Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation / Edition 2

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Overview

Wetlands are among the most productive and biologically diverse ecosystems on earth. Their very diversity has produced a fragmented area of study where each wetland type is considered in isolation. This work provides a synthesis of the existing field of wetland ecology using such central themes as basic characteristics of wetlands, key environmental factors that produce wetland community types, and some unifying problems such as assembly rules, restoration, and conservation. The volume draws on a complete range of wetland habitats and geographic regions including Californian vernal pools, Amazonian floodplains and Russian peat bogs. This book provides ecological syntheses over the entire geographical and habitat range of wetlands, making Wetland Ecology essential reading for anyone planning research or management in wetland habitats, regardless of specific area of interest.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Not only has the author succeeded in presenting a coherent description of wetlands from prairie pothole to mangrove swamp, he also provides a framework by which we can examine all ecosystem types. Fifty pages of references make the book especially valuable to researchers and students." Wildlife Activist

"Besides including an excellent and readable overview of wetlands, this book contains chapters which summarize what is known about wetland zonation and succession, diversity, hydrology, fertility, disturbance, competition, herbivory, burial, restoration and conservation, management and research. Examples from all over the world are included." Aquaphyte

"A rigorous and unified overview of this complex field of study...An impressive blending of facts into a format that is at once readable and useable as a reference guide." Northeastern Naturalist

"Keddy's text succeeds in challenging ecologists, and particularly wetland ecologists, to strengthen their science as a unified endeavor. He deserves a wide readership, both among those who accept his interpretations of data and among those who do not. His challenging vision insists that research go beyond studies of individual wetlands as isolated entities so that this research can contribute to our understanding of these ecosystems and the factors that shape them. Then we can better preserve and manage the wetlands that still exist across our planet. May he inspire many to do just that!" Ecology

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780521739672
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • Publication date: 9/13/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 516
  • Sales rank: 552,672
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.60 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Paul A. Keddy, the first holder of the Schlieder Endowed Chair for Environmental Studies at Southeastern Louisiana University, has conducted wetland research as a professor of ecology for 35 years. He has published more than 100 scholarly papers on plant ecology and wetlands, as well as serving organizations such as NSF, NSERC, World Wildlife Fund and The Nature Conservancy. His first edition of Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation won the Society of Wetland Scientists' Merit Award.
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Table of Contents

Preface to the second edition

Preface to the first edition

Acknowledgments

1 Wetlands: an overview 1

1.1 Definitions and distribution 2

1.2 Wetland classification 4

1.3 Wetland soils 15

1.4 Flood tolerance: the primary constraint 18

1.5 Secondary constraints produce different types of wetlands 22

1.6 Wetlands provide valuable functions and services 28

1.7 Causal factors in wetland ecology 30

1.8 More on definitions and classification of wetlands 34

Conclusion 38

2 Flooding 43

2.1 Flooding and humans: an old story. 46

2.2 Some biological consequences of flooding 48

2.3 A survey of water level fluctuations 54

2.4 General relationships between wetlands and water level fluctuations 67

2.5 Reservoirs, dams, and floodplains 68

2.6 Predicting consequences for wetlands 74

Conclusion 77

3 Fertility 79

3.1 Fertility and plants 80

3.2 Infertile wetlands are constrained by low nutrient levels 84

3.3 Other issues related to fertility 88

3.4 Animals and fertility 94

3.5 Eutrophication: too much of a good thing 96

3.6 Calcium interacts with fertility in peatlands 104

3.7 Fertility and hydrology explain a great deal about wetlands 106

Conclusion 107

4 Disturbance 109

4.1 Disturbance has four properties 111

4.2 Disturbance triggers regeneration from buried propagules 112

4.3 Examples of disturbance controlling the composition of wetlands 113

4.4 Disturbances can create gap dynamics 130

4.5 Measuring the effects of disturbance in future studies 133

Conclusion 136

5 Competition 139

5.1 Some examples of competition in wetlands 141

5.2 Competition is often one-sided 145

5.3 Competition for light produces competitive hierarchies 146

5.4 Dominant plants are often larger than subordinate plants 148

5.5 Escape in space: competition in patches 148

5.6 Escape in time: competition and disturbance 149

5.7 Gradients provide another way of escaping in space 150

5.8 Competition gradients produce centrifugal organization 153

5.9 Rare animals are found in peripheral habitats: the case history of the bog turtle 156

Conclusion 158

6 Herbivory 161

6.1 Some herbivores have large impacts on wetlands 162

6.2 Wildlife diets document which animals eat which plants 166

6.3 Impacts of some other herbivores on wetlands 168

6.4 Plants have defenses to protect them against herbivores 174

6.5 General patterns in herbivory 179

6.6 Three pieces of relevant theory 181

Conclusion 186

7 Burial 189

7.1 Exploring rates of burial 192

7.2 Burial changes the species composition of wetlands 201

7.3 Burial has impacts on many animal species 205

7.4 Sedimentation, sediment cores, and plant succession 206

7.5 Ecological thresholds: burial, coastlines, and sea level 207

7.6 So is sediment bad or good? 210

Conclusion 211

8 Other factors 213

8.1 Salinity 214

8.2 Roads 222

8.3 Logs and coarse woody debris 225

8.4 Stream type 227

8.5 Human population density is becoming a key factor 229

Conclusion 233

9 Diversity 235

9.1 Introduction to diversity in wetlands 236

9.2 Four general rules govern the number of species in wetlands 238

9.3 Selected examples 242

9.4 Some theory: a general model for herbaceous plant communities 255

9.5 More theory: the dynamics of species pools 261

9.6 Conservation of biological diversity 264

Conclusion 265

10 Zonation: shorelines as a prism 269

10.1 The search for fundamental principles 270

10.2 Shorelines provide a model system for the study of wetlands 271

10.3 Possible mechanisms of zonation 273

10.4 Zonation and changing sea level 286

10.5 Statistical studies of zonation 289

10.6 General lessons from analysis of zonation 298

Conclusion 299

11 Services and functions 301

11.1 Wetlands have high production 302

11.2 Wetlands regulate climate 306

11.3 Wetlands regulate the global nitrogen cycle 310

11.4 Wetlands support biological diversity 314

11.5 Wetlands provide recreation and cultural services 317

11.6 Wetlands reduce flood peaks 319

11.7 Wetlands record history 323

11.8 Adding up the services: WWF and MEA evaluate wetland services 325

Conclusion 328

12 Research: paths forward 331

12.1 Some context: the great age of explorers 332

12.2 Four basic types of information 334

12.3 Limitations to species-based research 337

12.4 Empirical ecology 338

12.5 Assembly rules driven by key factors 341

12.6 Simplification through aggregation into groups 347

12.7 Six tactical guidelines 360

Conclusion 363

13 Restoration 365

13.1 The importance of understanding wetland restoration 366

13.2 Three examples 367

13.3 More on principles of restoration 373

13.4 More examples 377

13.5 One big problem: invasive species 383

13.6 A brief history of restoration 385

Conclusion 387

14 Conservation and management 391

14.1 Humans have greatly changed wetlands 392

14.2 Wetlands have changed with time 397

14.3 Two views on conservation objectives 400

14.4 Protection: creating reserve systems 403

14.5 Problems and prospects of reserve systems 411

14.6 More on restoration 415

14.7 So what shall we create with restoration? 416

14.8 Indicators: setting goals and measuring performance 417

14.9 Humans as the biggest problem 424

Conclusion 425

References 427

Index 476

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