Western Philosophy: An Anthology / Edition 2

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Western Philosophy: An Anthology provides the most comprehensive and authoritative survey of the Western philosophical tradition from ancient Greece to the leading philosophers of today.
• Features substantial and carefully chosen excerpts from all the greats of philosophy, arranged thematically and chronologically
• Readings are introduced and linked together by a lucid philosophical commentary which guides the reader through the key arguments
• Embraces all the major subfields of philosophy: theory of knowledge and metaphysics, philosophy of mind, religion and science, moral philosophy (theoretical and applied), political theory, and aesthetics
• Updated edition now includes additional contemporary readings in each section
• Augmented by two completely new sections on logic and language, and philosophy and the meaning of life

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Cottingham does a good job." (Times Higher Education Supplement)
Library Journal
Introductory philosophy courses often present a dilemma for instructors: does one select a number of "classic" texts, and treat them in detail, or does one use a survey of such texts and attempt to touch briefly upon a variety of subject areas? Both methods have their deficiencies and advantages, but the present text should serve as an excellent choice for those electing to take the survey approach. Cottingham (philosophy, Univ. of Reading) has divided philosophical enquiry into ten broad categories and within each category chosen ten excerpts from major writers to illustrate the range of thinking within each category. This is far more than a "Greatest Hits of Philosophy," however. The selections have been carefully chosen from a broad range of writers that includes Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Hume, Kant, Mill, Nietzsche, Strawson, Popper, Rawls, and Tolstoy. The texts have been updated where the editor felt the language to be archaic or unclear, and the selections appropriately illustrate the breadth and depth of each category of philosophical activity. At the end of the book are brief biographies of each philosopher excerpted. Together with a good survey history of philosophy such as The Oxford History of Western Philosophy (LJ 9/1/94), this text would be ideal for an introductory course or program. The one caveat is the price of the hardcover edition; libraries may opt for it, but students would be better off with the paperback. Recommended for all public and academic libraries.Terry C. Skeats, Bishop's Univ. Lib., Lennoxville, Quebec
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781405124782
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/3/2008
  • Series: Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies Series , #9
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 888
  • Sales rank: 123,099
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 1.80 (d)

Meet the Author

John Cottingham is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Reading. He is the author of many books including Rationalism (1984), Descartes (1986), The Rationalists (1988), Philosophy and the Good Life (1998), and On the Meaning of Life (2003), and is co-translator of The Philosophical Writings of Descartes. He was from 1991–5 Chairman of the British Society for the History of Philosophy, and is (since 1993) editor of Ratio, the international journal of analytic philosophy.

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Table of Contents



Advice to Readers and Format of the Volume.

Part I: Knowledge and Certainty:.

1. Innate Knowledge: Plato, Meno.

2. Knowledge versus Opinion: Plato, Republic.

3. Demonstrative Knowledge and its Starting-points: Aristotle,Posterior Analytics.

4. New Foundations for Knowledge: René Descartes,Meditations.

5. The Senses as the Basis of Knowledge: John Locke, Essayconcerning Human Understanding.

6. Innate Knowledge Defended: Gottfried Leibniz, New Essays onHuman Understanding.

7. Scepticism versus Human Nature: David Hume, Enquiryconcerning Human Understanding.

8. Experience and Understanding: Immanuel Kant, Critique of PureReason.

9. From Sense-certainty to Self-consciousness:Georg Hegel,Phenomenology of Spirit.

10. Against Scepticism: G. E. Moore, A Defence of CommonSense.

11. Does Empirical Knowledge Have a Foundation?: WilfridSellars, The Myth of the Given.

12. The Conditions for Knowledge: Edmund Gettier, Is JustifiedTrue Belief Knowledge?.


Part II: Being and Reality:.

1. The Allegory of the Cave: Plato, Republic.

2. Individual Substance: Aristotle, Categories.

3. Supreme Being and Created Things: René Descartes,Principles of Philosophy.

4. Qualities and Ideas: John Locke, Essay concerning HumanUnderstanding.

5. Substance, Life and Activity: Gottfried Leibniz, NewSystem.

6. Nothing Outside the Mind: George Berkeley, Principles ofHuman Knowledge.

7. The Limits of Metaphysical Speculation: David Hume, Enquiryconcerning Human Understanding.

8. Metaphysics, Old and New: Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena.

9. Being and Involvement: Martin Heidegger, Being and Time.

10. The End of Metaphysics?: Rudolf Carnap, The Elimination ofMetaphysics.

11. The Problem of Ontology: W. V. O. Quine, On What ThereIs.

12. Why is There Anything?: Derek Parfit, The Puzzle ofReality.

Part III: Language and Meaning:.

