparing lecture presentations. Also included is a test item file that offers multiple-choice, identification, and essay test questions.

PRENTICE HALL CUSTOM TEST This commercial-quality computerized test management program, for Windows and Macintosh environments, allows users to create their own tests using items from the printed Test Item File. The program allows users to edit the items in the Test Item File and to add their own questions. Online testing is also available.

TRANSPARENCY PACKAGE This collection of full-color transparency acetates provides the maps, charts, and graphs from the text for use in classroom presentations.

ADMINISTRATIVE HANDBOOK by Jay Boggis provides instructors with resources for using The Western Heritage with Annenberg/CPB telecourse, The Western Tradition.

Print Supplements for the Student

STUDY GUIDE, VOLUMES I AND II The study guide includes commentaries, definitions, and a variety of exercises designed to reinforce the concepts in the chapter. These exercises include: identification, map exercises, and short-answer and essay questions.

DOCUMENTS SET, VOLUMES I AND II This carefully selected and edited set of documents provides over 100 additional primary source readings. Each document includes a brief introduction as well as questions to encourage critical analysis of the reading and to relate it to the content of the text.

MAP WORKBOOK This brief workbook gives students the opportunity to increase their knowledge of geography through identification and other map exercises. It is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD This four-color historical atlas provides additional map resources to reinforce concepts in the text. It is available for a nominal fee when shrink-wrapped with the text.

UNDERSTANDING AND ANSWERING ESSAY QUESTIONS Prepared by Mary L. Kelley, San Antonio College. This brief guide suggests helpful study techniques as well as specific analytical tools for understanding different types of essay questions and provides precise guidelines for preparing well-crafted essay answers. This guide is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

READING CRITICALLY ABOUT HISTORY: A GUIDE TO ACTIVE READING Prepared by Rose Wassman and Lee Ann Rinsky. This guide focuses on the skills needed to learn the essential information presented in college history textbooks. Material covered includes vocabulary skills, recognizing organizational patterns, critical thinking skills, understanding visual aids, and practice sections. This guide is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

THEMES OF THE TIMES The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information of relevance in the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in the text is supplemented by a collection of current articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times.

These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us. To enjoy the wealth of information of The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information call toll-free: 1-800-631-1222.

Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to cosponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic, involving process.

TELECOURSE STUDY GUIDE, VOLUMES I AND II, by Jay Boggis correlates The Western Heritage with the Annenberg/CPB telecourse, The Western Tradition.

Multimedia Supplements

HISTORY ON THE INTERNET This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the History discipline and how to use the Companion Website™ available for The Western Heritage. This supplementary book is free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

COMPANION WEBSITE™
ADDRESS: WWW.PRENHALL.COM/KAGAN

Students can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of Western Civilization through The Western Heritage Companion Website™. Features of the website include, for each chapter in the text, objectives, study questions, map labeling exercises, related links, and document exercises. A faculty module provides material from the Instructor's Manual and the maps and charts from the text in PowerPoint™ format.

POWERPOINT™ IMAGES CD ROM Available for Windows and Macintosh environments, this resource includes the maps, charts, and graphs from the text for use in PowerPoint™. Organized by chapters in the text, this collection of images is useful for classroom presentations and lectures.

IRC WESTERN CIVILIZATION CD ROM Available for Windows 95 and 3.1, this lecture and presentation resource includes a library of over 3000 images, each with a descriptive caption, plus film clips, maps, and sound recordings. A correlation guide lists the images as they correspond to the chapters of The Western Heritage. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for information about the adoption requirements for this resource.

COURSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS For instructors interested in distance learning, Prentice Hall offers fully customizable, online courses with enhanced content, www links, online testing, and many other course management features using the best available course management systems available, including WebCT, Blackboard, and ecollege online course architecture. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative or visit our special Demonstration Central Website at ...

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION: The West before 1300
Early Humans and Their Culture
The Paleolithic Age
The Neolithic Age

Early Civilizations to about 1000 B.C.E.
Mesopotamian Civilization
Egyptian Civilization
Palestine and the Religion of the Israelites

The Greeks
The Polis
Greek Political Philosophy and the Crisis of the Polis
The Empire of Alexander the Great

Rome
The Republic and Expansion in the Mediterranean
From Republic to Empire
The Principate and the Empire
Christianity
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Europe Enters the Middle Ages
The Byzantine Empire
The Rise of Islam
New Importance of the Christian Church
Charlemagne
Feudal and Manorial Society

Church and State in the High Middle Ages
The Division of Christendom
The Rise of Towns
The Crusades
The Rise of New Monarchies
Universities and Scholasticism

In Perspective

PART 3: EUROPE IN TRANSITION

CHAPTER 9 The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

The Black Death

Preconditions and Causes of the Plague

Popular Remedies

Social and Economic Consequences

New Conflicts and Opportunities

The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment

The Causes of the War

Progress of the War

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church

The Thirteenth-Century Papacy

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair

The Avignon Papacy (1309—1377)

John Wycliffe and John Huss

The Great Schism (1378—1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449

Medieval Russia

Politics and Society

Mongol Rule (1243—1480)

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Encampment of the Imperial Army

Compare & Connect: Who Runs the World: Priests or Princes?

