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In What Has Athens to Do with Jerusalem?, Jaroslav Pelikan examines the origins of this counterpoint. He reviews the central philosophical issues of origins as posed in classical Rome by Lucretius, and he then proceeds to an examination of Timaeus and Genesis, with Timaeus' Plato representing Athens and Genesis' Moses representing Jerusalem. He then follows the three most important case studies of the counterpoint--in the Jewish philosophical theology of Alexandria, in the Christian thought of Constantinople, and in the intellectual foundations of the Western Middles Ages represented by Catholic Rome, where Timaeus would be the only Platonic dialogue in general circulation.
Whatever Plato may have intended originally in writing Timaeus, it has for most of the intervening period been read in the light of Genesis. Conversely, Genesis has been known, not in the original Hebrew, but in Greek and Latin translations that were seen to bear a distinct resemblance to one another and to the Latin version of Timaeus. Pelikan's study leads to original findings that deal with Christian doctrine in the period of the church fathers, including the Three Cappadocians (Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa) in the East, and in the West, Ambrose, Augustine, and Boethius. All of these vitally important authors addressed the problem of the "counterpoint," and neither they nor these primary texts can become fully intelligible without attention to the central issues being explored here.
What Has Athens to Do with Jerusalem? will be of interest to historians, theologians, and philosophers and to anyone with interest in any of the religious traditions addressed herein.
Jaroslav Pelikan is Sterling Professor Emeritus of History, Yale University and President of The American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
|A Note on Translations|
|I||Classical Rome: "Description of the Universe" (Timaeus 90E) as Philosophy||1|
|II||Athens: Geneseos Arche as "The Principle of Becoming" (Timaeus 29D-E)||23|
|III||Jerusalem: Genesis as a "Likely Account" (Timaeus 29D) of One God Almighty Maker||45|
|IV||Alexandria: The God of Genesis as "Maker and Father" (Timaeus 28C)||67|
|V||New Rome: Christ as "God Made Perceptible to the Senses," "Only-Begotten God," and "Image of the God Apprehensible Only to the Mind" (Timaeus 92C)||89|
|VI||Catholic Rome: The Trinity as "Source, Guide, and Goal" (Timaeus 27C-42D)||111|