Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap in America's Classrooms

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Overview

While race and culture remain important variables in how young people experience schools, they are often misunderstood by educators and school personnel. Building on three studies that investigated schools successful in closing the achievement gap, Tyrone Howard shows how adopting greater awareness and comprehensive understanding of race and culture can improve educational outcomes.

Important reading for anyone who is genuinely committed to promoting educational equity and excellence for all children, this accessible book:

Outlines the changing racial, ethnic, and cultural demographics in U.S. schools.

Calls for educators to pay serious attention to how race and culture play out in school settings.

Presents empirical data from schools that have improved achievement outcomes for racially and culturally diverse students.

Focuses on ways in which educators can partner with parents and communities.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780807750711
  • Publisher: Teachers College Press
  • Publication date: 4/18/2010
  • Series: Multicultural Education Series , #39
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 208
  • Sales rank: 111,663
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Series Foreword James A. Banks ix

Foreword Geneva Gay xvii

Acknowledgments xxiii

Introduction 1

Socioeconomic Status and School Performance 2

Outline of the Book 4

Moving Away from the Black-White Dichotomy 6

1 Achievement Gap: Contextualizing the Problem 9

Documenting the Achievement Gap 12

Documenting the Discrepancies 13

Retention, Suspensions, and Expulsions 20

School Drop-Out and Graduation Rates 22

Access to Gifted and AP Courses 25

SAT Scores 25

Explaining the Gaps 26

Future Considerations 32

2 Changing Demographics 35

A Changing Nation 36

Demographic Shifts by Geographic Region and Age 38

U.S. Schools and Changing Demographics 39

Are Teachers Being Prepared to Teach in Diverse Settings? 41

Multicultural Education for School Reform 43

The Role of Social Class 46

3 Culture 51

Culture, Race, and Ethnicity 52

The Complexity of Culture 54

Sociocultural Theory 56

Cultural Modeling 58

Cultural Repertoires of Practice 60

Normalizing Culture in Everyday Practice 64

4 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy 67

Seeking Clarity in Culture and Pedagogy 69

Empirical and Conceptual Work on Culturally Responsive Pedagogy 71

The Importance of Pedagogy 75

Programs with Culturally Responsive Teaching 77

5 The Role of Race in Learning 91

Interrogating Race 92

Race and Education in the United States 95

Critical Race Theory: A Framework for Examining Race and Achievement 98

Empirical Works Examining Race 100

Granting Voice to Those Who Rarely Are Heard 103

Internalized Racism: Educators of Color and Acts of Exclusion 106

Racial Frames of Reference 107

6 Developing Cultural Competence and Racial Awareness in Classroom Teachers 111

Cultural Competence 112

Critical Self-Reflection on Race and Culture 114

Race, Culture, and the Adaptive Unconsciousness 116

Racial Awareness 121

A Case Study of Critical Reflecting: Teaching Teachers to Reflect on Race 122

Final Considerations 128

7 Examples of School Success for Culturally Diverse Students 129

Stories of School Success 131

Visionary Leadership 134

Effective Instructional Practices 137

Intensive Academic Intervention 140

Explicit Acknowledgment of Race 143

Parental and Community Engagement 145

Final Thoughts 148

References 151

Index 174

About the Author 182

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