Encountering the Past: Dealing with Death

CHAPTER 10 Renaissance and Discovery

The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

The Italian City-State

Humanism

Renaissance Art

Slavery in the Renaissance

Italy ’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

Charles VIII’s March through Italy

Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family

Pope Julius II

Niccolò Machiavelli

Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

France

Spain

England

The Holy Roman Empire

The Northern Renaissance

The Printing Press

Erasmus

Humanism and Reform

Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

The Portuguese Chart the Course

The Spanish Voyages of Columbus

The Spanish Empire in the New World

The Church in Spanish America

The Economy of Exploitation

The Impact on Europe

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Leonardo Plots the Perfect Man

Compare & Connect: Is the Renaissance Man a Myth?

Encountering the Past: The Renaissance Garden

CHAPTER 11 The Age of Reformation

Society and Religion

Social and Political Conflict

Popular Religious Movements and Criticisms of the Church

Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525

Justification by Faith Alone

The Attack on Indulgences

Election of Charles V

Luther’s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms

Imperial Distractions: France and the Turks

How the Reformation Spread

The Peasants’ Revolt

The Reformation Elsewhere

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation

The Diet of Augsburg

The Expansion _of the Reformation

Reaction against Protestants

The Peace of Augsburg

The English Reformation to 1553

The Preconditions of Reform

The King’s Affair

The “Reform Parliament”

Wives of Henry VIII

The King’s Religious Conservatism

The Protestant Reformation under Edward VI

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation

Sources of Catholic Reform

Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits

The Council of Trent (1545-1563)

The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe

The Revolution in Religion: Practices and Institutions

The Reformation and Education

The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women

Family Life in Early Modern Europe

Later Marriages

Arranged Marriages

Family Size

Birth Control

Wet Nursing

Loving Families?

Literary Imagination in Transition

Miguel De Cervantes Saaavedra: Rejection of Idealism

William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age

In Perspective

A Closer Look: A Saint at Peace in the Grasp of Temptation
Compare & Connect: A Raw Deal for the Common Man, or His Just Desserts?
Encountering the Past: Table Manners

CHAPTER 12 The Age of Religious Wars

Renewed Religious Struggle

The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

Appeal of Calvinism

Catherine de Medicis and the Guises

The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre

The Edict of Nantes

Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)

Pillars of Spanish Power

The Revolt in the Netherlands

England and Spain (1553–1603)

Mary I (r. 1553–1558)

Elizabeth I (r. 1558–1603)

The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)

Preconditions for War

Four Periods of War

The Treaty of Westphalia

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Baroque and Plain Church: Architectural Reflections of Belief
Compare & Connect: A Great Debate over Religious Tolerance
Encountering the Past: Going to the Theater

CHAPTER 13 European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

Urban Prosperity

Economic Decline

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

Charles I

The Long Parliament and Civil War

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

The “Glorious Revolution”

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule

Versailles

King by Divine Right

Louis’s Early Wars

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies

Louis’s Later Wars

France after Louis XIV

Central and Eastern Europe

Poland : Absence of Strong Central Authority

The Habsburg Empire _and the Pragmatic Sanction

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

The Romanor Dynasty

Peter the Great

The Ottoman Empire

Religious Toleration and Ottoman Government

The End of Ottoman Expansion

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Versailles
Compare & Connect: The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority
Encountering the Past: Early Controversy over Tobacco and Smoking

CHAPTER 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Discoveries

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers _the Laws of Gravitation

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

The New Science and Religious Faith

The Case of Galileo

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith

The English Approach to Science and Religion

Continuing Superstition

Witch-Hunts and Panic

Who Were the Witches?

End of the Witch-Hunts

Baroque Art

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Sciences and the Arts
Compare & Connect: Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise
Encountering the Past: Midwives

CHAPTER 15 Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Major Features of Life in the Old Regime

Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

The Aristocracy

Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege

Aristocratic Resurgence

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs

Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: the English Game Laws

Family Structures and the Family Economy

Households

The Family Economy

Women and the Family Economy

Children and the World of the Family Economy

The Revolution in Agriculture

New Crops and New Methods

Expansion of the Population

The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century

A Revolution in Consumption

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain

New Methods of Textile Production

The Steam Engine

Iron Production

The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women

The Growth of Cities

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization

Urban Classes

The Urban Riot

The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An Aristocratic Couple
Compare & Connect: Two Eighteenth-Century Writers Contemplate the Effects of Differ-ent Economic Structures
Encountering the Past: Water, Washing, and Bathing

CHAPTER 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

Periods of European Overseas Empires

Mercantile Empires

Mercantilist Goals

French–British Rivalry

The Spanish Colonial System

Colonial Government

Trade Regulation

Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs

Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy

The African Presence in the Americas

Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

The Experience of Slavery

Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

The War of Jenkins’s Ear

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748)

The “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756

The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763)

The American Revolution and Europe

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

The Crisis and Independence

American Political Ideas

Events in Great Britain

Broader Impact of the American Revolution

In Perspective

A Closer Look: A Sugar Plantation in the West Indies
Compare & Connect: The Atlantic Passage
Encountering the Past: Sugar Enters the Western Diet

