Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity Conservation, and Restoration

Overview

This book gives a broad and well-integrated overview of recent major scientific results in wetland science and their applications in natural resource management. After an introduction into the field, 12 chapters contributed by internationally known experts summarize the state of the art on a multitude of topics. The coverage is divided into three sections: Functioning of Plants and Animals in Wetlands; Conservation and Management of Wetlands; and Wetland Restoration and ...

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Overview

This book gives a broad and well-integrated overview of recent major scientific results in wetland science and their applications in natural resource management. After an introduction into the field, 12 chapters contributed by internationally known experts summarize the state of the art on a multitude of topics. The coverage is divided into three sections: Functioning of Plants and Animals in Wetlands; Conservation and Management of Wetlands; and Wetland Restoration and Creation.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
From the reviews:

"The comprehensive book represents a successful mixture of contributions valuable for scientists as well as for decision makers dealing with wetland conservation and restoration. … the book is qualified for both, readers interested in getting a general survey of a specific topic and experts interested in picking up new detailed information. … All in all I recommend this book particularly because … chapters are reviews containing a lot of valuable information. The price is adequate." (Joachim Schrautzer, Phyoenologia, Vol. 38 (1-2), August, 2008)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783540774204
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 2/28/2008
  • Series: Ecological Studies Series , #191
  • Edition description: 1st ed. 2006. 2nd printing 2008
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 315
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction: Wetland Functioning in Relation to Biodiversity Conservation and Restoration

R. Bobbink, D.F. Whigham, B. Beltman, and J.T.A. Verhoeven

Section I: Functioning of Plants and Animals in Wetlands.

2 Plant Survival in Wet Environments: Resilience and Escape Mediated by Shoot Systems

M.B. Jackson

2.1 Introduction

2.2 How Excess Water Threatens Plant Life

2.2.1 Excluding and Trapping Effects of Water

2.2.3 The Energy Crisis

2.3 Resilience

2.3.1 Oxygen Shortage

2.3.2 Shortage of Carbon Dioxide

2.4 Escape

2.4.1 Aerobic Shoot Extension (the Aerobic Escape)

2.4.2 Anaerobic Shoot Extension (the Anaerobic Escape)

2.5 Conclusions and Summary

References

3 Center Stage: The Crucial Role of Macrophytes in Regulating Trophic Interactions in Shallow Lake Wetlands

R.L. Burks, G. Mulderij, E. Gross, I. Jones, L. Jacobsen, E. Jeppesen, and E. van Donk

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Central Position of Aquatic Vegetation

3.2.1 Central Themes: Zooplankton Depend on Macrophytes as Habitats

3.2.2 Central Themes: Chemical Ecology Spans Trophic Levels

3.2.3 Central Themes: Impacts of Grazer—Epiphyton Interactions with Macrophytes

3.2.4 Central Themes: Prevalance of Fish Influence in Shallow Lakes

3.3 In the Wings: Research Areas Worthy of Attention

3.3.1 Predictability of Macrophyte Function in Trophic Interactions Across a Climatic Gradient

3.3.2 Relative Importance of Chemical Ecology Across Trophic Levels

3.3.3 Disproportional Impacts of Certain Invertebrates and Exotic Species

3.4 Returning to Center Stage: Macrophytes are Common Players in Trophic Interactions

References

4 Biological Invasions: Concepts to Understand and Predict a Global Threat

G. van der Velde, S. Rajagopal, M. Kuyper-Kollenaar, A. bij de Vaate, D.W. Thieltges, and H.J. MacIsaac

4.1 Introduction

4.2 What is a Biological Invasion?

4.3 Impacts of Biological Invasions

4.3.1 Ecological Impacts

4.3.2 Evolutionary Impacts

4.3.3 Economic Impacts

4.3.4 Human Health Impacts

4.3.5 Measuring Impacts

4.4 Examples of Biological Invasions

4.5 Understanding and Predicting Biological Invasions

4.5.1 Invading Species Approach

Propagule Pressure

4.5.2 Invaded Ecosystem Approach

4.5.3 Relationship Between Invader and Invaded Ecosystem (Key-Lock Approach)

4.5.4 Invasion Processes Differentiated in Time

4.5.5 Comparative Historical Approach

4.6 Shadows on the Prospects of Prediction

4.7 Conclusion

References

Section II: Conservation and management of wetlands

5 Wetland Conservation and Management: Questions for Science and Society in Applying the Ecosystem Approach

E. Maltby

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Wetlands at the Interface

5.3 Recognising a New Paradigm in Ecosystem Management

5.4 The Ecosystem Approach

5.4.1 Principle 1: The Management of Land, Water and Living Resources is a Question of Societal Choice

5.4.2 Principle 3: Ecosystem Managers Should Consider the Effects of Their Activities on Adjacent and Other Ecosystems; and Principle 7: The Ecosystem Approach Should be Undertaken at the Appropriate Scale

