Wireless Sensor Networks: A Networking Perspective / Edition 1

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470167632
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/28/2009
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 489
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Jun Zheng, PhD, is a Professor with the School of Information Science and Engineering of the Southeast University, China. He has been involved in extensive research and development in the field of telecommunications engineering for many years. He is a technical editor of IEEE Communications Magazine and the online magazine IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. He has coauthored one book and has published a number of technical papers in refereed journals, magazines, and conference proceedings. An award-winning scientist in the communications technology field, Dr. Zheng is a senior member of the IEEE.

Abbas Jamalipour, PhD, is a Professor of Wireless Networking at the University of Sydney, Australia, where he is responsible for teaching and research in wireless data communication networks, wireless IP networks, network security, and cellular communications. He is the Editor in Chief of the IEEE Wireless Communications and technical editor of IEEE Communications Magazine and the International Journal of Communication Science. Dr. Jamalipour has authored or coauthored a dozen books and has published more than 190 papers in major journals and international conferences. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and Engineers Australia, as well as an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer.

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Table of Contents

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgments xxv

About the Editors xxvii

Contributors xxix

1. INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 1
Jun Zheng and Abbas Jamalipour

1.1 Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks 1

1.1.1 Network Characteristics 2

1.1.2 Network Applications 3

1.1.3 Network Design Objectives 6

1.1.4 Network Design Challenges 7

1.2 Technological Background 8

1.2.1 MEMS Technology 9

1.2.2 Wireless Communication Technology 9

1.2.3 Hardware and Software Platforms 10

1.2.4 Wireless Sensor Network Standards 12

1.3 Features of This Book 15

1.4 Organization of This Book 15

References 16

2. NETWORK ARCHITECTURES AND PROTOCOL STACK 19
Jun Zheng

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Network Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks 20

2.2.1 Sensor Node Structure 20

2.2.2 Network Architectures 21

2.3 Classifications of Wireless Sensor Networks 24

2.4 Protocol Stack for Wireless Sensor Networks 26

2.4.1 Application Layer 28

2.4.2 Transport Layer 28

2.4.3 Network Layer 29

2.4.4 Data Link Layer 29

2.4.5 Physical Layer 30

2.5 Summary 31

References 31

3. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL 35
Jun Zheng

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Fundamental MAC Protocols 36

3.2.1 Contention-Based MAC Protocols 36

3.2.2 Contention-Free MAC Protocols 38

3.3 MAC Design for Wireless Sensor Networks 39

3.3.1 Network Characteristics 39

3.3.2 Objectives of MAC Design 40

3.3.3 Energy Efficiency in MAC Design 41

3.4 MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 42

3.4.1 Contention-Based Protocols 42

3.4.2 Contention-Free Protocols 53

3.4.3 Hybrid Protocols 58

3.5 Summary and Future Directions 61

References 62

4. ROUTING AND DATA DISSEMINATION 67
Sajal K. Das and Habib M. Ammari

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Fundamentals and Challenges 68

4.2.1 Fundamentals 68

4.2.2 Challenges 71

4.3 Taxonomy of Routing and Data Dissemination Protocols 73

4.3.1 Location Information 74

4.3.2 Network Layering and In-Network Processing 74

4.3.3 Data Centricity 75

4.3.4 Path Redundancy 75

4.3.5 Network Dynamics 76

4.3.6 Quality of Service Requirements 76

4.3.7 Network Heterogeneity 77

4.4 Overview of Routing and Data Dissemination Protocols 77

4.4.1 Location-Aided Protocols 78

4.4.2 Layered and In-Network Processing-Based Protocols 87

4.4.3 Data-Centric Protocols 93

4.4.4 Multipath-Based Protocols 109

4.4.5 Mobility-Based Protocols 113

4.4.6 QoS Based Protocols 123

4.4.7 Heterogeneity-Based Protocols 129

4.4.8 Comparisons 136

4.5 Summary and Future Directions 137

References 139

5. BROADCASTING, MULTICASTING, AND GEOCASTING 145
Baoxian Zhang and Guoliang Xue

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 Concepts and Major Challenges 146

