What English Language Teachers Need to Know Volume I: Understanding Learning / Edition 1

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Designed for pre-service teachers and teachers new to the field of ELT, these companion textbooks are organized around the key question: What do teachers need to know and be able to do in order for their students to learn English? All English language teachers need to understand the nature of language and language learning, and with that understanding they need to be able to facilitate student learning.

Volume I, on understanding learning, provides the background information that teachers need to know and be able to use in their classroom:

• the characteristics of the context in which they work

• how English works and how it is learned

• their role in the larger professional sphere of English language education

Volume II, on facilitating learning, covers the three main facets of teaching:

• planning

• instructing

• assessing

The focus throughout is on outcomes, that is, student learning.

The texts work for teachers across different contexts (countries where English is the dominant language, one of the official languages, or taught as a foreign language); different levels (elementary/primary, secondary, college or university, or adult education), and different learning purposes (general English, workplace English, English for academic purposes, or English for specific purposes).

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This relevant and timely textbook is a reminder that as the ESL and EFL population grows, the field of TESOL will have to continue to find innovative ways to educate those who teach them."—Teachers College Record

"Featuring a clear and simple writing style and a reader-friendly layout, this volume in the set gives background on how English is learned and the role of the teacher in the professional field, integrating current research in English teaching, psychology, neuroscience, pedagogy, cultural studies, and linguistics."—Book News

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780415806398
  • Publisher: Taylor & Francis
  • Publication date: 8/31/2010
  • Series: ESL & Applied Linguistics Professional Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Denise E. Murray is Professor Emeritus, Macquarie University, Australia, and Professor Emeritus, San Jose State University .She has taught prospective and in-service ELT teachers for more than 4 decades in Australia, the US, the UK, and Thailand; has developed numerous courses in MA TESOL programs in Australia and the US; has conducted research in this area, and has published her work in 17 books and more than 100 articles in professional journals, as book chapters, or conference proceedings.

MaryAnn Christison is Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Utah, US. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in both the MA and PhD programs. Chrisison has taught pre-service and in-service ELT teachers for more than 3 decades in 26 countries — including India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Peru, Taiwan, China, Colombia, Morocco, and Russia, and has authored and co-authored 16 books, 12 multi-media programs, and 92 articles in professional journals, as book chapters, or in conference proceedings.

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Table of Contents



Part I Identity and Context 1

1 Learner Identities 3

Introduction 4

What is Identity? 5

The Classroom as a Site of Identity Formation 10

Conclusion 13

Questions for Discussion 13

Note 14

References 14

2 The World of English 16

Introduction 16

Language Variation 17

Who is a Native Speaker? 20

The Legacy of Colonialism 22

Nonnative: English-speaking Teachers (NNESTs) 23

Conclusion 26

Questions for Discussion 26

Notes 26

References 27

3 English Language Learning Around the World 29

Introduction 30

The Inner Circle 30

The Outer and Expanding Circles 36

Conclusion 40

Questions for Discussion 40

Notes 40

References 40

4 The Cultural Context 43

Introduction 44

What is Culture? 44

Roles of Teachers and Learners 49

Conclusion 51

Questions for Discussion 52

Notes 52

References 52

5 Learning about Identity and Setting 54

Introduction 55

Getting to Know the Institution 56

Getting to Know the Community 59

The Classroom as a Resource 63

Conclusion 66

Questions for Discussion 67

Notes 67

References 67

Part II Language Awareness 69

6 The Sound System 71

Introduction 72

The International Phonetic Alphabet 73

Articulatory Phonetics 75

Describing Consonants 75

Describing Vowels 81

Suprasegmental Features 83

Phonology 86

Conclusion 88

Questions for Discussion 88

Note 89

References 89

7 The System of Words 90

Introduction 91

Language Families 92

The History of English 93

Classifying Morphemes and Words 97

Morphology and English Spelling 100

Morphological Typology 101

How New Words are Created 101

Conclusion 103

Questions for Discussion 103

Notes 103

References 104

8 The Sentence System 105

Introduction 105

Subconscious Knowledge 107

Sentence Classification and Construction 108

The Meaning of Sentences 110

Voice 112

Parts of Speech or Lexical Categories 112

Phrases 117

Other Types of Clauses 119

Conclusion 119

Questions for Discussion 120

References 120

9 Beyond the Sentence: Spoken and Written Language 121

Introduction 122

Spoken and Written Language Differences and Similarities 123

Spoken Language 127

Written Language 132

Conclusion 134

Note 134

References 134

Part III Learning 137

10 Theories of Learning 139

Introduction 140

Transfer of Learning 142

Modeling 144

Chunking 145

Principles of Learning 146

Conclusion 149

Questions for Discussion 150

Notes 150

References 150

11 An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition 153

Introduction 153

Key Historical Developments/in SLA 155

First Language (L1) Acquisition 161

Universal Grammar 162

Conclusion 165

Questions for Discussion 166

Notes 166

References 166

12 Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Pedagogy 169

Introduction 169

Methods of Researching Language Learning in Classrooms 170

Areas of Investigation in Pedagogical Research 171

Attitude 175

Motivation 176

Conclusion 177

Questions for Discussion 178

Notes 178

References 178

13 Learning Theories in the Classroom 182

Introduction 183

Learning Strategies 183

Preferred Ways of Learning 184

Learning and Intelligence 188

Cooperative Learning 190

Conclusion 192

Questions for Discussion 192

Notes 192

References 193

Part IV Professionalism 195

14 Sustaining Professionalism 197

Introduction 198

Issues in Sustaining Professional Development 199

Traditional Approaches to Professional Development 200

Reflective Approaches to Professional Development 202

Volunteerism 206

Advocacy 208

Learning About Leadership 209

Conclusion 210

Questions for Discussion 213

Note 214

References 214

Index 217

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