The Western Heritage: Volume B (1300-1815) / Edition 10

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Written by leading scholars in the field, this authoritative text presents an engaging and balanced narrative of the central developments in Western history. Seamlessly integrating coverage of social, cultural, and political history, the presentation reflects a flexible chronological organization.

The Tenth Edition provides updated scholarship, expanded coverage of European imperialism prior to World War I, streamlined coverage of the period between the two World Wars, and a brand new feature—Compare & Connect—which presents students with two or more documents that reflect opposing viewpoints on a topic and engages them to become part of the historical discourse.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205699797
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/10/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 480
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958–1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.

Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250—1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeister’s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and “Why We Study Western Civ,” The Public Interest 158 (2005).

Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award, Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life (1993), and John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.

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Table of Contents


CHAPTER 9 The Late Middle Ages: Social and Political Breakdown (1300—1453)

The Black Death

Preconditions and Causes of the Plague

Popular Remedies

Social and Economic Consequences

New Conflicts and Opportunities

The Hundred Years’ War and the Rise of National Sentiment

The Causes of the War

Progress of the War

Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival: The Late Medieval Church

The Thirteenth-Century Papacy

Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair

The Avignon Papacy (1309—1377)

John Wycliffe and John Huss

The Great Schism (1378—1417) and the Conciliar Movement to 1449

Medieval Russia

Politics and Society

Mongol Rule (1243—1480)

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Encampment of the Imperial Army

Compare & Connect: Who Runs the World: Priests or Princes?

Encountering the Past: Dealing with Death

CHAPTER 10 Renaissance and Discovery

The Renaissance in Italy (1375–1527)

The Italian City-State


Renaissance Art

Slavery in the Renaissance

Italy ’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494–1527)

Charles VIII’s March through Italy

Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family

Pope Julius II

Niccolò Machiavelli

Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe




The Holy Roman Empire

The Northern Renaissance

The Printing Press


Humanism and Reform

Voyages of Discovery and the New Empires in the West and East

The Portuguese Chart the Course

The Spanish Voyages of Columbus

The Spanish Empire in the New World

The Church in Spanish America

The Economy of Exploitation

The Impact on Europe

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Leonardo Plots the Perfect Man

Compare & Connect: Is the Renaissance Man a Myth?

Encountering the Past: The Renaissance Garden

CHAPTER 11 The Age of Reformation

Society and Religion

Social and Political Conflict

Popular Religious Movements and Criticisms of the Church

Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525

Justification by Faith Alone

The Attack on Indulgences

Election of Charles V

Luther’s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms

Imperial Distractions: France and the Turks

How the Reformation Spread

The Peasants’ Revolt

The Reformation Elsewhere

Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation

Anabaptists and Radical Protestants

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation

Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation

The Diet of Augsburg

The Expansion _of the Reformation

Reaction against Protestants

The Peace of Augsburg

The English Reformation to 1553

The Preconditions of Reform

The King’s Affair

The “Reform Parliament”

Wives of Henry VIII

The King’s Religious Conservatism

The Protestant Reformation under Edward VI

Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation

Sources of Catholic Reform

Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits

The Council of Trent (1545-1563)

The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe

The Revolution in Religion: Practices and Institutions

The Reformation and Education

The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women

Family Life in Early Modern Europe

Later Marriages

Arranged Marriages

Family Size

Birth Control

Wet Nursing

Loving Families?

Literary Imagination in Transition

Miguel De Cervantes Saaavedra: Rejection of Idealism

William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age

In Perspective

A Closer Look: A Saint at Peace in the Grasp of Temptation
Compare & Connect: A Raw Deal for the Common Man, or His Just Desserts?
Encountering the Past: Table Manners

CHAPTER 12 The Age of Religious Wars

Renewed Religious Struggle

The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

Appeal of Calvinism

Catherine de Medicis and the Guises

The Rise to Power of Henry of Navarre

The Edict of Nantes

Imperial Spain and Philip II (r. 1556–1598)

Pillars of Spanish Power

The Revolt in the Netherlands

England and Spain (1553–1603)

Mary I (r. 1553–1558)

Elizabeth I (r. 1558–1603)

The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)

Preconditions for War

Four Periods of War

The Treaty of Westphalia

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Baroque and Plain Church: Architectural Reflections of Belief
Compare & Connect: A Great Debate over Religious Tolerance
Encountering the Past: Going to the Theater

CHAPTER 13 European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline

Urban Prosperity

Economic Decline

Two Models of European Political Development

Constitutional Crisis and Settlement in Stuart England

James I

Charles I

The Long Parliament and Civil War

Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Republic

Charles II and the Restoration of the Monarchy

The “Glorious Revolution”

The Age of Walpole

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

Years of Personal Rule


King by Divine Right

Louis’s Early Wars

Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies

Louis’s Later Wars

France after Louis XIV

Central and Eastern Europe

Poland : Absence of Strong Central Authority

The Habsburg Empire _and the Pragmatic Sanction

Prussia and the Hohenzollerns

Russia Enters the European Political Arena

The Romanor Dynasty

Peter the Great

The Ottoman Empire

Religious Toleration and Ottoman Government

The End of Ottoman Expansion

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Versailles
Compare & Connect: The Debate over the Origin and Character of Political Authority
Encountering the Past: Early Controversy over Tobacco and Smoking

CHAPTER 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Scientific Revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Discoveries

Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws

Isaac Newton Discovers _the Laws of Gravitation

Philosophy Responds to Changing Science

Nature as Mechanism

Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method

René Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction

Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government

John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration

The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge

Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

The New Science and Religious Faith

The Case of Galileo

Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith

The English Approach to Science and Religion

Continuing Superstition

Witch-Hunts and Panic

Who Were the Witches?

