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Who's Bashing Whom? Trade Conflict in High-Technology / Edition 1
     

Who's Bashing Whom? Trade Conflict in High-Technology / Edition 1

by Laura D'Andrea Tyson
 

ISBN-10: 0881321060

ISBN-13: 9780881321067

Pub. Date: 11/01/1992

Publisher: Peterson Institute for International Economics

This study seeks to resolve the "free trade vs. managed trade" debate. It provides innovative recommendations for US policy based on detailed and rigorous case studies of high-technology trade conflicts between the United States, Japan and Europe in aircraft, telecommunications, electronics and supercomputers.The study addresses three key issues: What trade

Overview

This study seeks to resolve the "free trade vs. managed trade" debate. It provides innovative recommendations for US policy based on detailed and rigorous case studies of high-technology trade conflicts between the United States, Japan and Europe in aircraft, telecommunications, electronics and supercomputers.The study addresses three key issues: What trade policy should the United States adopt to support its high-technology industries? What domestic policy initiatives are necessary to realize this goal? Are new international rules needed to reduce trade conflicts over high-technology industries? Tyson, formerly Chair of the President's Council of Economic Advisers, develops a "cautious activist" policy agenda to promote US competitiveness in high-technology sectors and to strengthen international rules to encourage trade and reduce conflicts among nations.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780881321067
Publisher:
Peterson Institute for International Economics
Publication date:
11/01/1992
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
324
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
Acknowledgmentsxvii
1America's High-Technology Trade Challenge: The Perspective of a Cautious Activist1
Introduction1
Setting the Stage: The Nature of Trade Conflict in High-Technology Industries3
High-Technology Trade Conflict with Japan and Europe5
Should the United States Care? The Answer of a Cautious Activist9
The Plan of the Book14
2Trade and System Conflict in Technology-Intensive Industries17
Trends in High-Technology Competition Between the Developed Countries17
The Roots of High-Technology Trade Conflict: Trade Barriers, Structural Impediments, and Structural Differences29
Why High-Technology Industries Matter for US Economic Welfare32
A Brief Concluding Comment45
3From MOSS to Motorola and Cray: Managing Trade by Rules and Outcomes53
The Real Japan Problem53
The MOSS Talks in Technology-Intensive Products: Trade Management Through Sectoral Rules58
Motorola and Japan's Cellular Telephone Market: A Step Closer to Managed Trade66
The Third-Party Radio Conflict: A Successful Managed Trade Resolution71
Lessons from Motorola's Experiences in Gaining Access to the Japanese Market73
Cray and the Japanese Supercomputer Market: Procurement, Infant-Industry Tractics, and Reciprocity76
Concluding Remarks82
4Managing Trade and Competition in the Semiconductor Industry85
Industry Economics and the Evolution of Comparative Advantage88
From Manipulated to Managed Trade: The US-Japan Semiconductor Trade Agreement106
The Effects of the Agreement on Trade and Pricing111
The New Semiconductor Trade Agreement: The Story Continues130
An Overall Assessment of the SCTA132
Lessons for US Trade Policy from the Semiconductor Experience133
5Industrial Policy and Trade Management in the Commercial Aircraft Industry155
Historical Decisions in a Strategic Industry155
Economics of the Industry161
History of the Industry176
The Economic Analysis of Government Intervention in the Commercial Aircraft Industry: The Case of Airbus192
Trade Friction in the Aircraft Industry195
Challenges Facing the American Commercial Aircraft Industry210
Conclusions214
6Managing Trade and Investment: Europe's Evolving Strategy in the Electronics Industry217
Videocassette Recorders: From Managed Trade to Managing Investment220
High-Definition Television: The Strategy to Create European Champions237
Understanding Europe's Evolving Strategy Toward the Electronics Industry244
Lessons for US Trade and Industrial Policy249
7A Cautious Activist Agenda for U.S. Policy in High-Technology Industries253
Expanding Market Access255
The Pros and Cons of Antidumping Remedies267
Strategic Threats in High-Technology Industries274
Subsidies, Foreign Targeting, and Countervailing Duties280
The Need for Complementary Technology and Industrial Policies286
Some Concluding Thoughts295
Index311
Tables
1.1Cases of trade conflict in technology-intensive industries treated in this book15
2.1Alternative classification schemes for high-technology industries20
2.2High-technology exports as a share of total manufactures exports, selected countries, 1970-8622
2.3Shares of world high-technology exports, selected countries, 1970-8923
