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This is the first effort to provide a broad assessment of how well the Brown v. Board of Education decision that declared an end to segregated schools in the United States was implemented. Written by a distinguished group of historians, the twelve essays in this collection examine how African Americans and their supporters in twelve states—Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida, Delaware, Missouri, Indiana, Nevada, and Wisconsin—dealt with the Court’s mandate to desegregate “with all deliberate speed.” The process followed many diverse paths. Some of the common themes in these efforts were the importance of black activism, especially the crucial role played by the NAACP; entrenched white opposition to school integration, which wasn’t just a southern state issue, as is shown in Delaware, Wisconsin, and Indiana; and the role of the federal government, a sometimes inconstant and sometimes reluctant source of support for implementing Brown.
Introduction Brian J. Daugherity Daugherity, Brian J. Charles C. Bolton Bolton, Charles C.
Implementing Brown in Arkansas Johanna Miller Lewis Lewis, Johanna Miller 1
The Cost of Opportunity: School Desegregation's Complicated Calculus in North Carolina J. Michael McElreath McElreath, J. Michael 21
"Keep on Keeping On": African Americans and the Implementation of Brown v. Board of Education in Virginia Brian J. Daugherity Daugherity, Brian J. 41
The Palmetto Revolution: School Desegregation in South Carolina Vernon Burton Burton, Vernon Lewie Reece Reece, Lewie 59
Defiance, Protest, and Compromise: The Struggle to Implement Brown in Georgia, 1950-1973 Thomas V. O'Brien O'Brien, Thomas V. 93
The Last Holdout: Mississippi and the Brown Decision Charles C. Bolton Bolton, Charles C. 123
A State Divided: Implementation of the Brown Decision in Florida, 1954-1970 Caroline Emmons Emmons, Caroline 139
Promises of Brown: Desegregating Education in Delaware, 1950-1968 Bradley Skelcher Skelcher, Bradley 155
Border State Ebb and Flow: School Desegregation in Missouri, 1954-1999 Peter William Moran Moran, Peter William 175
The Complexity of School Desegregation in the Borderland: The Case of Indiana Jayne R. Beilke Beilke, Jayne R. 199
Northern Desegregation and the Racial Politics of Magnet Schools in Milwaukee, Wisconsin Jack Dougherty Dougherty, Jack 217
Brown, Integration, and Nevada Michael S. Green Green, Michael S. 231
List of Contributors 329