Who Watches the Watchmen?: The Conflict between National Security and Freedom of the Press: The Conflict between National Security and Freedom of the Press

Overview

Watchmen attempts to answer two significant, timely questions: What is the extent of the threat to national security posed by the media's disclosure of classified information? What are a journalist?s motivations and justifications for publishing this information? The author concludes that the dilemma between withholding information in the interest of national security and the constitutional guarantee of a free press cannot be ?solved?, but can be better understood and more ...

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Overview

Watchmen attempts to answer two significant, timely questions: What is the extent of the threat to national security posed by the media's disclosure of classified information? What are a journalist’s motivations and justifications for publishing this information? The author concludes that the dilemma between withholding information in the interest of national security and the constitutional guarantee of a free press cannot be “solved”, but can be better understood and more intelligently managed. 

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781932946291
  • Publisher: United States Dept. of Defense
  • Publication date: 6/29/2012
  • Edition description: None, first
  • Pages: 257
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Gary Ross is an investigator with the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), which oversees the U.S. Intelligence Community. His academic background includes a Master of Science of Strategic Intelligence (MSSI) degree from the National Intelligence University and a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree from Michigan State University, with a dual major in Criminal Justice and Psychology. He has completed advanced training at the National Foreign Affairs Training Center, the Joint Counter-intelligence Training Academy, and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. During his nearly two-decade career in federal law enforcement, Mr. Ross has conducted and supervised criminal, counterintelligence, and counterterrorism investigations and operations with ODNI, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service, and the Department of Labor. He was a recipient of the Department of Defense Team Award for National Security Investigations in 2007 and the Director of Central Intelligence Team Award for Countering Foreign Denial and Deception in 2003. Mr. Ross is a Special Agent with Department of Homeland Security.

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Table of Contents


 Table of Contents:

COMMENTARIES .......................................................................................... ix

FOREWORD ................................................................................................ xxiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.......................................................................... xxvii

AUTHOR’S PREFACE ................................................................................ xxix

CHAPTER 1 – Conflicting Principles .......................................................... 1

Where You Stand Depends on Where You Sit ......................................... 4

The Scope of Unauthorized Disclosures in the United States ................ 9

Researching the Topic ............................................................................... 12

Responding Through Law: The “Espionage Act” ................................... 15

Seeking an Alternative to a Legislative Solution .................................... 18

The Difficulty Identifying Leakers: A Thousand Grains of Sand ......... 20

Statutory Abuses and Efforts to Prevent Unauthorized

Disclosures ................................................................................................ 25

Rational Choice Theory: An Alternative to a Legislative Approach ....26

CHAPTER 2 – Journalist Motivations and Justifications ....................... 29

Journalist Motivations for Disclosing Classified Information ............. 30

Altruistic Motivation – Promoting Informed Debate ............................30

Pentagon Papers .................................................................................. 31

Bay of Pigs ........................................................................................................ 33

Altruistic Motivation – Exposing Government Misconduct.................34

The Family Jewels ................................................................................ 36

Colonel Alpirez .................................................................................... 37

Non-Altruistic Motivation – Advancing Corporate Interests ...............39

Pentagon Papers .................................................................................. 41

Non-Altruistic Motivation – Advancing Personal Interests...................43

Veil .................................................................................................................... 45

State of War ...................................................................................................... 45

Collateral Murder ............................................................................... 46

Non-Altruistic Motivation – Advancing Foreign Interests....................47

Journalist Justifications for Disclosing Classified Information ............ 48

Justification – Government Overclassification........................................49

Justification – Continued Toleration for Politically Advantageous

Disclosures .................................................................................................52

Pre-War Intelligence on Iraq .............................................................. 53

Stealth ................................................................................................................ 55

Justification – Inadequacy of Congressional Oversight .........................56

Justification – Legal Protection for the Press under the First

Amendment ...............................................................................................58

Justification – The Ability of the Media to Handle Classified

Information Responsibly ..........................................................................61

U-2 ......................................................................................................... 64

IVY BELLS .......................................................................................... 65

Project AZORIAN .............................................................................. 66

Hostage Crises ..................................................................................... 67

Pentagon Papers .................................................................................. 67

CIA Detention Facilities ..................................................................... 68

Terrorist Surveillance Program .......................................................... 68

SWIFT Banking .................................................................................. 69

U.S. Troops in Afghanistan ................................................................. 70

Government Employees and Their Motivations:

The “Supply Side”...................................................................................... 71

Conclusion........................................................................................................ 77

CHAPTER 3 – The Cost of Disclosing Classified Information:

Identifying Harm............................................................................................ 79

Categories of Harm..................................................................................... 81

Damage to Sources and Methods..............................................................82

Soviet ICBM Testing ............................................................................ 83

