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How the Savvy Owner Starts a Project
This chapter takes the broad view of the project and answers a lot of important questions. What's your job as an owner? Is your project feasible?
Is the money in place? Whom will you encounter? How do you keep control of this project?
The Mind-Set: How to Approach a Project
The Players List: The People Who Will Be on Your Team
A Gleam in Your Eye: Can You Build?
Don't Bank On It: Is Your Loan Officer Your Ally?
The Scary Money: Down Payments
If you find a path with no obstacles, it probably doesn't lead anywhere. -Frank Clark
The Mind-Set: How to Approach a Project
I see construction projects as being made up of five elements: the existing building or site where the construction will take place, the owner, the designs, the contractor, and the budget. I have come to expect that, on average, two of these things will pose big challenges. More than that and I'm in trouble. Fewer than that and I'm in heaven, but I have been on only one perfect project in my life. No one could believe it. We all just kept basking in our own glow and saying how much we loved each other. There must have been something in the water.
You, the owner, are the fulcrum around which your project revolves. You have the money and the dream. You are the final arbiter of the form and function of the design. You will monitor the execution of that design and live with the results. You will also rely on others along the way. You will provide the money, but it will likely flow through a loan officer and appraiser. You have the dream, but an architect or designer might shape it and then convey it to a contractor. You will watch the construction, but it will be done by a team under the contractor you hire.
You're about to enter into several new relationships, and there's a lot of your hard-earned money at stake. You will make hundreds of decisions and maybe a few mistakes. You will learn more than you can imagine right now. You must navigate through risk and guard against those who are incompetent or may seek to take advantage of you. It's a big undertaking and a lot of responsibility. Try to embrace it and be proactive. Educate yourself about the tasks ahead and how you'll lead this group to achieve your goals. Do this and you will not only get the end result you hope for, you will also be that rarest of creatures-the savvy owner who's an indispensable asset to the project.
If they had one, the professionals' mantra to make this all work would be "foresight good, hindsight bad" as they approach each task that will make their projects secure. They manage the owner's risk by defining as many things as possible up front. They do their best to make sure that each project will be financially, aesthetically, structurally, and emotionally sound for all parties involved. And you can do that too.
THERE ARE NO COINCIDENCES
I have yet to hear about either a great project or a terrible project that happened by dumb luck. When people regale me with horror stories of their home construction projects, I bite my tongue and offer sympathy, but where they went wrong is evident in under a minute. What a nice surprise, then, when I met a woman whose building project was a job well done. It was no coincidence either-just less common an outcome.
I was introduced to her at a party. The host told me she and her husband had built a great house. He explained to her that I was writing a book on that very topic. To that she said kind of sheepishly, "Well, I'm sure we did it all wrong."
I asked, "Are you happy with the house?"
"We love it," she said. "We've been in it for a year and wouldn't change a thing."
I said, "Well, then, you must have done something right."
"We had a great contractor," she said. "And how'd you find him?"
"We'd been thinking and dreaming about building a house for almost ten years. We live in a small town with only three contractors who are really appropriate for that kind of work. So every time one of them finished a project similar to what we were planning, we contacted the owners and talked to them about it. We ended up dropping one of them from consideration. When it came time to build, we interviewed the other two and chose the one that seemed more in sync with us."
"Sounds perfect so far. And what about your designs?" I asked.
She said, sounding more confident now, "We drove around a lot, took lots of pictures, and jotted down things we liked about a bunch of houses. Then we started looking at those house plan magazines. We ended up buying a set of plans for about $500, took them to a local architect, and he made some minor changes. He offered to come supervise the work every other week and answer questions by phone. He was a great bargain, really. We couldn't have done it without him, or our lawyer either. She drew up our contracts with the architect and builder, but kept the cost down by starting with stock contracts. It was crazy once the work started, but we liked the guys on the crew. We had some problems with the plumber, but the contractor straightened him out. We all met with the architect every other week, but my husband and I were there almost every day."
"Did your budget hold up?" I asked.
"We did pretty well. The plans were complete, so there were no surprises with that, but once the framing was up, we made a couple changes. We widened a hallway and moved a closet in my daughter's bedroom because it was blocking the light."
"And you love it?" I said. "Yup, we just love it." She beamed. "And was the contractor at the housewarming party?" "He was the belle of the ball!" she said. "He was so proud of the place, and he's gotten other work from it since."
I told her she and her husband had managed the perfect project. So what exactly did this couple do right?
They educated themselves before each step in the process.
They gave great thought to what they wanted and needed.
They researched other homes and used periodicals to find the design elements that suited those needs and wants.
They got very detailed plans at a bargain price.