5.4.3 Principle 4: There is a Need to Understand the Ecosystem in an Economic Context

5.4.4 Principle 9: Management must Recognise that Change is Inevitable

5.4.5 Principle 10: The Ecosystem Approach Should Seek the Appropriate Balance Between Conservation and Use of Biological Diversity

5.5 Conclusion

References

6 Wetlands in the Tidal Freshwater Zone

A. Barendregt, D.F. Whigham, P. Meire, A.H. Baldwin, and S. Van Damme

6.1 Characteristics of Tidal Freshwater Wetlands

6.2 Human Activities

6.2.1 Historical Development

6.2.2 Water Quality Changes

6.3 Biological Variation Within the Freshwater Tidal Ecosystem

6.3.1 Vegetation Zonation

6.3.2 The Vegetation of European Tidal Freshwater Wetlands

6.3.3 The Vegetation of North American Tidal Freshwater Wetlands

6.3.4 Wildlife

6.3.5 Fish Species

6.3.6 Other Biota

6.4 Chemical and Physical Processes: the Wetland as a Filter

6.5 Restoration and Future Outlook

6.5.1 Europe

6.5.2 United States

6.6 Conclusions

References

7 Biodiversity in European Shallow Lakes: a Multilevel—Multifactorial Field Study

L. De Meester, S. Declerck, J.H. Janse, J.J. Dagevos, R. Portielje, E. Lammens, E. Jeppesen, T. Lauridsen, K. Schwenk, K. Muylaert, K. Van der Gucht, W. Vyverman, G. Zwart, E. van Hannen, P.J.T.M. van Puijenbroek, J.M. Conde-Porcuna, P. Sánchez-Castillo, J. Vandekerkhove, and L. Brendonck

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Lake Selection

7.3 Sampling and Analysis

7.4 Lake Characteristics

7.5 Multidimensionality of System-Wide Biodiversity

7.6 Macrophytes and Nutrient Concentrations

7.7 Model and Expert Tools

7.7.1 Approach

7.7.2 PCLake

7.7.3 The Expert System BASIS

7.7.4 Combined Models; and PCLake and BASIS as Management Tools

7.8 Synthesis: Policy Implications of the Results

References

8 River Basin Management to Conserve Wetlands and Water Resources

J. Pitk, B. Lehner, and L. Lifeng

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Systematically Prioritising Wetland Conservation: Freshwater Ecoregion Conservation

8.2.1 Freshwater Ecoregions

8.2.2 Planning Conservation of Freshwater Ecoregions

8.2.3 Rapid Assessment of Watersheds and Landscapes in Data-Short River Basins

8.3 Using Treaties to Conserve Wetlands and River Basin

8.3.1 The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

8.3.2 Convention on Biological Diversity

8.3.3 European Union’s Water Framework Directive

8.4 Poverty Reduction Through Wetlands Conservation

8.4.1 Yangtze River and Dongting Lake

8.4.2 Xipanshanzhou Polder

8.4.3 Quinshan Polder and Lessons Learned

8.5 Conservation and Wise Use of Wetlands: a Regional Partnership Approach

8.5.1 Ramsar Convention and Regional Initiatives

8.5.2 MedWet — The Mediterranean Wetlands Initiative

8.5.3 Great Asian Mountains Wetlands

8.6 Target-Driven Wetland Conservation: Lessons from WWF’s Program FY99—FY04

8.6.1 Target 1: Protect and Sustainably Manage 250×106 ha of Freshwater Ecosystems Worldwide

8.6.2 Target 2: Restore and Conserve Ecological Processes in More Than 50 River or Lake Basins

8.6.3 Target 3: Best Practices in Water management are Adopted in Key Water-Using Sectors

8.7 Conclusion

References

9 Aspects of Adaptive Management of Coastal Wetlands: Case Studies of Processes, Conservation, Restoration, Impacts and Assessment