THE WEST AND THE WORLD: THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE, DISEASE, ANIMALS, AND AGRICULTURE

PART 4: ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION

CHAPTER 17 The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment

Ideas of Newton and Locke

The Example of British Toleration and Political Stability

The Emergence of a Print Culture

The Philosophes

Voltaire—First among the Philosophes

The Enlightenment and Religion

Deism

Toleration

Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity

Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment

Islam in Enlightenment Thought

The Enlightenment and Society

The Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic Improvement

Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law

The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress

Political Thought of the Philosophes

Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws

Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society

Enlightened Critics of European Empires

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment

Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art

Enlightened Absolutism

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Partition of Poland

The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An Eighteenth-Century Artist Appeals to the Ancient World
Compare & Connect: Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria Debate Toleration
Encountering the Past: Coffeehouses and Enlightenment

CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution

The Crisis of the French Monarchy

The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes

Calonne’s Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables

Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General

The Revolution of 1789

The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly

Fall of the Bastille

The “Great Fear” and the Night of August 4

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The Parisian Women’s March on Versailles

The Reconstruction of France

Political Reorganization

Economic Policy

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Counterrevolutionary Activity

The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution

Emergence of the Jacobins

The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes

Europe at War with the Revolution

Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution

Suppression of Reform in Britain

The Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 1793, 1795

The Reign of Terror

War with Europe

The Republic Defended

The “Republic of Virtue” and Robespierre’s Justification of Terror

Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women

De-Christianization

Revolutionary Tribunals

The End of the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction

Establishment of the Directory

Removal of the Sans-culottes from Political Life

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Challenging the French Political Order
Compare & Connect: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Opens the Door for Disadvantaged Groups to Demands Equal Civic Rights
Encountering The Past: The Metric System

CHAPTER 19 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

Early Military Victories

The Constitution of the Year VIII

The Consulate in France (1799–1804)

Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church

The Napoleonic Code

Establishing a Dynasty

Napoleon’s Empire (1804–1814)

Conquering an Empire

The Continental System

European Response to the Empire

German Nationalism and Prussian Reform

The Wars of Liberation

The Invasion of Russia

European Coalition

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement

Territorial Adjustments

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance

The Romantic Movement

Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason

Rousseau and Education

Kant and Reason

Romantic Literature

The English Romantic Writers

The German Romantic Writers

Romantic Art

The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-Gothicism

Nature and the Sublime

Religion in the Romantic Period

Methodism

New Directions in Continental Religion

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History

Herder and Culture

Hegel and History

Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Coronation of Napoleon
Compare & Connect: The Experience of War in the Napoleonic Age
Encountering the Past: Sailors and Canned Food

CHAPTER 20 The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform (1815—1832)

The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism

The Emergence of Nationalism

Early Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism

Conservative Governments: The Domestic Political Order

Conservative Outlooks

Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies

Postwar Repression in Great Britain

Bourbon Restoration in France

The Conservative International Order

The Congress System

The Spanish Revolution of 1820

Revolt against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans

The Wars of Independence in Latin America

Revolution in Haiti

Wars of Independence on the South American Continent

Independence in New Spain

Brazilian Independence

The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe

Russia : the Decembrist Revolt of 1825

Revolution in France (1830)

Belgium Becomes Independent (1830)

The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832)

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An English Poet Appears as an Albanian
Compare & Connect: Mazzini and Lord Acton Debate the Political Principles of Nationalism
Encountering the Past: Gymnastics and German Nationalism

CHAPTER 21 Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830–1850)

Toward an Industrial Society

Population and Migration Railways

The Labor Force

The Emergence of a Wage Labor Force

Working-Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism

Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution

The Family in the Early Factory System

Women in the Early Industrial Revolution

Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment

Changing Expectations in the Working-Class Marriage

Problems of Crime and Order

New Police Forces

Prison Reform

Classical Economics

Malthus on Population

Ricardo on Wages

Government Policies Based on Classical Economics

Early Socialism

Utopian Socialism

Anarchism

Marxism

1848: Year of Revolutions

France : the Second Republic and Louis Napoleon

The Habsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted

Italy : Republicanism Defeated

Germany : Liberalism Frustrated

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Great Exhibition in London
Compare & Connect: Andrew Ure and John Ruskin Debate the Conditions of Factory Production
Encountering the Past: The Potato and the Great Hunger in Ireland

THE WEST AND THE WORLD: THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY IN THE TRANSATLANTIC ECONOMY

PART 5: TOWARD THE MODERN WORLD

CHAPTER 22 The Age of Nation-States

The Crimean War (1853—1856)

Peace Settlement and Long-Term Results

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Italian Unification

Romantic Republicans

Cavour’s Policy

The New Italian State

German Unification

Bismarck

The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire (1870—1871)

France : From Liberal Empire to the Third Republic

The Paris Commune

The Third Republic

The Dreyfus Affair

The Habsburg Empire

Formation of the Dual Monarchy

Unrest of Nationalities

Russia : Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings

Reforms of Alexander II

Revolutionaries

Great Britain : Toward Democracy

The Second Reform Act (1867)

Gladstone ’s Great Ministry (1868—1874)

Disraeli in Office (1874—1880)

The Irish Question

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Crimean War Recalled
Compare & Connect: Two Faces of Nationalism and Drives for National Unity
Encountering the Past: The Arrival of Penny Postage