1. The Meaning of Words: Plato, Cratylus.

2. Language and its Acquisition: Augustine, Confessions.

3. Thought, Language and its Components: William of Ockham,Writings on Logic.

4. Language, Reason and Animal Utterance: René Descartes,Discourse on the Method.

5. Abstract General Ideas: John Locke, Essay concerning HumanUnderstanding.

6. Particular Ideas and General Meaning: George Berkeley,Principles of Human Knowledge.

7. Denotation versus Connotation: John Stuart Mill, A System ofLogic.

8. Names and their Meaning: Gottlob Frege, Sense andReference.

9. Definite and Indefinite Descriptions: Bertrand Russell,Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy.

10. Non-descriptive Uses of Language: J. L. Austin, PerformativeUtterances.

11. Language, Meaning and Context: Paul Grice, Logic andConversation.

12. How the Reference of Terms is Fixed: Saul Kripke, Naming andNecessity.

Part IV: Mind and Body:.

1. The Immortal Soul Plato, Phaedo.

2. Soul and Body, Form and Matter Aristotle, De Anima.

3. The Human Soul Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae.

4. The Incorporeal Mind: René Descartes, Meditations.

5. The Identity of Mind and Body: Benedict Spinoza, Ethics.

6. Mind–Body Correlations: Nicolas Malebranche, Dialogueson Metaphysics.

7. Body and Mind as Manifestations of Will:.

Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Idea.

8. The Problem of Other Minds.

John Stuart Mill, An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’sPhilosophy.

9. The Hallmarks of Mental Phenomena.

Franz Brentano, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint.

10. The Myth of the ‘Ghost in the Machine’.

Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind.

11. Mental States as Functional States.

Hilary Putnam, Psychological Predicates.

12. The Subjective Dimension of Consciousness: Thomas Nagel,What is it Like to be a Bat?.

Part V: The Self and Freedom:.

(a) The Self.

1. The Self and Consciousness: John Locke, Essay concerningHuman Understanding.

2. The Self as Primitive Concept: Joseph Butler, Of PersonalIdentity.

3. The Self as Bundle: David Hume, A Treatise of HumanNature.

4. The Partly Hidden Self: Sigmund Freud, Introductory Lectureson Psychoanalysis.

5. Liberation from the Self: Derek Parfit, Reasons andPersons.

6. Selfhood and Narrative Understanding: Charles Taylor, Sourcesof the Self.

(b) Freedom.

7. Human Freedom and Divine Providence: Augustine, The City ofGod.

8. Freedom to Do What We Want: Thomas Hobbes, Liberty, Necessityand Chance.

9. Absolute Determinism: Pierre Simon de Laplace, PhilosophicalEssay on Probability.

10. Condemned to be Free: Jean-Paul Sartre, Being andNothingness.

11. Determinism and our Attitudes to Others: Peter Strawson,Freedom and Resentment.

12. Freedom, Responsibility and the Ability to do Otherwise.

Harry G. Frankfurt, Alternate Possibilities and MoralResponsibility.

Part VI: God and Religion:.

1. The Existence of God: Anselm of Canterbury, Proslogion.

2. The Five Proofs of God: Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae.

3. God and the Idea of Perfection: René Descartes,Meditations.

4. The Wager: Blaise Pascal, Pensées.

5. The Problem of Evil: Gottfried Leibniz, Theodicy.

6. The Argument from Design: David Hume, Dialogues concerningNatural Religion.

7. Against Miracles: David Hume, Enquiry concerning HumanUnderstanding.

8. Faith and Subjectivity: Søren Kierkegaard, ConcludingUnscientific Postscript.

9. Reason, Passion and the Religious Hypothesis: William James,The Will to Believe.

10. The Meaning of Religious Language: John Wisdom, Gods.

11. God’s Commands as the Foundation for Morality:.

Robert M. Adams, Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief.

12. Against Evidentialism: Alvin Plantinga, Is Belief in GodProperly Basic?.

Part VII: Science and Method:.

1. Four Types of Explanation: Aristotle, Physics.

2. Experimental Methods and True Causes: Francis Bacon, NovumOrganum.

3. Mathematical Science and the Control of Nature: RenéDescartes, Discourse on the Method.

4. The Limits of Scientific Explanation: George Berkeley, OnMotion.

5. The Problem of Induction: David Hume, Enquiry concerningHuman Understanding.

6. The Relation between Cause and Effect: David Hume, Enquiryconcerning Human Understanding.

7. Causality and our Experience of Events: Immanuel Kant,Critique of Pure Reason.

8. The Uniformity of Nature: John Stuart Mill, System ofLogic.

9. Science and Falsifiability: Karl Popper, Conjectures andRefutations.

10. How Explaining Works: Carl G. Hempel, Explanation in Scienceand History.

11. Scientific Realism versus Instrumentalism:.

Grover Maxwell, The Ontological Status of TheoreticalEntities.

12. Change and Crisis in Science: Thomas Kuhn, The Structure ofScientific Revolutions.

Part VIII: Morality and the Good Life:.

