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One of the great masters of the 19th-century novel, Tolstoy created a sweeping epic in War and Peace which folds together huge events in history and politics with the emotional lives of individuals. But it was his deeply spiritual outlook that made him an icon.
Count Leo Tolstoy was born in 1828 on the family estate of Yasnaya Polyana, in the Tula province, where he spent most of his early years, together with his several brothers. In 1844 he entered the University of Kazan to read Oriental Languages and later Law, but left before completing a degree. He spent the following years in a round of drinking, gambling and womanizing, until weary of his idle existence he joined an artillery regiment in the Caucasus in 1851.
He took part in the Crimean war and after the defence of Sevastopol wrote The Sevastopol Sketches (1855-6), which established his literary reputation. After leaving the army in 1856 Tolstoy spent some time mixing with the literati in St Petersburg before traveling abroad and then settling at Yasnaya Polyana, where he involved himself in the running of peasant schools and the emancipation of the serfs. His marriage to Sofya Andreyevna Behrs in 1862 marked the beginning of a period of contentment centred around family life; they had thirteen children. Tolstoy managed his vast estates, continued his educational projects, cared for his peasants and wrote both his great novels, War and Peace (1869) and Anna Karenina (1877).
During the 1870s he underwent a spiritual crisis, the moral and religious ideas that had always dogged him coming to the fore. A Confession (1879–82) marked an outward change in his life and works; he became an extreme rationalist and moralist, and in a series of pamphlets written after 1880 he rejected church and state, indicted the demands of flesh, and denounced private property. His teachings earned him numerous followers in Russia and abroad, and also led finally to his excommunication by the Russian Holy Synod in 1901. In 1910 at the age of eighty-two he fled from home "leaving this worldly life in order to live out my last days in peace and solitude;" he died some days later at the station master's house at Astapovo.
find his happiness in obeying it. It may be said that it is foolish; that, as unbelievers pretend, Jesus was a visionary, an idealist, whose impracticable rules were only followed because of the stupidity of his / disciples. But it is impossible not to admit that Jesus did say very clearly and definitely that which he intended to say: namely, that men should not resist evil; and that therefore he who accepts his' teaching cannot resist. Nevertheless, neither believers, nor unbelievers, understand these words of Jesus in this clear and simple sense. / CHAPTER II THE CENTRAL DOCTRINE When I understood that the words, " Resist not Evil," mean Resist not Evil, all my previous ideas of Christ's meaning were suddenly changed; and I was terrified, not so much at my former ignorance of his teaching as at the strange misinterpretation which had been mine. I knew, we all know, that the essence of Christianity is love. To say, "Turn the other cheek to the smiter, Love your enemies," is to express the vital principle of Christianity. I had known this from childhood; but why had I not understood these simple words simplywithout seeking in them an allegorical sense ? " Resist not evil," means "Resist not evil at any time"; that is to say, " Never employ force, never do what is con- trary to--love; antl"lfinen still' offend you, put up with the offence; employ no force against force." It would be impossible to speak more clearly and simply than this. How, then, could I, believing as I believed, or at least endeavoured to believe, that he who thus spoke is God — how could I have ever said that to carry this out is above my strength, is impossible? The mastersayjL t.n..mi . .'.'fj-n andcut wood,", and I answerTrrTcaiuiofr do it of my. unaided strength." Saying this I meaa- oe-afLij£ot...