They weighed their risks and benefits and chose only the most valuable services they needed from an architect.
They called contractor references.
They interviewed contractors.
They had a contract with the builder and didn't reinvent the wheel doing it.
They were a constant presence on their own project.
They monitored what was built and made the necessary changes to get it just right.
They were social with the crew members but let the contractor supervise his people and solve problems.
I'm sure if I'd pumped her for more information, I would have found they had a sound budget, insurance, and meeting notes too!
The Players List:
The People Who Will Be on Your Team
You will be amazed by the number of people you come in contact with over the course of a construction project. Some you will employ, some you will answer to, some you will befriend, and some you might rather live without. As you read through this list of players and their roles, keep in mind how your current definition of your own role may change and expand. Like they say, where you sit is where you stand.
The owner is you, the one who requests, monitors, pays for, and lives with the work done. From the point of view of others on this list, the owner also includes your budget, your family and friends, your kids and pets, your competency, your availability, and your attitude.
Loan officer: processes your construction loan and mortgage.
Appraiser: determines the value of construction work planned and later completed.
Staff members of the town clerk's office, the Planning and Zoning Department, and the Public Works Department: assist you in getting through the permit process.
Members of the boards of design review and planning and zoning: review your project for appropriateness and compliance with town ordinances.
The architect is a designer of buildings who is licensed to practice in your state and provide stamped drawings. Members of an architectural firm may include:
Principals: partners in the firm.
Associates: employee architects.
Draftspeople: those who turn ideas into blueprints for your project.
Office personnel: administrative workers who will call you for appointments or send you things.
These are designers licensed in your state to provide stamped drawings on specific aspects of the project.
Civil engineer: addresses the site.
Structural engineer: addresses the structure of a building.
Electrical engineer: addresses electrical systems.
Mechanical engineer: addresses plumbing, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems.
This is the designer of terrain and exterior architecture.
Whether working for you, an architect, or a contractor, this person reviews your plans and prices the work.
This is a very broad term meaning anyone who designs. Find out what meaning this service provider is giving that title, and consider what it means to you. While an architect is a designer, a "designer" is likely not an architect. This person may or may not have any credentials and is not a licensed architect. Of course, it's fine to use a designer's services, but keep in mind that a designer is to an architect what a homeopath is to an AMA board-certified physician.
This is a designer who creates the finished look of the space, including colors, furnishings, and window treatments. The decorator is often brought in early in a project to specify materials that will be installed by the contractor, like cabinetry, plumbing and electrical fixtures, flooring materials, and paint colors.
This person measures land to determine its location, volume, form, and boundaries.
There are several outfits that specialize in testing different things related to buildings. You may be required to perform a perk test for drainage, or a soil test for contamination. You can have the concrete for your foundation tested to ensure it meets density standards. You may be renovating an older home and want the old furnace and pipes tested for asbestos or the paint tested for lead.
CLERK OF THE WORKS
This person is the eyes and ears of someone who wants the project monitored from a technical perspective. The "clerk" can be hired by you, an architect, the bank, even the contractor- anyone with a vested interest in ensuring that things are built according to the plans and a record be kept. Clerks are rare on residential jobs, but they don't charge a lot for the service they give, so just know they are an option for you.
This title can be confusing, since people in several jobs use it. (1) A construction manager (CM) is like a clerk in that he can monitor the project, but he usually has much more authority and responsibility. A CM representing owners could guide them through all facets of a project from design review and cost estimating to construction completion. (2) More commonly called a project manager, a CM employed by a general contractor provides the same services on the general contractor's behalf. (3) Architects may employ a CM to provide monitoring services during the construction phase. (4) CM is the title of a contractor working under the contract structure called construction management.
A builder who works under contract is a contractor. A general contractor is a builder who coordinates other workers, sub-contractors, and suppliers involved in a construction project. He is the ringleader responsible for the labor and materials for his crew and all those it takes to get the job done. Depending on the size of his company, the people who work directly for him are:
Superintendent (super) or foreman: on-site person coordinating the project, managing the crews, interpreting the plans, ordering materials, setting the pace. He is the owner's on-site link to the contractor.
Carpenters: the folks swinging the hammers. "Framers" do rough carpentry, and "finish carpenters" do things like building a mantel for your fireplace.
Laborers: the foot soldiers of the site. Their work is unglamorous but essential. They are the gofers, the cleanup crew, the heavy lifters, and the extra set of hands. They are often hired on a job-by-job basis and are not long-term employees of the general contractor.
Office personnel: administrative workers, bookkeepers, receptionists.
It is imperative to know that in many small companies, there is only one administrative person: the spouse of the contractor who is carrying out your project.
