The Western Heritage: Volume A (to 1563) / Edition 10

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Written by leading scholars in the field, this authoritative text presents an engaging and balanced narrative of the central developments in Western history. Seamlessly integrating coverage of social, cultural, and political history, the presentation reflects a flexible chronological organization.

The Tenth Edition provides updated scholarship, expanded coverage of European imperialism prior to World War I, streamlined coverage of the period between the two World Wars, and a brand new feature—Compare & Connect—which presents students with two or more documents that reflect opposing viewpoints on a topic and engages them to become part of the historical discourse.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205699780
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/8/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 480
  • Sales rank: 741,512
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.60 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958–1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.

Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Public Interest 158 (2005).

Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

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Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1 The Birth of Civilization

Early Humans and Their Culture

The Paleolithic Age

The Neolithic Age

The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization

Early Civilizations to about 1000 B.C.E.

Mesopotamian Civilization

Egyptian Civilization

Ancient Near Eastern Empires

The Hittites

The Assyrians

The Second Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Babylonians

The Persian Empire

Cyrus the Great

Darius the Great

Government and Administration


Art and Culture


The Canaanites and the Phoenicians

The Israelites

The Jewish Religion

General Outlook of Mideastern Cultures

Humans and Nature

Toward the Greeks and Western Thought

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Royal Standard of Ur

Compare & Connect: The Great Flood

Encountering the Past: Divination in Ancient Mesopotamia

CHAPTER 2 The Rise of Greek Civilization

The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland to about 1150 B.C.E.

The Minoans

The Mycenaeans

The Greek “Middle Ages” to about 750 B.C.E.

Greek Migrations

The Age of Homer

The Polis

Development of the Polis

The Hoplite Phalanx

The Importance of the Polis

Expansion of the Greek World

Magna Graecia

The Greek Colony

The Tyrants (ca. 700—500 B.C.E.)

The Major States



Life in Archaic Greece




The Persian Wars

The Ionian Rebellion

The War in Greece

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Trireme

Compare & Connect: Greek Strategy in the Persian War

Encountering the Past: Greek Athletics

CHAPTER 3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece

Aftermath of Victory

The Delian League

The Rise of Cimon

The First Peloponnesian War: Athens against Sparta

The Breach with Sparta

The Division of Greece

Classical Greece

The Athenian Empire

Athenian Democracy

The Women of Athens: Social Status and Everyday Life


Religion in Public Life

The Great Peloponnesian War


Strategic Stalemate

The Fall of Athens

Competition for Leadership in the Fourth Century B.C.E.

The Hegemony of Sparta

The Hegemony of Thebes: The Second Athenian Empire

The Culture of Classical Greece

The Fifth Century B.C.E.

The Fourth Century B.C.E.

Philosophy and the Crisis of the Polis

The Hellenistic World

The Macedonian Conquest

Alexander the Great

The Successors

Hellenistic Culture



Art and Architecture

Mathematics and Science

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Erechtheum: Porch of the Maidens

Compare & Connect: Athenian Democracy — Pro and Con

Encountering the Past: Going to Court in Athens

CHAPTER 4 Rome: From Republic to Empire

Prehistoric Italy

The Etruscans





Royal Rome


The Family

Women in Early Rome


Patricians and Plebians

The Republic


The Conquest of Italy

Rome and Carthage

The Republic’s Conquest of the Hellenistic World

Civilization in the Early Roman Republic




Roman Imperialism: The Late Republic

The Aftermath of Conquest

The Gracchi

Marius and Sulla

The Fall of the Republic

Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, and Cicero

The First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar and his Government of Rome

The Second Triumvirate and the Triumph of Octavian

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Lictors

Compare & Connect: Did Caesar Want to be King?

Encountering the Past: Two Roman Festivals: The Saturnalia and Lupercalia

CHAPTER 5 The Roman Empire

The Augustan Principate


The Army and Defense

Religion and Morality

Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages

The Late Republic

The Age of Augustus

Imperial Rome, 14 to 180 c.e.

