Women and Political Participation: A Reference Handbook

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Women and Political Participation examines the involvement of women in American politics, concentrating mainly on their participation since the birth of the second women's movement in the late 1960s. From the creation of grassroots and national organizations to voting and running for office, this thought-provoking volume explores the diverse ways in which women have affected change and achieved greater representation in political leadership.

Detailed discussions of key documents like the Declaration of Sentiments and the Equal Rights Amendment; political action committees such as EMILY's List, which supports pro-choice Democratic female candidates; Margaret Sanger, Betty Friedan, and other activists; and groups like the League of Women Voters reveal the complexities of women's efforts to gain equality and identify the barriers that remain today.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This book is a good handbook for those looking for information on the women's political movement, elected and appointed officials, and party politics."


American Reference Books Annual

"Recommended. Academic libraries with extensive political collections; a useful introductory reference for high school to college students or medium to large public libraries."



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Product Details

Table of Contents

Series Foreword ix
Foreword xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xv
1 Overview 1
The First Wave of Feminism 4
The Second Wave of Feminism 9
Contemporary Feminism 11
The Impact of Feminism on Public Opinion 13
Women's Current Status 15
Controversial Current Issues 20
References 26
2 Protest Politics 29
Suffrage Protests 29
Second-Wave Protests 32
Case Study: The Clarence Thomas Hearings 34
Case Study: Marches for Women's Lives 36
Peace Activism 41
Case Study: Women Strike for Peace 42
Case Study: The Million Mom March 44
Case Study: CODEPINK 46
References 47
3 Women's Movements and Organizations 49
Suffrage and the National Woman's Party 50
The League of Women Voters 52
The Women's Bureau 53
The Second Wave: Equal Rights under the Law 54
The Equal Pay Movement 59
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964) 60
The National Organization for Women (1966) 62
Hispanic Women's Movements 65
The National Women's Political Caucus 67
Women of Color Organizations 68
The National Black Feminist Organization 69
The Combahee River Collective 70
The National Women's Conference (1977) 71
The Campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment (1970s to 1980s) 73
Concerned Women for America 78
The National Political Congress of Black Women 78
The Fund for a Feminist Majority 79
The Independent Women's Forum 80
The Rise of Feminist Interest Groups 82
Case Study: NARAL Pro-Choice America and Feminists for Life 84
References 85
4 Participation in Electoral Politics 89
The Impact of Suffrage 91
The Gender Gap 96
Political Involvement beyond Voting 98
Women and Political Parties 102
Feminist Issues at the Polls 106
The Effect of Gender on Elections 112
Case Study: Soccer Moms 117
Case Study: "W Stands for Women" 118
Case Study: NASCAR Dads 122
Case Study: Women's Voices, Women Vote 124
References 124
5 Women in Public Office 129
Women in Congress 130
Case Study: The Sanchez Sisters 133
Women State Officials 135
Women Governors 136
The United States in Comparative Perspective 137
The Political Parties and Women Elected Officials 140
Campaigning for Public Office 143
A Woman for President? 145
Case Study: Geraldine Ferraro, Vice Presidential Nominee 146
Case Study: EMILY's List and the WISH List 147
Women in Legislative Leadership Positions 150
Case Study: Nancy Pelosi, House Minority Leader 152
Women's Leadership in State Legislatures 153
Do Women in Public Office Make a Difference? 154
Case Study: The Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues 155
Presidential Appointments and Presidential Staff 158
Women in the Judiciary 161
Conclusion 162
Appendix Women Elected and Appointed to Public Office 164
References 178
Documents 181
Key People, Laws, and Terms 195
Resources 207
Chronology 233
Annotated Bibliography 247
Index 259
About the Author 277
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