School Library Journal - School Library JournalGr 5-8-Murray, a plastic surgeon, became interested in organ transplantation after a stint in the army treating wounded soldiers who were in need of skin grafts. He performed the first successful kidney transplant in 1954, on an identical twin. In 1962, in another breakthrough operation, the healthy organ came from a cadaver. After his forays into transplants, Murray returned to plastic surgery but also offered his expertise around the world. In 1990, he was awarded the Nobel Prize. Kolff, a Dutch doctor, was convinced that he could create a machine that would cleanse the body of wastes being retained by nonfunctioning kidneys. In the midst of the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands in 1942, he designed a dialysis machine to do just that. After immigrating to the U.S., he also helped to create the first artificial heart, among other achievements. Both books offer brief glimpses into the personal lives of these men, particularly their determination to succeed in their efforts, but the focus is on their work. Black-and-white photos of the scientists, their colleagues, and patients are included. Solid additions to biography collections.-Carol Fazioli, formerly at The Brearley School, New York City Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information.
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