The Emperors

The Administration of the Empire

Women of the Upper Classes

Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House

The Culture of the Early Empire

The Rise of Christianity

Jesus of Nazareth

Paul of Tarsus


The Persecution of Christians

The Emergence of Catholicism

The Crisis of the Third Century

Barbarian Invasions

Economic Difficulties

The Social Order

Civil Disorder

The Late Empire

The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization

The Triumph of Christianity

Arts and Letters in the Late Empire

The Preservation of Classical Culture

Christian Writers

The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire in the West

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Spoils from Jerusalem on the Arch of Titus in Rome

Compare & Connect: Christianity in the Roman Empire —Why Did the Romans Persecute the Christians?

Encountering the Past: Chariot Racing



CHAPTER 6 Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Creating a New European Society and Culture (476–1000)

On the Eve of the Frankish Ascendancy

Germanic Migrations

New Western Masters

The Byzantine Empire

The Reign of Justinian

The Spread of Byzantine Christianity

Persians and Muslims

Islam and the Islamic World

Muhammad’s Religion

Islamic Diversity

Islamic Empires

The Western Debt to Islam

Western Society and the Developing Christian Church

Monastic Culture

The Doctrine of Papal Primacy

The Religious Division of Christiandom

The Kingdom of the Franks: From Clovis to Charlemagne

Governing the Franks

The Reign of Charlemagne (768–814)

Break up of the Carolingian Kingdom

Feudal Society


Vassalage and the Fief

Daily Life and Religion

Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty

In Perspective

A Closer Look: A Multicultural Book Cover

Compare & Connect: The Battle of the Sexes in Christianity and Islam

Encountering the Past: Medieval Cooking

CHAPTER 7 The High Middle Ages: The Rise of European Empires and States (1000—1300)

Otto I and the Revival of the Empire

Unifying Germany

Embracing the Church

The Reviving Catholic Church

The Cluny Reform Movement

The Investiture Struggle: Gregory VII and Henry IV

The Crusades

The Pontificate of Innocent III (r. 1198—1216)

England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines (1214)

William the Conqueror

Henry II

Eleanor of Aquitaine and Court Culture

Popular Rebellion and Magna Carta

Philip II Augustus

France in the Thirteenth Century: The Reign of Louis IX

Generosity Abroad

Order and Excellence at Home

The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152—1272)

Frederick I Barbarossa

Henry VI and the Sicilian Connection

Otto IV and the Welf Interregnum

Frederick II

Romanesque and Gothic Art

In Perspective

A Closer Look: European Embrace of a Black Saint

Compare & Connect: Christian Jihad, Muslim Jihad

Encountering the Past: Pilgrimages

CHAPTER 8 Medieval Society: Hierarchies, Towns, Universities, and Families (1000–1300)

The Traditional Order of Life




Towns and Townspeople

The Chartering of Towns

The Rise of Merchants

Challenging the Old Lords

New Models of Government

Towns and Kings

Jews in Christian Society

Schools and Universities

University of Bologna

Cathedral Schools

University of Paris

The Curriculum

Philosophy and Theology

Women in Medieval Society

Image and Status

Life Choices

Working Women

The Lives of Children

Children as “Little Adults”

Children as a Special Stage

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Joys and Pains of the Medieval Joust

Compare & Connect: Faith and Love in the High Middle Ages

Encountering the Past: Warrior Games



CHAPTER 9 The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

The Black Death

Preconditions and Causes of the Plague

Popular Remedies

Social and Economic Consequences

New Conflicts and Opportunities

The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment

The Causes of the War

Progress of the War

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church

The Thirteenth-Century Papacy

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair

The Avignon Papacy (1309—1377)

John Wycliffe and John Huss

The Great Schism (1378—1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449

Medieval Russia

Politics and Society

Mongol Rule (1243—1480)

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Encampment of the Imperial Army

Compare & Connect: Who Runs the World: Priests or Princes?

Encountering the Past: Dealing with Death

CHAPTER 10 Renaissance and Discovery

The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

The Italian City-State


Renaissance Art

Slavery in the Renaissance

Italy ’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

Charles VIII’s March through Italy

Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family

Pope Julius II

Niccolò Machiavelli

Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe




The Holy Roman Empire

The Northern Renaissance

The Printing Press


Humanism and Reform

Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

The Portuguese Chart the Course

The Spanish Voyages of Columbus

The Spanish Empire in the New World

The Church in Spanish America

The Economy of Exploitation

The Impact on Europe

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Leonardo Plots the Perfect Man

Compare & Connect: Is the Renaissance Man a Myth?

Encountering the Past: The Renaissance Garden

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