CHAPTER 23 The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World WarI

Population Trends and Migration

The Second Industrial Revolution

New Industries

Economic Difficulties

The Middle Classes in Ascendancy

Social Distinctions within the Middle Classes

Late-Nineteenth-Century Urban Life

The Redesign of Cities

Urban Sanitation

Housing Reform and Middle-Class Values

Varieties of Late-Nineteenth-Century Women’s Experiences

Women’s Social Disabilities

New Employment Patterns for Women

Working-Class Women

Poverty and Prostitution

Women of the Middle Class

The Rise of Political Feminism

Jewish Emancipation

Differing Degrees of Citizenship

Broadened Opportunities

Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I

Trade Unionism

Democracy and Political Parties

Karl Marx and the First International

Great Britain : Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs

France : “Opportunism” Rejected

Germany : Social Democrats and Revisionism

Russia : Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Bloody Sunday, St. Petersburg 1905
Compare & Connect: Bernstein and Lenin Debate the Character of Tactics of European Socialism
Encountering the Past: Bicycles: Transportation, Freedom, and Sport

CHAPTER 24 The Birth of Modern European Thought

The New Reading Public

Advances in Primary Education

Reading Material for the Mass Audience

Science at Mid-century

Comte, Positivism, and the Prestige of Science

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

Science and Ethics

Christianity and the Church under Siege

Intellectual Skepticism

Conflict between Church and State

Areas of Religious Revival

The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World

Islam and Late-Nineteenth-Century European Thought

Toward a Twentieth-Century Frame of Mind

Science: The Revolution in Physics

Literature: Realism and Naturalism

Modernism in Literature

The Coming of Modern Art

Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt Against Reason

The Birth of Psychoanalysis

Retreat from Rationalism in Politics

Racism

Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism

Women and Modern Thought

Anti-feminism in Late-Nineteenth-Century Thought

New Directions in Feminism

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Conflict Between Church and State in Germany
Compare & Connect: The Debate over Social Darwinism
Encountering the Past: The Birth of Science Fiction

CHAPTER 25 The Age of Western Imperialism

The Close of the Age of Early Modern Colonization

The Age of British Imperial Dominance

The Imperialism of Free Trade

British Settler Colonies

India —The Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire

The “New Imperialism,” 1870-1914

Motives for the New Imperialism

The Partition of Africa

Algeria , Tunisia, Morocco, and Libya

Egypt and British Strategic Concern about the Upper Nile

West Africa

The Belgian Congo

German Empire in Africa

Southern Africa

Russian Expansion in Mainland Asia

Western Powers in Asia

France in Asia

The United States Actions in Asia and the Pacific

The Boxer Rebellion

Tools of Imperialism

Steamboats

Conquest of Tropical Diseases

Firearms

The Missionary Factor

Evangelical Protestant Missionaries

Roman Catholic Missionary Advance

Tensions between Missionaries and Imperial Administrators

Missionaries and Indigenous Religious Movements

Science and Imperialism

Botany

Zoology

Medicine

Anthropology

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The French in Morocco
Compare & Connect: Two Views of Turn-of-the-Twentieth Century Imperial Expansion
Encountering the Past: Imperialism Determining the Application of Submarine Cable Communication

THE WEST AND THE WORLD: IMPERIALISM: ANCIENT AND MODERN

CHAPTER 26 Alliances, War, and a Troubled Peace

Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873–1890)

Bismarck’s Leadership

Forging the Triple Entente (1890–1907)

World War I

The Road to War (1908–1914)

Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June–August 1914)

Strategies and Stalemate; 1914–1917

The Russian Revolution

The Provisional Government

Lenin and the Bolsheviks

The Communist Dictatorship

The End of World War I

Germany’s Last Offensive

The Armistice

The End of the Ottoman Empire

The Settlement at Paris

Obstacles the Peacemakers Faced

The Peace

World War I and Colonial Empires

Evaluating the Peace

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Development of the Armored Tank
Compare & Connect: The Outbreak of World War I
Encountering the Past: War Propaganda and the Movies: Charlie Chaplin

CHAPTER 27 The Interwar Years: The Challenge of Dictators and Depression

After Versailles: Demands for Revision and Enforcement

Toward the Great Depression in Europe

Financial Tailspin

Problems in Agricultural Commodities

Depression and Government Policy in Britain and France

The Soviet Experiment

War Communism

The New Economic Policy

The Third International

Stalin versus Trotsky

The Decision for Rapid Industrialization

The Collectivization of Agriculture

The Purges

The Fascist Experiment in Italy

The Rise of Mussolini

The Fascists in Power

German Democracy and Dictatorship

The Weimar Republic

Depression and Political Deadlock

Hitler Comes to Power

Hitler’s Consolidation of Power

Anti-Semitism and the Police State

Racial Ideology and the Lives of Women

Nazi Economic Policy

Trials of the Successor States in Eastern Europe

Economic and Ethnic Pressures

Poland : Democracy to Military Rule

Czechoslovakia : A Viable Democratic Experiment

Hungary : Turmoil and Authoritarianism

Austria : Political Turmoil and Nazi Occupation

Southeastern Europe : Royal Dictatorships

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Nazi Party Rally
Compare & Connect: The Soviets and the Nazis Confront the Issues of Women and the Family
Encountering the Past: Cinema of the Political Left and Right

PART 6: GLOBAL CONFLICT, COLD WAR, AND NEW DIRECTIONS

CHAPTER 28 World War II

Again the Road to War (1933–1939)