5.2.1 Basic Concepts 146

5.2.2 Design Guidelines and Challenges 147

5.3 Broadcasting Mechanisms 149

5.3.1 Simple Broadcasting Mechanisms 149

5.3.2 Neighborhood-Aware Broadcasting Mechanisms 150

5.3.3 Location-Aided Broadcasting Mechanisms 153

5.3.4 Energy-Efficient Broadcasting Mechanisms 156

5.3.5 Reliable Broadcasting Mechanisms 158

5.4 Multicasting Mechanisms 160

5.4.1 Tree-Based Multicasting Mechanisms 161

5.4.2 Location-Based Multicasting Mechanisms 162

5.5 Geocasting Mechanisms 164

5.5.1 Nonguaranteed Geocasting Mechanisms 164

5.5.2 Guaranteed Geocasting Mechanisms 166

5.6 Summary and Future Directions 167

Acknowledgments 168

References 169

6. NODE CLUSTERING 173
Chao Zhang, Edwin Hou, and Nirwan Ansari

6.1 Introduction 173

6.1.1 Wireless Sensor Network Architectures 174

6.1.2 Node Clustering Structures 178

6.2 Node Clustering Algorithms 180

6.2.1 Cluster-Head Election Algorithms 181

6.2.2 Node Clustering Algorithms in Ad Hoc Networks 183

6.3 Node Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks 188

6.3.1 Specialties for Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks 188

6.3.2 Passive Clustering for Efficient Flooding 189

6.3.3 Energy-Efficient Adaptive Clustering 193

6.3.4 Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering 195

6.3.5 Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Clustering 196

6.3.6 Algorithm for Cluster Establishment 201

6.3.7 Secure Clustering 203

6.4 Summary and Future Directions 208

References 209

7. QUERY PROCESSING AND DATA AGGREGATION 215
Torsha Banerjee and Dharma P. Agrawal

7.1 Introduction 215

7.2 Query Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks 217

7.2.1 Query Characteristics 217

7.2.2 Challenges in Query Processing 220

7.2.3 Sensor Selection for Query Processing 221

7.2.4 Query Processing Techniques 222

7.2.5 Snapshot Querying 225

7.3 Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks 229

7.3.1 Challenges in Data Aggregation 229

7.3.2 Data Aggregation Techniques 230

7.4 Summary and Future Directions 239

References 240

8. NODE LOCALIZATION 243
Nayef A. Alsindi and Kaveh Pahlavan

8.1 Introduction 243

8.2 Concepts and Challenges of Node Localization Technologies 244

8.2.1 Evolution of Localization Technologies 244

8.2.2 Localization Systems 245

8.2.3 Challenges of Node Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks 247

8.3 Ranging Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks 248

8.3.1 TOA Based Ranging 249

8.3.2 RSS Based Ranging 254

8.4 Wireless Localization Algorithms 257

8.4.1 Background 258

8.4.2 Geometrical Triangulation Techniques 258

8.4.3 Pattern Recognition Techniques 262

8.5 Wireless Sensor Node Localization 262

8.5.1 Cooperative Localization 263

8.5.2 Centralized Localization Algorithms 267

8.5.3 Distributed Localization Algorithms 269

8.6 Summary and Future Directions 279

References 280

9. TIME SYNCHRONIZATION 285
Fikret Sivrikaya and B├╝lent Yener

9.1 Introduction 285

9.1.1 Computer Clocks and the Synchronization Problem 286

9.1.2 Common Challenges for Synchronization Methods 287

9.2 Need for Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks 288

9.3 Requirements of Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks 289

9.4 Synchronization Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 290

9.4.1 Synchronization Primitives 290

9.4.2 Multihop Synchronization 295

9.4.3 Long-Term Synchronization 299

9.4.4 Other Protocols and Relevant Work 302

9.5 Summary and Future Directions 303

References 305

10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND POWER CONTROL 307
Nikolaos A. Pantazis and Dimitrios D. Vergados

