Wind Energy Engineering / Edition 1

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Overview

A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO WIND ENERGY ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT

This authoritative resource offers comprehensive details on effectively using wind energy as a viable and economical energy source. Featuring a multidisciplinary approach, Wind Energy Engineering covers physics, meteorology, aerodynamics. wind measurement, wind turbine specifications, electricity, and integration with the grid. Planning, site selection, cost assessment, environmental impact, and project management are also discussed. Filled with diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and statistics, this is a definitive reference to current and future developments in wind energy.

Wind Energy Engineering covers:

  • The business of wind energy worldwide
  • Wind energy basics
  • Meteorological properties of wind and air
  • Aerodynamics of wind turbine blades
  • Wind measurement, data management, and reporting
  • Wind resource assessment
  • Advanced topics in resource assessment, including wake, losses, and uncertainty
  • Wind turbine generator components
  • Electricity and generator basics
  • Deploying wind turbines in the grid
  • Environmental impact of wind projects
  • Financial modeling, planning, and execution of wind projects
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780071714778
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
  • Publication date: 9/1/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 352
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Pramod Jain, Ph.D., is founder and president of Innovative Wind Energy, Inc., a wind energy consulting company. He is recognized as a global expert in the planning of wind projects and has worked on projects in the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America that range from a single 100 kW turbine to a 100-plus MW wind farm. Dr. Jain’s clients include Fortune 100 companies, the U.S. government, universities, utilities, municipalities, and land developers. He was a cofounder and Chief Technologist at Wind Energy Consulting and Contracting, Inc. He has a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from University of California, Berkeley, and a B. Tech. from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.

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Table of Contents

Preface xii

Acknowledgments xvii

1 Overview of Wind Energy Business 1

Introduction 1

Worldwide Business of Wind Energy 1

Cost of Wind Energy 4

Benefits of Wind Energy 4

Wind Energy Is Not a Panacea 6

2 Basics of Wind Energy and Power 9

Introduction 9

Kinetic Energy of Wind 9

Sensitivity of Power to Rotor Radius and Wind Speed 11

Basic Concepts/Equations 12

Conservation of Mass 12

Conservation of Energy 13

Conservation of Momentum 14

Derivation of Betz Limit 16

The Meaning of Betz Limit 20

Wind versus Water 22

3 Properties of Wind 25

Introduction 25

How Is Wind Generated? 25

Statistical Distribution of Wind Speed 26

Mean and Mode of Weibull Distribution for Wind Speed 29

Power Density 30

Wind Classes 31

Wind Shear 33

Understanding Wind Shear 36

Density of Air as a Function of Elevation 37

Density of Air as a Function of Humidity 39

4 Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Blades 41

Introduction 41

Airfoils 41

Relative Velocity of Wind 44

Rotor Disk Theory 47

Lift Force 51

Equal Transit Time Fallacy 51

Rotation Fluid Flow, Circulation, and Vortices 51

Real Fluids 55

Flow of Fluid over an Airfoil 56

Effect of Reynolds Number on Lift and Drag Coefficients 58

Drag-Based Turbines 59

5 Advanced Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Blades 63

Introduction 63

Blade Element Model 63

Constant-Speed Turbines, Stall-Versus Pitch-Regulated 68

Variable-Speed Turbines 70

Power Curves 70

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) 72

6 Wind Measurement 75

Introduction 75

Definition of Wind Speed 75

Configurations to Measure Wind 76

Anemometer 77

Calibration of Anemometers 81

Wind Vane 81

Placement of Sensors 82

Impact of Inflow Angle 85

Uncertainty in Wind Speed Measurement with Anemometers 85

Example of Error Estimate 88

Other Sensors 89

Data Logger and Communication Device 89

Designing a Wind Measurement Campaign 90

Installation of Met-Towers 93

Example of Met-Tower Installation 94

Data Management 94

Data Processing 96

Computed Quantities 101

Turbulence 101

Wind Shear 103

Air Density 104

Power Density 105

Remote Sensing to Measure Wind Speed 105

Pros and Cons of Remote Sensing for Wind Measurements 106

7 Wind Resource Assessment 111

Introduction 111

Overview of Wind Resource Assessment 111

Source of Wind Data 113

Resource Estimation Models 114

Mesoscale Models 114

CFD Models 115

WasP, a Microscale Model 115

Definitions 115

Phases of Resource Assessment 122

Preliminary Wind Resource Assessment 123

Wind Resource Map Lookup 123

Preliminary Analysis of Data from Neighboring Airports and Other Met-Towers 125

Detailed Analysis of Wind Data from Neighboring Airports and Other Met-Towers 125

Onsite Wind Measurement 126

Spatial Extrapolation of Wind Resources from Measured Locations to Planned Wind Turbine Locations 126