Hitler’s goals

Italy Attacks Ethiopia

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

The Spanish Civil War

Austria and Czechoslovakia

Munich

The Nazi-Soviet Pact

World War II (1939–1945)

The German Conquest of Europe

The Battle of Britain

The German Attack on Russia

Hitler’s Plans for Europe

Japan and the United States Enter the War

The Defeat of Nazi Germany

The Tide Turns

Fall of the Japanese Empire

The Cost of War

Racism and the Holocaust

The Destruction of the Polish Jewish Community

Polish Anti-Semitism Between the Wars

The Nazi Assault on the Jews of Poland

Explanations of the Holocaust

The Domestic Fronts

Germany : From Apparent Victory to Defeat

France : Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance

Great Britain : Organization for Victory

The Soviet Union: “The Great Patriotic War”

Preparations for Peace

The Atlantic Charter

Tehran : Agreement on a Second Front

Yalta

Potsdam

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Vichy Regime in France
Compare & Connect: The Munich Settlement
Encountering the Past: Rosie the Riveter and American Women in the War

CHAPTER 29 The Cold War Era, Decolonization, and the Emergence of a New Europe

The Emergence of the Cold War

Containment in American Foreign Policy

Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe

The Postwar Division of Germany

NATO and the Warsaw Pact

The Creation of the State of Israel

The Korean War

The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union

Khruschev’s Domestic Policies

The Three Crises of 1956

Later Cold War Confrontations

The Berlin Wall

The Cuban Missile Crisis

The Brezhnev Era

1968: The Invasion of Czechoslovakia

The U.S. and Détente

The Invasion of Afghanistan

Communism and Solidarity in Poland

Relations with the Reagan Administration

Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire

Major Areas of Colonial Withdrawal

India

Further British Retreat from Empire

The Turmoil of French Decolonization

France and Algeria

France and Vietnam

Vietnam Drawn into the Cold War

Direct United States. Involvement

The Collapse of European Communism

Gorbachev Attempts to Reform the Soviet Union

1989: Revolution in Eastern Europe

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

The Yelstsin Decade

The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War

Putin and the Resurgence of Russia

The Rise of Radical Political Islamism

Arab Nationalism

The Iranian Revolution

Afghanistan and Radical Islamism

A Transformed West

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Collapse of the Berlin Wall
Compare & Connect: The Soviet Union and the United States Draw the Lines of the Cold War
Encountering The Past: Rock Music and Political Protest

CHAPTER 30 The West at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century

The Twentieth-Century Movement of Peoples

Displacement through War

External and Internal Migration

The New Muslim Population

European Population Trends

Toward a Welfare State Society

Christian Democratic Parties

The Creation of Welfare States

Resistance to the Expansion of the Welfare State

New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women

Feminism

More Married Women in the Workforce

New Work Patterns

Women in the New Eastern Europe

Transformations in Knowledge and Culture

Communism and Western Europe

Existentialism

Expansion of the University Population and Student Rebellion

The Americanization of Europe

A Consumer Society

Environmentalism

Art Since World War II

Cultural Divisions and the Cold War

Memory of the Holocaust

The Christian Heritage

Neo-Orthodoxy

Liberal Theology

Roman Catholic Reform

Late-Twentieth-Century Technology: The Arrival of the Computer

The Demand for Calculating Machines

Early Computer Technology

The Development of Desktop Computers

The Challenges of European Unification

Postwar Cooperation

The European Economic Community

The European Union

Discord over the Union

New American Leadership and Financial Crisis

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Copenhagen Opera House
Compare & Connect: Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair Debate the Government Social Responsibility for Welfare
Encountering the Past: Toys from Europe Conquer the United States

THE WEST AND THE WORLD: ENERGY AND THE MODERN WORLD

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Preface

As we enter the twenty-first century, the heritage of Western civilization is a major point of departure for understanding our own epoch. The unprecedented globalization of daily life has occurred in large measure through the spread of Western technological, economic, and political influences. From the sixteenth through the end of the twentieth century the West exerted vast influences throughout the globe for both good and ill, and the global citizens of this new century live in the wake of that impact. It is the goal of this book to introduce its readers to the Western heritage so that they may be better informed and more culturally sensitive citizens of the emerging global age.

Since The Western Heritage first appeared, we have sought to provide our readers with a work that does justice to the richness and variety of Western civilization. We hope that such an understanding of the West will foster lively debate on its character, values, institutions, and global influence. Indeed, we believe such a critical outlook on their own culture has characterized the peoples of the West since its earliest history. Through such debates we define ourselves and the values of our culture. Consequently, we welcome the debate and hope that The Western Heritage, seventh edition, can help to foster a genuinely informed discussion through its overview of Western civilization, its strengths, weaknesses, and the controversies surrounding it.

Human beings make, experience, and record their history. In this edition as in past editions, our goal has been to present Western civilization fairly, accurately, and in a way that does justice to that great variety of humanenterprise. History has many facets, no one of which alone can account for the others. Any attempt to tell the story of the West from a single overarching perspective, no matter how timely, is bound to neglect or suppress some important part of that story. Like all authors, we have had to make selections for an introductory text, but we have attempted to provide the broadest possible coverage suitable to that task of introduction. To that end we hope that the vast array of documents included in this book will allow the widest possible spectrum of people over the course of the centuries to give personal voice to their experience and to allow our readers to enter into that experience.

