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What should your child learn in the third grade? How can you help him or her at home? This book answers these important questions and more, offering the specific shared knowledge that thousands of parents and teachers across the nation have agreed upon for American third graders. Featuring 16 pages of full-color illustrations, a bolder, easier-to-follow format, and a thoroughly ...
What should your child learn in the third grade? How can you help him or her at home? This book answers these important questions and more, offering the specific shared knowledge that thousands of parents and teachers across the nation have agreed upon for American third graders. Featuring 16 pages of full-color illustrations, a bolder, easier-to-follow format, and a thoroughly updated curriculum, What Your Third Grader Needs to Know, Revised Edition is designed for parents and teachers to enjoy with children.
Hundreds of thousands of children have benefited from the Core Knowledge Series. This revised edition gives a new generation of third graders the advantage they need to make progress in school today, and to establish an approach to learning that will last a lifetime.
• Favorite Poems, old and new, from the traditional Mother Goose rhyme "For Want of Nail" to Lewis Carroll's whimsical poem "The Crocodile"
• Literature from around the world, including Native American stories, African folktales, European fairy tales, classic myths from ancient Greece, stories from ancient Rome, and more
• Learning About Language--the basics of written English, including sentence structure, parts of speech, and a first look at writing a report or letter
• World and American History and Geography--journey down the great rivers of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia, visit ancient Rome, and experience the earliest days of America with the Pilgrims and Native Americans
• Visual Arts--an introduction to masterworks by Rembrandt, Henri Matisse, Mary Cassatt, and others, with full-color reproductions and fun, do-it-yourself activities
• Music--the basics of appreciating, reading, and making music, plus great composers, instruments, and sing-along lyrics for songs such as "A Bicycle Built for Two" and "He's Got the Whole World in His Hands"
• Math--stimulating lessons ranging from counting money to solving division problems, numbers through 100,000, graphs, and the metric system
• Science--fascinating discussions on the natural world, the cycles of life, the human body and its systems, pollution, and the environment---with accompanying activities and stories about famous scientists such as Copernicus and Alexander Graham Bell.
The best way to nurture your child's reading and writing abilities is to provide rich literary experiences and find frequent and varied opportunities to work and play with language.
By the end of second grade, children have developed a reading vocabulary of familiar words and can decode the letter-sound patterns of many unfamiliar one- and two- syllable words. During third grade, as they increase their knowledge about words (including the concepts of syllables, prefixes, and suffixes), they put that knowledge to work, decoding unfamiliar multisyllabic words. If a child has not mastered the skill of decoding simple words, that practice should continue.
By third grade, the mental process of turning letters into sounds should be nearly automatic. This year, children focus more on meaning as they read. Their reading vocabulary expands tremendously, as does their ability to read longer and more complex literature. They read for information and begin to use nonfiction reference books like children's dictionaries and encyclopedias. They learn the distinction between fiction and nonfiction, and they read and enjoy longer and more complicated "chapter books."
In third grade, children continue to learn about language as they write it: identifying parts of speech, properly using punctuation, and recognizing sentence types. They begin to shape their own writing, understanding how paragraphs relate in a larger whole and exerting more control over vocabulary and structure.
Parents can do many things to help their children reach these new levels of understanding language:
Read aloud to your child. While third graders are beginning to read on their own, they also still enjoy listening. Continue reading aloud, both fiction and nonfiction, even as your child becomes an independent reader.
Have your child read aloud to you.
Visit the library with your child.
Encourage your child to write letters or keep a journal.
Play word games with your child. Scrabble, Hangman, Boggle, and other popular games that involve spelling, word recognition, and vocabulary development combine fun with language facility.
Find language wherever you go. Use road signs, advertising, magazines--the written word all around you--to keep your child thinking and talking about language.
Support your child's interests through reading. When your child shows an interest in something special-insects or baseball, Davy Crockett or ballet-go together to the library to find more to read on that subject.
The more a child reads and writes, the more fluent in language that child becomes. By using these strategies, you communicate the enjoyment of reading and writing and you help build the foundation for learning that will last a lifetime.
The American Heritage First Dictionary (Houghton Mifflin). Simple words, clear definitions, and ample visuals provide a helpful introduction to how a dictionary works.
E. D. Hirsch, Jr., A First Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Houghton Mifflin). Some entries may be difficult for a third grader, but this book can serve as a single-volume encyclopedia of American culture.
Macmillan Dictionary for Children (Simon & Schuster). This dictionary offers 35,000 expanded entries with easy-to-read pronunciations, synonym lists, and color illustrations.
The World Book Student Discovery Encyclopedia (World Book Inc.). This multivolume reference is structured like a standard encyclopedia but designed and written so third graders can look things up and read entries easily.
Educators Publishing Service (EPS) is a mail-order company with good teacher-created resources including basic phonics, spelling, vocabulary development, reading comprehension, grammar, and composition skills. Write to EPS, 31 Smith Place, Cambridge, MA 02138-1089, call 800-435-7728, or visit www.epsbooks.com.