P.E.R. Dale, M.B. Dale, J. Anorov, J. Knight, M.C. Minno, B. Powell, R.C. Raynie, and J.M. Visser

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Diverse Tools to Identify Processes and Long-Term Changes

9.2.1 Geomorphic Evolution and Vegetation History

9.2.2 Human Modification of Carbrook Wetlands

9.2.3 Conclusion

9.3 Managing for Conservation: Monitoring Ecological Changes in Coastal Wetlands in Northeast Florida, USA

9.3.1 Approach

9.3.2 Environmental Characteristics

9.3.3 Conclusion

9.4 Managing for Restoration: a Multi-Scale Adaptive Approach in Restoring Coastal Wetlands in Louisiana, USA

9.4.1 Approach

9.4.2 Lessons Learned

9.4.3 Program Recommendations

9.4.4 Conclusion

9.5 Managing the Environment to Reduce Insect Pests: a Multivariate Approach to Assess Impacts of Disturbance on Saltmarsh Processes in Subtropical Australia

9.5.1 Approach

9.5.2 Conclusion

9.6 Use of Remote Sensing to Monitor Hydrologic Processes in Mangrove Forests and to Integrate Across the Adaptive Management Framework

9.6.1 Approach

9.6.2 Conclusions

References

Section III: Wetland Restoration and Creation

10 Contrasting Approaches to the Restoration of Diverse Vegetation in Herbaceous Wetlands

A.M. Boers, C.B. Frieswyk, J.T.A. Verhoeven, and J.B. Zedler

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Restoration Contexts

10.2.1 Restoration Targets

10.3 Discouraging Undesirable Species

10.3.1 Undesirable Invaders

10.3.2 Controlling Invasives

10.3.3 Minimizing Eutrophication

10.3.4 Establishing Appropriate Hydrology

10.4 Encouraging Desirable Species

10.4.1 Site Modifications

10.4.2 Natural Recruitment

10.4.3 Sowing Seed

10.4.4 The Decision to Plant

10.4.5 Suitable Sources for Propagules

10.5 Emerging Principles

References

11 Fen Management and Research Perspectives: An Overview

B. Middleton, A. Grootjans, K. Jensen, H. Olde Venterink, and K. Margóczi

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Hydrological Systems of Fens

11.2.1 Large and Small Hydrological Systems

11.2.2 Natural Fens Can Be Very Stable

11.2.3 Hydrochemical Processes Stabilizing the Biodiversity of Fens

11.3 Eutrophication in Fens

11.3.1 Change in Management

11.3.2 Change in Nutrient Budgets

11.3.3 Internal Eutrophication

11.4 Seed Bank and Seed Dispersal

11.4.1 Seed Banks

11.4.2 Seed Dispersal

11.5 Fen Restoration: An Example From Hungary

11.5.1 Introduction

11.5.2 Destruction and Restoration of a Fen System in Hungary

11.5.3 Monitoring and Evaluation of the Created Wetland

11.6 Concluding Remarks

References

12 Social Learning in Wetland Development

E. Van Slobbe, E. D. Morris, N. Röling, R. Torenbeek, K. Broker, and H. Heering

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Socio-Technical Characteristics of Wetlands

12.3 Different Perspectives on Planning

12.4 Social Learning as Part of a Mix of Governance Approaches

12.5 Social Learning in Wetland Development

12.6 Conclusions

References

13 Eco-Hydrological Functioning of the Biebrza Wetlands: Lessons for the Conservation and Restoration of Deteriorated Wetlands

M.J. Wassen, T. Okruszko, I. Kardel, W. Chormanski, D. Swiatek,W. Mioduszewski, W. Bleuten, E.P. Querner, M. El Kahloun, O. Batelaan, and P. Meire

13.1 Introduction

13.2 General Characteristics of the Biebrza Valley

13.2.1 Introduction

13.2.2 Geomorphology, Lithology, and Geo-Hydrology

13.2.3 Vegetation

13.2.4 Birds and Mammals

13.3 Hydrology of the Biebrza Valley

13.3.1 Surface Water: Hydrography and Hydrology

13.3.2 Groundwater

13.3.3 Flooding

13.3.4 Drainage

13.4 Relation Between Hydrology and Vegetation Zoning

13.5 Productivity and Nutrient Limitation of Marsh and Fen Vegetation

13.6 Discussion and Conclusions

References

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