We also believe that any book addressing the experience of the West must also look beyond its historical European borders. The students reading this book are drawn from a wide variety of cultures and experiences. They live in a world characterized by highly interconnected economies and instant communication between cultures. In this emerging multicultural society it seems both appropriate and necessary to recognize the ways in which Western civilization has throughout its history interacted with other cultures, influencing other societies and being influenced by them. Examples of this two-way interaction, such as that with Islam, appear throughout the text. To further highlight the theme of interaction, The Western Heritage includes a series of comparative essays, The West & the World. (For a fuller description, see below.)

Goals of the Text

Our primary goal has been to present a strong, clear narrative account of the central developments in Western history. We have also sought to call attention to certain critical themes:

  • The capacity of Western civilization from the time of the Greeks to the present to generate transforming self-criticism.
  • The development of political freedom, constitutional government, and concern for the rule of law and individual rights.
  • The shifting relations among religion, society, and the state.
  • The development of science and technology and their expanding impact on thought, social institutions, and everyday life.
  • The major religious and intellectual currents that have shaped Western culture.

We believe that these themes have been fundamental in Western civilization, shaping the past and exerting a continuing influence on the present.

FLEXIBLE PRESENTATION The Western Heritage, seventh edition, is designed to accommodate a variety of approaches to a course in Western civilization, allowing teachers to stress what is most important to them. Some teachers will ask students to read all the chapters. Others will select among them to re-enforce assigned readings and lectures. We have reorganized and rewritten the last two chapters (30 and 31) to permit instructors to end their course by emphasizing either social or political factors in the twentieth-century experience.

INTEGRATED SOCIAL, CULTURAL, AND POLITICAL HISTORY The Western Heritage provides one of the richest accounts of the social history of the West available today, with strong coverage of family life, the changing roles of women, and the place of the family in relation to broader economic, political, and social developments. This coverage reflects the explosive growth in social historical research in the past quarter century, which has enriched virtually all areas of historical study. In this edition we have again expanded both the breadth and depth of our coverage of social history through revisions of existing chapters, the addition of major new material, and the inclusion of new documents.

While strongly believing in the study of the social experience of the West, we also share the conviction that internal and external political events have shaped the Western experience in fundamental and powerful ways. The experiences of Europeans in the twentieth century under fascism, national socialism, and communism demonstrate that influence, as has, more recently, the collapse of communism in the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. We have also been told repeatedly by teachers that no matter what their own historical specialization, they believe that a political narrative gives students an effective tool to begin to organize their understanding of the past. Consequently, we have made every effort to integrate the political with the social, cultural, and intellectual.

No other survey text presents so full an account of the religious and intellectual development of the West. People may be political and social beings, but they are also reasoning and spiritual beings. What they think and believe are among the most important things we can know about them. Their ideas about God, society, law, gender, human nature, and the physical world have changed over the centuries and continue to change. We cannot fully grasp our own approach to the world without understanding the intellectual currents of the past and their influence on our thoughts and conceptual categories.

CLARITY AND ACCESSIBILITY Good narrative history requires clear, vigorous prose. As in earlier editions, we have paid careful attention to the quality of our writing, subjecting every paragraph to critical scrutiny. Our goal was to make our presentation fully accessible to students without compromising vocabulary or conceptual level. We hope this effort will benefit both teachers and students.

Changes in the
Seventh Edition

INTRODUCING ART & THE WEST A beautiful and important new feature enhances students' understanding of the artistic heritage of the West. In every chapter we highlight a work of art or architecture and discuss how the work illuminates and reflects the period in which it was created. In Chapter 5, for example, a portrait of a young woman on the wall of a house in Pompeii and the accompanying essay provide a glimpse into the life of well-to-do young women in the Roman Empire (p. 161). In Chapter 7, two views of Salisbury Cathedral illustrate an essay on Gothic architecture (p. 248). In Chapter 16, two paintings tell contrasting stories about domestic life in eighteenth-century France (p. 526), and in Part 4, works by Turner, Manet, and Seurat illustrate both the power of the new industrialism and its effects on European social life. Part 5 includes discussions of paintings by Grosz, Magritte, and Picasso. In Chapter 30, Bread, painted by the Soviet realist Tatjiana Yablonskaya, and Jackson Pollock's One (Number 31, 1950), offer starkly contrasting views of twentieth-century culture (p. 1040). (See p. xxiv for a complete list of Art & The West essays.)

THE WEST & THE WORLD In this feature, we focus on six subjects, comparing Western institutions with those of other parts of the world, or discussing the ways in which developments in the West have influenced cultures in other areas of the globe. In the seventh edition, the essays are:

  • Part 1: Ancient Warfare (new) (p. 186)
  • Part 2: The Invention of Printing in China and Europe (new) (p. 284)
  • Part 3: The Columbian Exchange (new) (p. 582)
  • Part 4: The Abolition of Slavery in the Transatlantic Economy (p. 736)
  • Part 5: Imperialism: Ancient and Modern (p. 928)
  • Part 6: Energy and the Modern World (new) (p. 1116)

RECENT SCHOLARSHIP As in previous editions, changes in this edition reflect our determination to incorporate the most recent developments in historical scholarship and the concerns of professional historians. Of particular interest are expanded discussions of:

  • Women in the history of the West. Adding to our longstanding commitment to the inclusion of the experience of women in Western civilization, this edition presents new scholarship on women in the ancient world and the Middle Ages, women and the scientific revolution, and women under the authoritarian governments of the twentieth century. (See, especially, chapters 3, 4, 5, 7, 14, 30. )
  • The Scientific Revolution. Chapter 14, which addresses the rise of the new science, has been wholly revised and rewritten to clarify the new scientific theory arising from the Copernican revolution, the new understanding of the Galileo case, the role of women in the new science, and the social institutions of the new science.
  • The Dutch Golden Age. A new section in Chapter 15 discusses the United Netherlands during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  • Africa and the transatlantic economy. An extensive section in Chapter 17 explores the relationship of Africa to the transatlantic economy of the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. We examine the role of African society and politics in the slave trade, the experience of Africans forcibly transported to the Americas, and the incorporation of elements of African culture into the New World.
  • Jewish thinkers in the Enlightenment. A new section in Chapter 18 discusses the thought of Spinoza and Moses Mendelsohn as they relate to the role of Jewish religion and society in the wider European culture.
  • The Holocaust. The discussion of the Holocaust has been significantly expanded in two ways. Chapter 29 provides more analysis of the causes of the Holocaust, and Chapter 30 includes an extensive new narrative of the particular case of the destruction of the Jews of Poland.
  • Twentieth-century social history. The seventh edition of The Western Heritage presents the most extensive treatment of twentieth-century social history available in a survey text. We examine, in Chapter 30, the experiences of women under authoritarian governments, the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, the destruction of the Polish Jewish community, and European migration. The chapter concludes with a new section on the coming of the computer and the impact of new technology on European life.
  • The history of the Cold War and Europe at the start of the twenty-first century. Chapter 31, on the Soviet-American rivalry and the collapse of communism, has been wholly rewritten and includes the conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Instructors may close their course with either of the twentieth-century chapters, depending on the issues they wish to emphasize.

Chapter-by-Chapter Revisions

Chapter 1 The treatment of the origins of humankind has been completely rewritten to reflect the newest scholarship.

Chapters 3, 4, 5 contain new sections on Women in Homeric Society; Aspasia, Pericles' Common-law Wife; Greek Slavery; Women in Early Rome; Women of the Upper Classes in later Roman history.

Chapter 9 contains a discussion of medieval Russia.

Chapter 12 includes a shorter, rewritten discussion of The Thirty Years' War.

Chapter 14 has a wholly rewritten discussion of the Scientific Revolution and of the impact of the Scientific Revolution on philosophy, new or extensively rewritten sections on women and early modern science, the new institutions associated with the emerging scientific knowledge, religious faith and the new science, with an expanded discussion of the Galileo case.

Chapter 15 contains an extensive new section on the Dutch Golden Age, including the impact of its overseas empire on its prosperity.

Chapter 16 has a new section on The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women.

Chapter 17 includes a much expanded and revised section on African Slavery, the experiences of Africans in the Americas, and the cultural institutions they brought with them.

Chapter 18 has a new section on Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment with emphasis on Spinoza and Moses Mendelsohn.

Chapter 22 has a refocused discussion of Karl Marx's thought.

Chapter 25 expands the treatment of racial thinking and the non-Western world.

Chapter 28 includes a rewritten discussion of the Soviet Experience in the 1930s.

Chapter 29 expands the discussion of the Holocaust.

Chapter 30 is a largely new chapter on twentieth-century social history, with major new sections on state violence, women under authoritarian governments, the collectivization of Soviet agriculture, the destruction of the Polish Jews, and the impact of the computer.

Chapter 31 has been extensively rewritten and reorganized to reflect the latest scholarship on the Cold War through the collapse of communism. It ends with a discussion of Europe at the Opening of the Global Century.

The last two chapters are written so that instructors, though teaching both chapters, may choose to close their course with either, depending upon their personal emphasis. Those instructors wishing to emphasize social history might end the course with Chapter 30 and those wishing to emphasize political development and great power relations may choose to conclude with Chapter 31.

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS To help students understand the relationship between geography and history, we have added relief features to approximately one-half of the maps. All 90 maps have been carefully edited for accuracy. The text also contains close to 500 color and black and white illustrations, many of them new to the seventh edition.

PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES This edition retains the pedagogical features of the last edition, including part-opening comparative timelines, a list of key topics at the beginning of each chapter, chapter review questions, and questions accompanying the more than 200 source documents in the text. Each of these features is designed to make the text more accessible to students and to reinforce key concepts.

  • Illustrated timelines open each of the six parts of the book summarizing, side-by-side, the major events in politics and government, society and economy, and religion and culture.
  • Primary source documents, more than one third new to this edition, acquaint students with the raw material of history and provide intimate contact with the people of the past and their concerns. Questions accompanying the source documents direct students toward important, thought-provoking issues and help them relate the documents to the material in the text. They can be used to stimulate class discussion or as topics for essays and study groups.
  • Each chapter includes an outline, a list of key topics, and an introduction. Together these features provide a succinct overview of each chapter.
  • Chronologies follow each major section in a chapter, listing significant events and their dates.
  • In Perspective sections summarize the major themes of each chapter and provide a bridge to the next chapter.
  • Chapter review questions help students review the material in a chapter and relate it to broader themes. They too can be used for class discussion and essay topics.
  • Suggested readings lists following each chapter have been updated with new titles reflecting recent scholarship.