Hindcasting/MCP of Measured Data 127

Predict 133

Annual Energy Computations 145

8 Advanced Wind Resource Assessment 147

Introduction 147

Extreme Wind Speed (EWS) 148

WAsP Model in Rugged Terrain 151

Wake of Turbines 153

N.O. Jensen Model for Wake 154

Ainslie's Eddy Viscosity Model 155

Combining Wind Speed Deficits from Multiple Turbines 155

Turbulence Modeling 156

Optimal Layout of Turbines in Wind Farm 156

Wind Turbine Class Selection 158

Estimation of Losses 160

Uncertainty Analysis 164

Estimating Uncertainty of Annual Energy Production: Framework for Combining Uncertainty 165

Nonbankable versus Bankable Resource Estimates 167

9 Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) Components 169

Introduction 169

Rotor System 169

Blades 170

Forces and Moments 172

Rotor Hub 173

Alternative Configurations of Turbines 173

Pitch 177

Nacelle 178

Gearbox 178

Yaw Drive 178

Nacelle Housing and Frame 179

Lifting/Lowering Mechanism 180

Towers 180

Foundation 181

Spread-Footing Foundation 182

Design Loads of Wind Turbines 185

Design Wind Conditions 186

Normal Wind Profile Model (NWP) 186

Extreme Wind Speed Model (EWM) 188

Turbine Certification 189

10 Basics of Electricity and Generators 197

Introduction 197

Basic Principles of Electromagnetism 197

Faraday's Law of Induction 198

Lenz Law 198

Lorenz Law or Biot-Savart Law 198

Basic Principles of Alternating Current 199

Basic Principles of Electrical Machines 200

Conversion of Mechanical to Electrical Power 202

Synchronous Generator 203

Analysis of Synchronous Generator 205

Variable-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators 208

Direct-Drive Synchronous Generator (DDSG) 211

Asynchronous Generators 212

Variable Speed 216

11 Deploying Wind Turbines in Grid 221

Introduction 221

What Happens on a Grid When There Is No Wind? 221

"Scheduling" and Dispatch of Wind Resources 223

Single-Line Diagram 224

Transmission and Distribution 227

Standards for Interconnection 229

Power Factor and Reactive Power 229

Low-Voltage Ride-Through 231

Power Quality: Flicker, and Harmonics 232

Short-Circuit Power 232

Wind Farm Topologies 233

Protection Systems 236

Grounding for Overvoltage and Lightning Protection 237

Lightning Protection 238

Transformers for Wind Applications 239

Wind-Plant Interconnection and Transmission Study 240

Transmission Bottlenecks 242

SCADA Systems 242

Data Acquisition 243

Reporting 243

Control 244

12 Environmental Impact of Wind Projects 247

Introduction 247

Framework for Analyzing Environmental Impact 248

Context of Environmental Impact 248

Temporal and Spatial Scale 249

Cumulative Effects 249

Quick Comparison of Wind Versus Fossil Fuel-Based Electricity Production 249

Impact of Wind Farms on Wildlife 250

Noise from Wind Turbines 254

Mitigation of Noise 256

Low-Frequency Noise 257

Shadow Flicker 258

Aesthetic Impact 258

Hazard to Aviation 260

Electromagnetic Interference 261

Microwave 261

TV and Radio Transmissions 263

Radar 263

13 Financial Modeling of Wind Projects 269

Introduction 269

Financial Model 269

Revenue Model 269

Renewable Energy Credits and Carbon Credits 274

Revenue Computations 275

Capital Costs 275

Cost of Turbine 278

Cost of Foundation, Erection, Access Roads, and Other Civil Works 278

Substation, Control System, Cables, Installation, and Others Related to Grid Connection 279

Other Costs 279

Operating Costs 279

Depreciation and Taxes 281

Financial Statements 282

Income Statement and Cash Flow for a Wind Project 282

Balance Sheet for A Wind Project 282

Financial Performance 283

Net Present Value (NPV) 286

Payback Period 286

Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 287

Impact of Tax Credits and Accelerated Depreciation on Financial Performance 287

Financing and Structure of Wind Projects 294

Financial Evaluation of Alternatives 297

14 Planning and Execution of Wind Projects 301

Introduction 301

High-Level Project Plan and Timeline 301

Development 302

Prospecting 303

Wind Measurement and Detailed Wind Assessment 303

Project Siting, Interconnection, and PPA 305

Project Engineering and Procurement 307

Project Financing 312

Construction, Installation, and Commissioning 313

Construction of Infrastructure 314

Site Preparation 314

Foundation Construction and Turbine Erection 315

Collection System and Substation Construction 318

Commissioning 318

Operations 320

Index 323

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