2.4Revealed comparative advantage in selected high-technology products, selected countries, 1970-8924
2.5Shares of world trade in R&D-intensive electronics products, selected countries, 1970-8925
2.6United States, Japan, and Europe: export shares in selected electronics products, 1980-8826
2.7United States and Japan: trade in electronics products, by type of product, 1980-9127
2.8United States: trade in high-technology products, 1980-8828
2.9United States: high-technology exports and imports as a share of total value added, by industry, 1980-8829
2.10United States: high-technology expenditures for R&D, by industry, selected years, 1979-8933
2.11United States: production and value added in selected high-technology industries, 198934
2.12United States: employment in selected high-technology industries, 198935
2.13United States: scientists and engineers employed in selected high-technology industries, 198936
2.14United States: value added per worker in selected high-technology industries, 198937
2.15United States: compensation in selected high-technology industries, 198938
2A.1Assessments of US and Japanese comparative standings in selected technologies, Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 1983 and 198846
2A.2Relative US position in critical defense technologies47
2A.3Position of the US computer industry in selected critical computer technologies, 1990 and projected 199548
2A.4Assessments of US standing in selected high technologies by the Council on Competitiveness49
3.1Relative performance of Japanese imports in industries addressed in the MOSS negotiations, 1985-8862
4.1United States: trade in semiconductors, by product type, 1966-9194
4.2Joint research and development projects in microelectronics sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)96
4.3Japan: trade in semiconductors, 1967-90104
4.4Average selling prices for 256-kilobyte and 1-megabyte DRAMs, 1984-92115
4.5Average selling prices for 256-kilobyte and 1-megabyte EPROMs, 1984-89122
4.6United States: semiconductor imports as a share of total semiconductor consumption, 1982-89129
4.7Japan: semiconductor imports as a share of total semiconductor consumption, 1982-89130
4.8Japan: semiconductor imports from the United States and semiconductor sales by US companies in Japan, 1984-89131
4.9Shares of production of integrated circuits produced offshore, by home country of parent144
5.1Orders of narrow- and wide-body commercial aircraft, by company and model158
5.2Aircraft company revenues from military aircraft and related sales, 1989160
5.3Costs to develop selected commercial aircraft163
5.4Public launch aid for Airbus Industrie, by country and aircraft model174
5.5Production of narrow-body commercial jet aircraft, by model, 1952-90178
5.6Production of wide-body commercial jet aircraft, by model, 1969-90180
5.7Geographical composition of world imports of aircraft, 1976-87196
5.8Geographical composition of world exports of aircraft, 1976-87197
5.9Geographical composition of world imports of aircraft engines, 1976-87198
5.10Geographical composition of world exports of aircraft engines, 1976-87199
6.1Trade balances in information technology and telecommunications, by region, 1986-89218
6.2European Community: trade deficit in electronics, 1988 and 1989219
6.3Costs of protection in videocassette recorders226
6.4Europe: trade deficit in videocassette recorders, 1980-88227
6.5Japanese share of the European videocassette recorder market, 1986229
6.6Market shares in videocassette recorders, by country, 1988235
6.7Japan: exports of videocassette recorders, 1981-88236
7.1From multilateral rules to bilaterally managed outcomes: an anatomy of the cases256
Figures
3.1United States: trade surplus with Japan in selected commodities, 1987 and 199054
3.2United States: trade deficit with Japan in key machinery industries, 1987 and 199055
4.1United States, Japan, and Europe: shares of the worldwide semiconductor market, 1981-90105
4.2United States, Japan, Europe, and Korea/Taiwan: shares of the worldwide DRAM market, 1978-91106
4.3United States, Japan, and Europe: shares of the worldwide EPROM market, 1978-89108
4.4Japan: shares of the semiconductor market held by non-Japanese companies, 1985-91111
4.5Prices for 256-kilobyte and 1-megabyte DRAMs, by country of manufacturer, 1987-89116
4.6Cost estimates and average selling prices for 1-megabyte DRAMs, 1987-91118
4.7Cost estimates and average selling prices for 1-megabyte EPROMs, 1987-91123
4.8Prices for 256-kilobyte EPROMs, by country of manufacturer, 1987-89124
4.9Shares of the worldwide 1-megabyte EPROM market, by company, 1990125
4.10Shares of the worldwide microprocessor market, by company, 1990127
5.1Commonality of components among Airbus models164
Boxes
5.1Excerpts from the GATT Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft200
5.2Provisions of the 1992 agreement between the United States and the European Community on trade in civil aircraft208

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