1. Morality and Happiness: Plato, Republic.

2. Ethical Virtue: Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics.

3. Virtue, Reason and the Passions: Benedict Spinoza,Ethics.

4. Human Feeling as the Source of Ethics:.

David Hume, Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals.

5. Duty and Reason as the Ultimate Principle.

Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals.

6. Happiness as the Foundation of Morality: John Stuart Mill,Utilitarianism.

7. Utility and Common-sense Morality: Henry Sidgwick, Methods ofEthics.

8. Against Conventional Morality: Friedrich Nietzsche, BeyondGood and Evil.

9. Duty and Intuition: W. D. Ross, The Right and the Good.

10. Rational Choice and Fairness: John Rawls, A Theory ofJustice.

11. Ethics as Rooted in History and Culture: Alasdair MacIntyre,After Virtue.

12. Could Ethics be Objective?: Bernard Williams, Ethics and theLimits of Philosophy.

Part IX: Problems in Ethics:.

1. Inequality, Freedom and Slavery: Aristotle, Politics.

2. War and Justice: Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae.

3. Taking One’s Own Life: David Hume, On Suicide.

4. Gender, Liberty and Equality: Mary Wollstonecraft, AVindication of the Rights of Women.

5. Partiality and Favouritism: William Godwin, Enquiryconcerning Political Justice.

6. The Status of Non-human Animals: Immanuel Kant, Lectures onEthics.

7. The Purpose of Punishment: Jeremy Bentham, Principles ofMorals and Legislation.

8. Our Relationship to the Environment: Aldo Leopold, The LandEthic.

9. Abortion and Rights: Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense ofAbortion.

10. The Relief of Global Suffering: Peter Singer, Famine,Affluence and Morality.

11. Medical Ethics and the Termination of Life: James Rachels,Active and Passive Euthanasia.

12. Cloning, Sexual Reproduction and Genetic Engineering: LeonR. Kass, The Wisdom of Repugnance.

Part X: Authority and the State:.

1. Our Obligation to Respect the Laws of the State: Plato,Crito.

2. The Just Ruler: Thomas Aquinas, On Princely Government.

3. Sovereignty and Security: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan.

4. Consent and Political Obligation: John Locke, Second Treatiseof Civil Government.

5. Against Contractarianism: David Hume, Of the OriginalContract.

6. Society and the Individual: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The SocialContract.

7. The Unified State – from Individual Desire to RationalSelf-determination.

Georg Hegel, The Philosophy of Right.

8. Property, Labour and Alienation: Karl Marx and FriedrichEngels, The German Ideology.

9. The Limits of Majority Rule: John Stuart Mill, OnLiberty.

10. The Minimal State: Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State andUtopia.

11. Social Co-operation and Rational Self-interest: DavidGauthier, Why Contractarianism?.

12. Liberalism, Resources and Equal Worth: Ronald Dworkin, WhyLiberals Should Care about Equality.

Part XI: Beauty and Art:.

1. Art and Imitation: Plato, Republic.

2. The Nature and Function of Dramatic Art: Aristotle,Poetics.

3. The Idea of Beauty: Francis Hutcheson, Inquiry concerningBeauty, Order, Harmony, Design.

4. Aesthetic Appreciation: David Hume, Of the Standard ofTaste.

5. The Concept of the Beautiful: Immanuel Kant, Critique ofJudgement.

6. The Metaphysics of Beauty: Arthur Schopenhauer, OnAesthetics.

7. The Two Faces of Art: Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth ofTragedy.

8. The Value of Art: Leo Tolstoy, What is Art?.

9. Imagination and Art: Jean-Paul Sartre, The Psychology ofImagination.

10. What is Aesthetics?: Ludwig Wittgenstein, Lectures onAesthetics.

11. The Basis of Judgements of Taste: Frank Sibley, AestheticConcepts.

12. Artistic Representation and Reality: Nelson Goodman, TheLanguages of Art.

Part XII: Human Life and its Meaning:.

1. How to Accept Reality and Avoid Fear: Lucretius, On theNature of the Universe.

2. Life Guided by Stoic Philosophy: Seneca, Moral Letters.

3. Meaning Through Service to Others: Augustine,Confessions.

4. Contentment with the Human Lot: Michel de Montaigne, OnExperience.

5. The Human Condition, Wretched yet Redeemable: Blaise Pascal,Pensées.

6. Human Life as a Meaningless Struggle: Arthur Schopenhauer, Onthe Vanity of Existence.

7. The Death of God and the Ascendancy of the Will: FriedrichNietzsche, Thus Spake Zarathustra.

8. Idealism in a Godless Universe: Bertrand Russell, A FreeMan’s Worship.

9. Futility and Defiance: Albert Camus, The Myth ofSisyphus.

10. Involvement versus Detachment: Thomas Nagel, The Absurd.

11. Religious Belief as Necessary for Meaning: William LaneCraig, The Absurdity of Life without God.

12. Seeing our Lives as Part of the Process: Robert Nozick,Philosophy’s Life.

Notes on the Philosophers.


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