A NOTE ON DATES AND TRANSLITERATIONS This edition of The Western Heritage continues the practice of using B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era) instead Of B.C. (before Christ) and A.D. (anno domini, the year of the Lord) to designate dates. We also follow the most accurate currently accepted English transliterations of Arabic words. For example, today Koran is being replaced by the more accurate Qur'an; similarly Muhammad is preferable to Mohammed and Muslim to Moslem.

Ancillary Instructional
Materials

The ancillary instructional materials that accompany The Western Heritage include print and multimedia supplements that are designed to reinforce and enliven the richness of the past and inspire students with the excitement of studying the history of Western civilization.

Print Supplements for the Instructor

INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL WITH TEST ITEMS The Instructor's Manual contains chapter summaries, key points and vital concepts, and information on audio-visual resources that can be used in developing and preparing lecture presentations. Also included is a test item file that offers multiple-choice, identification, and essay test questions.

PRENTICE HALL CUSTOM TEST This commercial-quality computerized test management program, for Windows and Macintosh environments, allows users to create their own tests using items from the printed Test Item File. The program allows users to edit the items in the Test Item File and to add their own questions. Online testing is also available.

TRANSPARENCY PACKAGE This collection of full-color transparency acetates provides the maps, charts, and graphs from the text for use in classroom presentations.

ADMINISTRATIVE HANDBOOK by Jay Boggis provides instructors with resources for using The Western Heritage with Annenberg/CPB telecourse, The Western Tradition.

Print Supplements for the Student

STUDY GUIDE, VOLUMES I AND II The study guide includes commentaries, definitions, and a variety of exercises designed to reinforce the concepts in the chapter. These exercises include: identification, map exercises, and short-answer and essay questions.

DOCUMENTS SET, VOLUMES I AND II This carefully selected and edited set of documents provides over 100 additional primary source readings. Each document includes a brief introduction as well as questions to encourage critical analysis of the reading and to relate it to the content of the text.

MAP WORKBOOK This brief workbook gives students the opportunity to increase their knowledge of geography through identification and other map exercises. It is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD This four-color historical atlas provides additional map resources to reinforce concepts in the text. It is available for a nominal fee when shrink-wrapped with the text.

UNDERSTANDING AND ANSWERING ESSAY QUESTIONS Prepared by Mary L. Kelley, San Antonio College. This brief guide suggests helpful study techniques as well as specific analytical tools for understanding different types of essay questions and provides precise guidelines for preparing well-crafted essay answers. This guide is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

READING CRITICALLY ABOUT HISTORY: A GUIDE TO ACTIVE READING Prepared by Rose Wassman and Lee Ann Rinsky. This guide focuses on the skills needed to learn the essential information presented in college history textbooks. Material covered includes vocabulary skills, recognizing organizational patterns, critical thinking skills, understanding visual aids, and practice sections. This guide is available free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

THEMES OF THE TIMES The New York Times and Prentice Hall are sponsoring Themes of the Times, a program designed to enhance student access to current information of relevance in the classroom. Through this program, the core subject matter provided in the text is supplemented by a collection of current articles from one of the world's most distinguished newspapers, The New York Times.

These articles demonstrate the vital, ongoing connection between what is learned in the classroom and what is happening in the world around us. To enjoy the wealth of information of The New York Times daily, a reduced subscription rate is available. For information call toll-free: 1-800-631-1222.

Prentice Hall and The New York Times are proud to cosponsor Themes of the Times. We hope it will make the reading of both textbooks and newspapers a more dynamic, involving process.

TELECOURSE STUDY GUIDE, VOLUMES I AND II, by Jay Boggis correlates The Western Heritage with the Annenberg/CPB telecourse, The Western Tradition.

Multimedia Supplements

HISTORY ON THE INTERNET This guide focuses on developing the critical thinking skills necessary to evaluate and use online sources. The guide also provides a brief introduction to navigating the Internet, along with complete references related specifically to the History discipline and how to use the Companion Website available for The Western Heritage. This supplementary book is free to students when shrink-wrapped with the text.

COMPANION WEBSITE
ADDRESS

Students can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of Western Civilization through The Western Heritage Companion Website. Features of the website include, for each chapter in the text, objectives, study questions, map labeling exercises, related links, and document exercises. A faculty module provides material from the Instructor's Manual and the maps and charts from the text in PowerPoint format.

POWERPOINT IMAGES CD ROM Available for Windows and Macintosh environments, this resource includes the maps, charts, and graphs from the text for use in PowerPoint. Organized by chapters in the text, this collection of images is useful for classroom presentations and lectures.

IRC WESTERN CIVILIZATION CD ROM Available for Windows 95 and 3.1, this lecture and presentation resource includes a library of over 3000 images, each with a descriptive caption, plus film clips, maps, and sound recordings. A correlation guide lists the images as they correspond to the chapters of The Western Heritage. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative for information about the adoption requirements for this resource.

COURSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS For instructors interested in distance learning, Prentice Hall offers fully customizable, online courses with enhanced content, www links, online testing, and many other course management features using the best available course management systems available, including WebCT, Blackboard, and ecollege online course architecture. Contact your local Prentice Hall representative or visit our special Demonstration Central Website at our site for more information.

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