These are non-general contractors who specialize in specific trades. They are called subcontractors because their work is often part of a larger contract, in which case they work "under" a general contractor.
Excavators: operate heavy equipment like backhoes and bulldozers to dig foundations, install septic systems, and shape the land.
Masons: lay brick, block, stone, and tile to create structural work like block walls and chimneys, as well as finish work like fireplace hearths and walkways. If it involves mortar, chances are it's a mason doing it.
Roofers: apply the four layers to the top of the house that make a roof: sheathing, felt paper, metal flashing, and shingles, or tile, membrane, standing-seam metal, etc.
Ramers: do the rough carpentry using dimensional lumber such as 2" 6"s to create the studs and rafters that are the skeleton of your building project.
Electricians: install everything that uses electricity, including electrical panel, electrical wire, light fixtures, thermostats, alarm system, even phone lines and fiber-optic wire.
Plumbers: install everything that uses water, including sinks, tubs, showers, toilets, water meters, and water-flow restrictors, along with incoming water pipes and outgoing drain pipes.
Mechanical subcontractors: install heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Many companies provide both plumbing and mechanical services.
Sheetrockers: install or "hang" Sheetrock (drywall, gypsum board). They apply tape over the edges that butt together, using three coats of compound, which is sanded smooth to appear invisible once painted.
Painters: prepare and paint surfaces. In renovation work, their preparation ("prep") work can be the bulk of their job and includes sanding, burning off old paint, lead-paint abatement, and/or priming.
Excerpted from What the "Experts" May Not Tell You About Building or Renovating Your Home by Amy Johnston Copyright © 2004 by Amy Johnston. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
|Introduction: Building from Smart to Finish||xiii|
|Chapter 1||Ready, Set, Think: How the Savvy Owner Starts a Project||1|
|The Mind-Set: How to Approach a Project||1|
|The Players List: The People Who Will Be on Your Team||5|
|A Gleam in Your Eye: Can You Build?||11|
|Don't Bank On It: Is Your Loan Officer Your Ally?||12|
|The Scary Money: Down Payments||17|
|Chapter 2||The Plan Is the Thing: Making a Successful Project||18|
|Task-Oriented: Your To-Do List||18|
|Getting What You Need: How to Approach Your Design||19|
|Sneaking Up On Your Design: Do's and Don'ts to Get You Started||24|
|What's It Worth to You? Money and Design||27|
|Beyond Eenie, Meenie, Miney, Mo: A Formula for Balanced Choices||29|
|A House United: Working Together as a Couple||30|
|Chapter 3||Design as a Noun: Refining and Conveying Your Vision||33|
|Decisions, Decisions: Your Design||33|
|Conveying Your Decisions: Construction Documents||34|
|Building In Flexibility: Allowances, Unit Pricing and Alternate Pricing||38|
|Chapter 4||Help with Your Vision: When and How to Employ an Architect||41|
|Do You Need a Professional? Considering an Architect||41|
|The Yin to Your Yang: The Right Architect for You||49|
|Everyone Pick Up Your #2 Pencils: Working with an Architect||59|
|Chapter 5||Bang for the Buck and the Sixteen Divisions: What Can You Have and What Should You Worry About?||63|
|Divide and Conquer: The Sweet Sixteen Divisions||63|
|The Devil's in the Details: Where to Focus Your Attention and Money||65|
|And Another Thing: Considerations When Determining Materials and Scope of Work||95|
|Chapter 6||And the Grand Total Is ...: Cost Estimating and the Budget||100|
|Follow the Money: How It Works on a Construction Project||100|
|Where'd You Get That Number? Four Methods of Cost Estimating||102|
|Crunching Their Numbers: Assessing a Cost Estimate||106|
|It's Alive! Your Budget as a Living Document||109|
|Chapter 7||Setting Up Your Deal: Contract Structures||117|
|Who Knew You Had a Choice? Options for Contract Structures||117|
|Chapter 8||The Second Oldest Profession: Selecting and Working with a Contractor||127|
|He Was Such a Nice Guy: Choosing More Wisely||127|
|Welcome to His World: Working with a Contractor||137|
|To Protect and Serve: Protecting Your Project and Serving Your Contractor||140|
|Chapter 9||How Low Can They Go? Bidding the Project||149|
|You Talkin' to Me? Should You Bid Your Project?||149|
|Package Deal: Getting Your Bid Package Together--the Four Elements||151|
|Going Out: What You and They Need to Do--the Four Stages||156|
|Chapter 10||Cover Your Assets: Contracts, Insurance, Liens, and Other Commitments||168|
|If You Only Knew: Where Laypeople Go Wrong||168|
|Whose to Use? Construction Contracts||169|
|Don't Build Home Without It: Must-Haves||175|
|It Couldn't Hurt: Optional Additional Protection||187|
|Chapter 11||Believe It! Time Really Is Money: Schedules||192|
|Ticktock: How Time = Money on a Construction Project||192|
|More Than One Way to Tell Time: Types of Schedules||195|
|What Was That Other Thing? Additional Things to Track||202|
|Chapter 12||Mother, May I? Getting Through the Permit Process||204|
|Nothing to Fear: Knowing the Process and Its Players||204|
|People Pleasing: The Steps for Permit Approval||209|
|Good to Go: Once You've Got the Permit||217|
|Step Lightly: Making Changes to the Neighborhood||218|
|Chapter 13||Ready to Build? ... Not So Fast: Pulling It All Together||220|