End of the Witch-Hunts

Baroque Art

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Sciences and the Arts
Compare & Connect: Descartes and Swift Debate the Scientific Enterprise
Encountering the Past: Midwives

CHAPTER 15 Society and Economy Under the Old Regime in the Eighteenth Century

Major Features of Life in the Old Regime

Maintenance of Tradition

Hierarchy and Privilege

The Aristocracy

Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege

Aristocratic Resurgence

The Land and Its Tillers

Peasants and Serfs

Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: the English Game Laws

Family Structures and the Family Economy


The Family Economy

Women and the Family Economy

Children and the World of the Family Economy

The Revolution in Agriculture

New Crops and New Methods

Expansion of the Population

The Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century

A Revolution in Consumption

Industrial Leadership of Great Britain

New Methods of Textile Production

The Steam Engine

Iron Production

The Impact of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women

The Growth of Cities

Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization

Urban Classes

The Urban Riot

The Jewish Population: The Age of the Ghetto

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An Aristocratic Couple
Compare & Connect: Two Eighteenth-Century Writers Contemplate the Effects of Differ-ent Economic Structures
Encountering the Past: Water, Washing, and Bathing

CHAPTER 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

Periods of European Overseas Empires

Mercantile Empires

Mercantilist Goals

French–British Rivalry

The Spanish Colonial System

Colonial Government

Trade Regulation

Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs

Black African Slavery, the Plantation System, and the Atlantic Economy

The African Presence in the Americas

Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy

The Experience of Slavery

Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

The War of Jenkins’s Ear

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748)

The “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756

The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763)

The American Revolution and Europe

Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue

The Crisis and Independence

American Political Ideas

Events in Great Britain

Broader Impact of the American Revolution

In Perspective

A Closer Look: A Sugar Plantation in the West Indies
Compare & Connect: The Atlantic Passage
Encountering the Past: Sugar Enters the Western Diet



CHAPTER 17 The Age of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

Formative Influences on the Enlightenment

Ideas of Newton and Locke

The Example of British Toleration and Political Stability

The Emergence of a Print Culture

The Philosophes

Voltaire—First among the Philosophes

The Enlightenment and Religion



Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity

Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment

Islam in Enlightenment Thought

The Enlightenment and Society

The Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic Improvement

Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law

The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom

Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress

Political Thought of the Philosophes

Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws

Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society

Enlightened Critics of European Empires

Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment

Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art

Enlightened Absolutism

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

The Partition of Poland

The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe

In Perspective

A Closer Look: An Eighteenth-Century Artist Appeals to the Ancient World
Compare & Connect: Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria Debate Toleration
Encountering the Past: Coffeehouses and Enlightenment

CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution

The Crisis of the French Monarchy

The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes

Calonne’s Reform Plan and the Assembly of Notables

Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General

The Revolution of 1789

The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly

Fall of the Bastille

The “Great Fear” and the Night of August 4

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The Parisian Women’s March on Versailles

The Reconstruction of France

Political Reorganization

Economic Policy

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Counterrevolutionary Activity

The End of the Monarchy: A Second Revolution

Emergence of the Jacobins

The Convention and the Role of the Sans-culottes

Europe at War with the Revolution

Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution

Suppression of Reform in Britain

The Second and Third Partitions of Poland, 1793, 1795

The Reign of Terror

War with Europe

The Republic Defended

The “Republic of Virtue” and Robespierre’s Justification of Terror

Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women


Revolutionary Tribunals

The End of the Terror

The Thermidorian Reaction

Establishment of the Directory

Removal of the Sans-culottes from Political Life

In Perspective

A Closer Look: Challenging the French Political Order
Compare & Connect: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Opens the Door for Disadvantaged Groups to Demands Equal Civic Rights
Encountering The Past: The Metric System

CHAPTER 19 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

Early Military Victories

The Constitution of the Year VIII

The Consulate in France (1799–1804)

Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition

Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church

The Napoleonic Code

Establishing a Dynasty

Napoleon’s Empire (1804–1814)

Conquering an Empire

The Continental System

European Response to the Empire

German Nationalism and Prussian Reform

The Wars of Liberation

The Invasion of Russia

European Coalition

The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement

Territorial Adjustments

The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance

The Romantic Movement

Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason

Rousseau and Education

Kant and Reason

Romantic Literature

The English Romantic Writers

The German Romantic Writers

Romantic Art

The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo-Gothicism

Nature and the Sublime

Religion in the Romantic Period


New Directions in Continental Religion

Romantic Views of Nationalism and History

Herder and Culture

Hegel and History

Islam, the Middle East, and Romanticism

In Perspective

A Closer Look: The Coronation of Napoleon
Compare & Connect: The Experience of War in the Napoleonic Age
Encountering the Past: Sailors and Canned Food

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