This selection of poetry, stories, and myths can be read aloud or, in many cases, read independently by third graders. We hope you'll take it as a starting point in your search for more literature for your child to read and enjoy.
We have included both traditional and modern poetry. Poems can be silly, written for the sheer enjoyment of rhythm and rhyme, or they can be serious. Rhythm and rhyme make poetry the perfect literature for a third grader to memorize.
The stories selected here include classic folktales from many cultures and excerpts from great works of children's literature. Some of them have been chosen as literary links to topics elsewhere in the book. In the case of book-length works, we can provide only short excerpts, hoping that you and your child will read the rest on your own.
This book continues the effort, begun in previous books, to share the wealth of classical mythology. Since third graders learn about ancient Rome, several myths were chosen to convey a sense of Roman history. Likewise we offer some Norse mythology. Parents can coordinate readings about literature and history. Age-old myths also give parents the opportunity to discuss traditional virtues such as friendship, courage, and honesty.
For a frequently updated list of recommended children's books thematically linked to the subjects offered in this book and others in the Core Knowledge Series, consult Resources to Build On on the Core Knowledge Foundation Web site, at www.coreknowledge.org.
Favorite Poems Old and New, selected by Helen Ferris (Doubleday). One volume with more than seven hundred poems, including many perennial favorites.
William F. Russell, Classic Myths to Read Aloud (Crown Publishers). This book retells Greek and Roman myths in language with a suitably old-fashioned feel.
Spider, Cricket, and Muse. Colorful magazines, with intelligent material, that give children plenty of good monthly reading experiences with no advertising. Spider, for children aged six to nine, and Cricket, for children aged nine to fourteen, include stories, activities, and puzzles. Muse, sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution, offers science articles for children aged eight to fourteen. To subscribe to any of these, write the Cricket Magazine Group, Box 7499, Red Oak, IA 51591, call (800) 827-0227, or visit www.cricketmag.com.
|Introduction to the Revised Edition||xxi|
|General Introduction to the Core Knowledge Series||xxiii|
|I.||Language and Literature|
|Reading, Writing, and Your Third Grader||3|
|Adventures of Isabel||6|
|Catch a Little Rhyme||8|
|For Want of a Nail||11|
|Jimmy Jet and His TV Set||12|
|First Thanksgiving of All||13|
|Alice's Adventures in Wonderland||16|
|Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp||21|
|Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves||25|
|The Hunting of the Great Bear||29|
|Gone Is Gone||32|
|The Little Match Girl||34|
|The People Could Fly||36|
|Three Words of Wisdom||38|
|The River Bank||41|
|Gods, Heroes, and Tricksters from Scandinavia||44|
|Norse Gods and Goddesses||44|
|The World Tree and the End of the World||45|
|Loki and the Gifts for the Gods||45|
|Myths from Ancient Greece and Rome||47|
|Jason and the Golden Fleece||47|
|Perseus and Medusa||49|
|Cupid and Psyche||51|
|The Sword of Damocles||53|
|Damon and Pythias||53|
|Androcles and the Lion||55|
|Horatius at the Bridge||56|
|Learning About Literature||58|
|Biography and Autobiography||58|
|Fiction and Nonfiction||58|
|Sayings and Phrases||59|
|Actions speak louder than words||59|
|His bark is worse than his bite||59|
|Beat around the bush||59|
|Beggars can't be choosers||60|
|Clean bill of health||60|
|A feather in your cap||60|
|Let bygones be bygones||61|
|One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel||61|
|On its last legs||61|
|Rule the roost||62|
|The show must go on||62|
|Touch and go||62|
|When in Rome, do as the Romans do||62|
|Learning About Language||63|
|Let's Write a Report||63|
|Let's Write a Letter||65|
|What's a Sentence?||65|
|What Kind of Sentence Is It?||67|
|Parts of Speech||67|
|More About Verbs||70|
|Just Say No Once||71|
|Prefixes and Suffixes||72|
|They Sound Alike, but They're Different||73|
|Shorten Up with Abbreviations||74|
|II.||Geography and History|
|Look at the Legend||79|
|Great Rivers of the World||79|
|Rivers of Asia||81|
|Rivers of Africa||83|
|Rivers of Europe||84|
|Rivers of Australia||84|
|Rivers of South America||85|
|Rivers of North America||86|
|The Legend of How Rome Began||89|
|Religion, Roman Style||90|
|Rome's Powerful Location||91|
|Rome's Early Republic||91|
|Who's Got Class?||92|
|Rome and Its Provinces||92|