Operation BROADSIDE ..................................................................... 84

Project AZORIAN ............................................................................... 84

OBELISK ............................................................................................. 87

SWIFT Banking .................................................................................. 87

Operation MERLIN ............................................................................ 88

National Intelligence Estimate — Iran ............................................... 89

Potential Loss of Life ...................................................................................91

Counterspy and Covert Action Bulleting ........................................... 91

Mossad in Syria .................................................................................. 93

Beirut Barracks ................................................................................... 94

TWA Flight 847 .................................................................................. 95

PURPLE and MAGIC ........................................................................ 95

Disclosure of U.S. Military Field Report by WikiLeaks ..................... 96

Koran Descration ................................................................................ 98

CIA Recruiting Iranians ......................................................................99

Soviet Mechanic ................................................................................ 100

Impact on the Development and Implementation of

Foreign Policy ..........................................................................................100

Troop Levels in Afghanistan ............................................................. 101

National Intelligence Estimate — Iran ............................................. 102

Covert Action in Pakistan ................................................................. 103

Support to Egyptian Operation ........................................................ 104

Non-Lethal Presidential Findings .................................................... 105

Effect on International Alliances ............................................................106

Net-Centric Diplomacy ..................................................................... 107

Hadley Memo .................................................................................... 108

Stinger Missiles to Angola................................................................. 108

Military Aircraft to Taiwan.............................................................. 109

Curveball ........................................................................................... 110

CIA Detention Facilities ................................................................... 111

Pakistani Collaboration with Afghan Insurgents ............................ 112

Financial Costs ..........................................................................................113

Project AZORIAN............................................................................. 115

Project GREEK ISLAND .................................................................. 115

Alaskan Airfield................................................................................ 116

Decrease in Public Knowledge Resulting from Incomplete or

Inaccurate Information ..........................................................................116

Baghdad Diarist ................................................................................ 118

Benefiting U.S. Adversaries While Harming U.S. Interests ................ 120

Confirmation Bias and the Media’s Ability to Identify Harm ............ 121

Conclusion .................................................................................................... 122

CHAPTER 4 – IVY BELLS – Inside the Journalist’s Decision-

Making Process ............................................................................................. 125

The Analysis Preceding Publication ...................................................... 125

Conclusion .................................................................................................... 131

CHAPTER 5 – A Proactive Application of Rational

Choice Theory ...............................................................................................135

Applying Rational Choice Theory to the Dilemma of

Disclosures .............................................................................................. 136

The Process............................................................................................... 138

Potential Motivations....................................................................... 138

Potential Justifications ...................................................................... 138

Potential Harm ................................................................................. 139

Relevancy of Variables ...................................................................... 139

Relative Significance of Variables..................................................... 140

Government Ability and Desire to Effect Change ............................ 140

Appropriate Venues for Implementation ......................................... 141

Past Forums for Engaging with the Media: SIGINT 101 and

The Dialogue Group ............................................................................... 141

The British Model — Defence Advisory Commitee and the Official

Secrets Act ............................................................................................... 143

The Road Ahead ....................................................................................... 145

APPENDIX – The Legal Framework Underlying Unauthorized

Disclosures .................................................................................................. 147

Legal Framework: Executive Branch ..................................................... 147

Legal Framework: Legislative Branch..................................................... 152

Legal Framework: Judicial Branch.......................................................... 158

Conclusion .................................................................................................... 167

ENDNOTES ................................................................................................... 169

BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................... 227

INDEX............................................................................................................. 253

ABOUT THE AUTHOR............................................................................... 259

List of Figures

Figure 1 – Psychological Scale........................................................................ 27

Figure 2 – Through the Eyes of the Enemy - Stanislav Lunev.................... 41

Figure 3 – Doonesbury.................................................................................... 44

Figure 4 – February 5, 2003 Presentation to the UN................................... 54

Figure 5 – October 14, 1962 U2 Images of Soviet Missiles in Cuba.......... 65

Figure 6 – Glomar Explorer............................................................................ 85

Figure 7 – Unauthorized Disclosure Satire................................................... 86

Figure 8 – Unauthorized Disclosure Satire................................................... 90

Figure 9 – Mossad Agent Eli Cohen.............................................................. 93

Figure 10 – USMC Barracks - Beirut, 1983.................................................. 94

Figure 11 – Unauthorized Disclosure Satire............................................... 106

Figure 12 – Glomar Explorer........................................................................ 114

Figure 13 – Psychological Scale - Unauthorized Disclosures................... 123

Figure 14 – Psychological Scale - Ivy Bells Disclosure.............................. 132

Figure 15 – Classified Document Cover Sheets - SF 703,

704, and 705................................................................................................. 148

Figure 16 – November 1979 Progressive Magazine..................................165

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