|Just Like Santa: Make a List and Check It Twice||220|
|Long Time No See: The Preconstruction Meeting||221|
|Ensurance: Make Sure These Things Are Done||225|
|When Are They Leaving?! Renovation Tips||226|
|Chapter 14||Let the Games Begin: Managing the Construction Phase||232|
|Who's on First: Establishing the Roles and Rules for All||232|
|Watching the Store: Monitoring the Project||240|
|For Richer or Poorer: Budget Management||249|
|The Homestretch: Project Closeout||265|
|Talk the Talk: A Glossary of Terms||271|
|Inspirations: Other Resources||284|
Posted January 26, 2007
Thank you Amy! You are a true innovator! 'What the 'Experts' may not tell you about...building or renovating your home' was extremely educational. This book is the pirate ship in the yatch club. The issues that need to be addressed are in this well written and strategically laid out renovation guide. After reading this book I feel that I know have the education I need to avoid many home renovation pitfalls.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted January 27, 2006
Ms. Johnston's book does not provide head-spinning technical information, rather it is a project management guide for the general public. We have found valuable advice that is easy to absorb through a clear, concise, step-by-step format. We are first time home builders with a project taking place 1000 miles from our current residence. The understanding of the construction process gained from this book has served us well. There have been a few times in our project to date that we have impressed the industry professionals and our confidence to complete our project on-time and on-budget is sound. This book is a true bargain when measured against the costs and anxiety of home building and renovation!Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted November 23, 2005
Calling all people concerned in the building industry - Architects, Designers, through Realtors.....alert your clients to this book....you and they will be richly rewardedWas this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted July 21, 2005
After reading just about every construction book available, I stumbled across this one. It is the most important investment that you will make in your home. Amy Johnston details the steps in your construction project from an insider's perspective. She provides invaluable advice in selecting and working with contractors in a down-to-earth manner. The book includes anecdotes and personal experiences, and reads like a novel while providing you with fundamental information for your project. Make sure to have a pen handy while you read, because you're likely to want to take notes, or at least dog ear all the important pages!Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted June 14, 2005
The author presents valuable notes and cautions highlighted for clients as 'Insider Tips' or 'Pitfalls.' The strategies and educational pointers are worth many times the cost of the book. The glossary of building terms and their definitions could become a book all by themselves. The book is very informative without being preachy, boring, or bashing. There are a lot of excellent sections covering the many facets of preparing to build or renovate. With the costs of housing skyrocketing in the USA, this book is a nice consumer protection item for anyone considering building from scratch or fixing-up their current nest!Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted August 8, 2005
This book is an indispensable resource. It is appropriate for home remodels, new home builders, developers, and anyone getting started in the construction business. Read it and you will be able to converse professionally with architects, engineers, builders, and subcontractors. This is not a technical book on how to frame a house or plumb a bathroom. Rather, it gives you an insight into the construction process and a game plan to make sure that you are ready to deal with construction professionals. Amy Johnston's checklists and recommendations for various parts of the process are spot on. Follow her guidance and you will save thousands in time and money and navigate your way through the construction process with confidence.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted May 26, 2004
Out of all the renovating and 'how to' manuals I poured over when redoing my home, this was by far the most comprehensive and helpful of them all. It is easy to read and takes you step-by-step through the process. Thanks so much!Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted July 19, 2004
Posted April 3, 2004
This book is the very best investment for anyone planning to remodel or build a home.You should read this prior to signing any contracts with architects,rennovators or building contractors and save yourself money and headaches that invariably accompany such projects even when dealing with the best and most honest contractors.The book takes you clearly and fully thru all of the issues involved in contract arrangements and guides you in coping with all aspects of the project.It will show you how to avoid the many pit falls and horror stories we have all either heard about or experienced. This is one 'How To'guide that delivers as promised.A few dollars invested here could literally save you thousands and give you results you desire while maintaining a good working relationship and understanding with your contractor.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.