|Hannibal Keeps His Promise||95|
|The Final Defeat of Carthage||96|
|All Roads Lead to Rome||96|
|Julius Caesar Shows the Pirates Who's Boss||97|
|Pompey, Caesar's Rival||98|
|Crossing the Rubicon||98|
|Caesar Meets Cleopatra||99|
|Pride Comes Before a Fall||100|
|All for Love--and Power||100|
|Octavian Becomes Augustus Caesar||101|
|Downtown in the Roman Empire||103|
|Where's the Spaghetti?||104|
|Roman Sports: Play at Your Own Risk||105|
|Let's Go to the Races!||106|
|Pompeii: A City Frozen in Time||107|
|A Long Line of Emperors||109|
|Nero: Not a Hero||109|
|Christians During the Days of Ancient Rome||110|
|The Beginning of the End for the Empire||111|
|Constantine Sees a Burning Cross||111|
|Constantinople: A City Full of Art||112|
|The Fall of the Roman Empire||112|
|Justinian's Code: A Gift from the Byzantine Empire||114|
|The Vikings: Raiders and Traders from the North||114|
|The Long, Dark Winter Night||114|
|Who Were the Vikings?||116|
|Good Guys or Bad Guys?||116|
|Men of the Sea||117|
|Eric the Red||118|
|Leif the Lucky||118|
|Crossing the Land Bridge||120|
|The Mound Builders||122|
|Cliff Dwellers: The Anasazi||123|
|The Pueblo People||123|
|The Apaches and the Navajos||124|
|Eastern Woodland Peoples||126|
|A Day with Little Thunder||126|
|The Day's Work||127|
|Let the Games Begin||129|
|The Chief Sachem Speaks||129|
|Early Explorers in North America||130|
|A "New World" for Europeans||130|
|A Fountain of Youth?||131|
|De Soto's Cruel Quest||132|
|The First Lasting European Settlement||133|
|In Search of the Cities of Gold||134|
|Seeking a Northwest Passage||136|
|The Sad Story of Henry Hudson||137|
|Fur Trade in New France||139|
|English Colonies in North America||140|
|Jamestown: Dreaming Big||142|
|Smith Lays Down the Law||142|
|The Powhatans and the English||144|
|The Starving Time||145|
|A Cash Crop||146|
|Ladies and Laws||146|
|The Arrival of the Africans||146|
|The Pilgrims at Plymouth||147|
|The Mayflower Compact||148|
|A "Wild and Savage" Land||149|
|The Pilgrims and the Wampanoags||149|
|Peace and Plenty: Thanksgiving||150|
|Massachusetts Bay: The Puritans||151|
|People of the Book||152|
|Roger Williams and Rhode Island||152|
|One People's Prosperity, Another's Peril||154|
|Refuge for Other Religions: Maryland and Pennsylvania||155|
|A Refuge for Catholics||156|
|A Debtor's Tale||159|
|The Slave Trade||159|
|Caught in the Light||164|
|Out of the Shadows||165|
|A Wall Filled with Light||166|
|Filling a Space||167|
|Speaking of Space||170|
|Using Line to Design||171|
|Lines, Shapes, and Colors Move||172|
|Drawing with Scissors||174|
|A Very Formal Room||174|
|Picturing an Idea||175|
|Can You Feel It?||176|
|A Quilt That Tells a Story||177|
|Over and Under with Wool and Thread||178|
|A Painting Made Without Brushes or Paint||179|
|Elements of Music||184|
|Reading and Writing Musical Notes||184|
|Reading and Writing Rhythm||186|
|Loud and Soft||189|
|Let's Join the Orchestra||190|
|Percussion and Strings||190|
|The Brass Family||191|
|The Woodwind Family||193|
|All Together Now||194|
|Composers and Their Music||195|
|Tchaikovsky: Music That Brings Strong Feeling||195|
|The Story of Swan Lake||196|
|John Philip Sousa: The March King||198|
|Aaron Copland: Making American Music||199|
|Some Songs for Third Graders||200|
|Hey-Ho, Nobody Home||200|
|Li'l Liza Jane||201|
|Down in the Valley||202|
|Polly Wolly Doodle||203|
|This Little Light||204|
|He's Got the Whole World in His Hands||204|
|The Sidewalks of New York||205|
|The Man on the Flying Trapeze||206|
|In the Good Old Summertime||206|
|A Bicycle Built for Two||207|
|You're a Grand Old Flag||208|
|The Multiplication Table||214|
|Square Numbers and Square Roots||215|
|Parentheses, Multiplying Three Numbers||216|
|An Example of Division||217|
|Solving Division Problems||218|
|Division Rules for 0 and 1||221|
|Division Word Problems||222|
|Picturing Multiplication and Division Facts||224|
|Picturing Multiplication and Division Facts with Blank Spaces||224|
|Division and Fractions||225|
|Numbers Through Hundred Thousands||227|
|Reading and Writing Four-Digit Numbers||228|
|Ten Thousands and Hundred Thousands||229|
|Counting with Thousands||230|
|Skip-Counting with Thousands||231|
|Comparing and Ordering Thousands||232|
|Working with Numbers||233|
|Equations and Inequalities||233|
|Ordinal Numbers Through One-Hundredth||233|
|Using Number Lines||234|
|Addition and Subtraction||235|
|More Mental Addition Techniques||236|
|Estimating Sums and Differences||237|
|More Than One Operation||238|
|Sums and Differences of Four-Digit Numbers||240|
|Adding with Thousands||240|
|Subtraction: Regrouping More Than Once||242|
|Subtracting Across Zeros||242|