Wild Product Governance: Finding Policies that Work for Non-Timber Forest Products [NOOK Book]

Overview

Products from the wild, also known as non-timber forest products (NTFPs), are used as medicines, foods, spices, and a multitude of other purposes. They contribute substantially to rural livelihoods, generate revenue for companies and governments, and have a range of impacts on biodiversity conservation. However, there is little information available for those seeking to develop effective policy frameworks and regulation. 


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Wild Product Governance: Finding Policies that Work for Non-Timber Forest Products

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Overview

Products from the wild, also known as non-timber forest products (NTFPs), are used as medicines, foods, spices, and a multitude of other purposes. They contribute substantially to rural livelihoods, generate revenue for companies and governments, and have a range of impacts on biodiversity conservation. However, there is little information available for those seeking to develop effective policy frameworks and regulation. 


This book addresses that shortage with information and recommendations on the drafting, content and implementation of NTFP policies, and the broader issues of governance associated with these products. It reviews the diverse elements that combine to create laws and policies that promote sustainable and equitable management, trade and use of species. Drawing on a wealth of unique case studies from around the world, this volume examines experiences with NTFP regulation, including its sometimes unintended consequences. It looks at economic factors, the interface between traditional and western knowledge and legal systems, and relationships between NTFP regulation, land tenure and resource rights, as well as power and equity imbalances. The volume includes a review of available literature and resources, plus an annotated bibliography linked to the People and Plants International website (www.peopleandplants.org). 


Published with People and Plants International

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"It is high time to move from anecdotes and eclectic studies on NTFPs to democratic and sustainable plans that foster diverse livelihoods and new relationships to nature. In an exciting work of truly global scope — drawing on experiences from Mexico to India — Laird, McLain, and Wynberg have done just that, assembling readable and cutting-edge proposals, which link grounded cases with general principles to fundamentally rethink the rules that govern forests around the world. Researchers in human ecology, forestry, geography, rural sociology, and anthropology will find compelling findings and methods, while resource managers will find real world experiences and practical and implementable principles." - Paul Robbins, Professor and Head, School of Geography and Development, University of Arizona, USA

"Before they became products with international markets, celebrity promoters, and an acronym, wild harvested species formed the basis of subsistence livelihoods for communities all over the world. For centuries, these resources were overlooked or ignored by the central governments of most of the countries in which they occur. And then, suddenly, in response to a variety of economic, political, and conservation pressures, it became clear to policymakers that it was time to finally 'do something' about wild products. Over the past few decades, these attempts at governance have produced a bewildering array of laws, tax structures, permit schemes, and policy frameworks that are, at best, confusing and marginally effective. I can think of no other group of resources that is so important, yet so poorly regulated. This timely book does a terrific job of providing a context for improving policies related to the harvest and trade of wild resources. What are the major issues, what works, what clearly doesn't work, and what are the best alternatives? There is a lot to absorb - and hopefully apply - here. The editors are to be congratulated for assembling such a thoughtful and informative collection of papers." - Charles M. Peters, Ph.D., Kate E. Tode Curator of Botany, The New York Botanical Garden

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Sarah A. Laird is the Director of People and Plants International and its Policy and Trade Programme, co-author of The Commercial Use of Biodiversity (2002) and editor of Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge (2002).

Rebecca McLain is Co-Director of the Institute for Culture and Ecology, in the US.

Rachel P. Wynberg is a senior researcher, based at the Environmental Evaluation Unit, University of Cape Town.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures, Tables and Boxes

About the Contributors

Acknowledgements

Foreword J. E. Michael Arnold Arnold, J. E. Michael

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Introduction Rachel P. Wynberg Wynberg, Rachel P. 1

Chapter 1 Changing Policy Trends in the Emergence of Bolivia's Brazil Nut Sector Pablo Pacheco Pacheco, Pablo 15

Case Study A In Search of Regulations to Promote the Sustainable Use of NTFPs in Brazil Antonio Carlos Hummel Hummel, Antonio Carlos 43

Chapter 2 Integrating Customary and Statutory Systems: The Struggle to Develop a Legal and Policy Framework for NTFPs in Cameroon Robert Nkuinkeu Nkuinkeu, Robert 53

Case Study B Policies for Gnetum spp. Trade in Cameroon: Overcoming Constraints that Reduce Benefits and Discourage Sustainability Abdon Awono Awono, Abdon 71

Case Study C Regulatory Issues for Bush Mango (Irvingia spp.) Trade in South-west Cameroon and South-east Nigeria Okon Isoni Isoni, Okon 77

Chapter 3 NTFPs in India: Rhetoric and Reality Nitin D. Rai Rai, Nitin D. 85

Chapter 4 Policy Gaps and Invisible Elbows: NTFPs in British Columbia Tom Hobby Hobby, Tom 113

Chapter 5 NTFPs in Scotland: Changing Attitudes to Access Rights in a Reforesting Land Marla Emery Emery, Marla 135

Chapter 6 From Barter Trade to Brad Pitt's Bed: NTFPs and Ancestral Domains in the Philippines Arlynn C. Aquino Aquino, Arlynn C. 155

Chapter 7 From Indigenous Customary Practices to Policy Interventions: The Ecological and Sociocultural Underpinnings of the Non-timber Forest Trade on Palawan Island, the Philippines Dario Novellino Novellino, Dario 183

Case Study D Overregulation and Complex Bureaucratic Procedure: A Disincentive for Compliance? The Case of a Valuable Carving Wood in Bushbuckridge, South Africa Sheona Shackleton Shackleton, Sheona 199

Chapter 8 Overcoming Barriers in Collectively Managed NTFPs in Mexico Citali Tovar Tovar, Citali 205

Chapter 9 Fiji: Commerce, Carving and Customary Tenure Anthony B. Cunningham Cunningham, Anthony B. 229

Chapter 10 One Eye on the Forest, One Eye on the Market: Multi-tiered Regulation of Matsutake Harvesting, Conservation and Trade in North-western Yunnan Province Chun Li Chun, Li 243

Chapter 11 Managing Floral Greens in a Globalized Economy: Resource Tenure, Labour Relations and Immigration Policy in the Pacific Northwest, USA Kathryn Lynch Lynch, Kathryn 265

Chapter 12 NTFP Policy, Access to Markets and Labour Issues in Finland: Impacts of Regionalization and Globalization on the Wild Berry Industry Olli Saastamoinen Saastamoinen, Olli 287

Chapter 13 Navigating a Way through Regulatory Frameworks for Hoodia Use, Conservation, Trade and Benefit Sharing Rachel P. Wynberg Wynberg, Rachel P. 309

Chapter 14 Laws and Policies Impacting Trade in NTFPs Markus Burgener Burgener, Markus 327

Chapter 15 The State of NTFP Policy and Law Rebecca J. McLain McLain, Rebecca J. 343

Chapter 16 Recommendations Rebecca J. McLain McLain, Rebecca J. 367

Appendix: NTFP Law and Policy Literature: Lie of the Land and Areas for Further Research Alan Pierce Pierce, Alan 375

Index

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