10.1 Introduction 307

10.2 Need for Energy Efficiency and Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks 308

10.2.1 Power Consumption in Sensor Nodes 308

10.2.2 Power Control at Different Protocol Layers 311

10.2.3 Classification of Power Conservation Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks 313

10.3 Passive Power Conservation Mechanisms 314

10.3.1 Physical-Layer Power Conservation Mechanisms 314

10.3.2 MAC Layer Power Conservation Mechanisms 318

10.3.3 Higher Layer Power Conservation Mechanisms 320

10.4 Active Power Conservation Mechanisms 327

10.4.1 MAC Layer Mechanisms 327

10.4.2 Network Layer Mechanisms 331

10.4.3 Transport Layer Mechanisms 335

10.5 Summary 337

References 337

11. TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS AND QUALITY OF SERVICE 343
Chonggang Wang, Bo Li, and Kazem Sohraby

11.1 Introduction 343

11.2 Traditional Transport Protocols 346

11.2.1 Principles of Traditional Transport Protocols 346

11.2.2 Disadvantages of TCP and UDP 347

11.3 Transport Protocol Design for Wireless Sensor Networks 349

11.3.1 Performance Metrics 349

11.3.2 Congestion Control 351

11.3.3 Loss Recovery 353

11.3.4 Design Guidelines 355

11.4 Transport Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 356

11.4.1 Protocols for Congestion Control 356

11.4.2 Protocols for Reliability 360

11.4.3 Protocols for Congestion Control and Reliability 363

11.4.4 Open Problems 365

11.5 Summary and Future Directions 366

References 366

12. NETWORK SECURITY AND ATTACK DEFENSE 369
Yun Zhou and Yuguang Fang

12.1 Introduction 369

12.2 Confidentiality 370

12.2.1 Eavesdropping 371

12.2.2 Node Compromise 371

12.2.3 Encryption 372

12.2.4 Privacy 373

12.3 Integrity 374

12.3.1 Transmission Errors 374

12.3.2 Processing Errors 375

12.3.3 Packet Modifications 375

12.3.4 Error Control 375

12.3.5 Message Integrity Code 376

12.4 Authenticity 376

12.4.1 Packet Injection 376

12.4.2 Message Authentication Code 376

12.4.3 Challenge Response 377

12.4.4 Signature 377

12.4.5 Man-in-the-Middle 377

12.4.6 Authenticating Public Key 378

12.4.7 Broadcast and Multicast Authentication 380

12.5 Nonrepudiation 384

12.6 Freshness 385

12.6.1 Packet Replaying 385

12.6.2 Timestamp 386

12.7 Availability 386

12.7.1 Selective Forwarding 387

12.7.2 Radio Jamming 387

12.7.3 Multipath Routing 387

12.7.4 False Reports 388

12.7.5 Node Replication 389

12.8 Intrusion Detection 390

12.9 Key Management 391

12.9.1 Symmetric Key Management 391

12.9.2 Asymmetric Key Management 398

12.9.3 Group Key Management 399

12.10 Summary 400

Acknowledgments 400

References 400

13. SENSOR NETWORK STANDARDS 407
Stefano Chessa

13.1 Introduction 407

13.2 IEEE 802.15.4 Standard 408

13.2.1 Overview of the MAC Layer 409

13.2.2 Channel Access 410

13.2.3 Data-Transfer Models 411

13.2.4 MAC Layer Services 414

13.2.5 Security 417

13.3 ZigBee Standard 418

13.3.1 Network Layer 418

13.3.2 Application Layer 426

13.3.3 Security in ZigBee 430

13.4 Summary 430

References 431

14. FUTURE TRENDS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 433
Mehmet Can Vuran, Dario Pompili, and Tommaso Melodia

14.1 Introduction 433

14.2 Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks 434

14.2.1 Applications of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks 436

14.2.2 Design of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks 437

14.2.3 Ultra-Wideband Technology 439

14.2.4 Cross-Layer Design 441

14.3 Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks 443

14.3.1 Applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks 444

14.3.2 Sensor and Actor Coordination 445

14.4 Sensor Network Applications in Challenging Environments 448

14.4.1 Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks 448

14.4.2 Wireless Underground Sensor Networks 453

14.5 Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Sensor Networks 456

14.5.1 Cross-Layer Resource Allocation 457

14.5.2 Pairwise Cross-Layer Protocols 460

14.5.3 Cross-Layer Module Design 463

14.5.4 Precautionary Guidelines and Open Research Problems 464

14.6 Summary 466

Acknowledgments 466

References 466

Index 471

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