Women in Combat: A Reference Handbook

Overview

Women have been excluded from combat roles for most of American history. During conflicts such as the American Civil War, a few women enlisted as men; in some cases, their identities as women were not discovered until after their deaths. Today, the nontraditional battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan have no clearly defined front lines, and many female soldiers have found themselves face-to-face with the enemy. Yet despite the realities of modern warfare, the subject of women ...

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Overview

Women have been excluded from combat roles for most of American history. During conflicts such as the American Civil War, a few women enlisted as men; in some cases, their identities as women were not discovered until after their deaths. Today, the nontraditional battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan have no clearly defined front lines, and many female soldiers have found themselves face-to-face with the enemy. Yet despite the realities of modern warfare, the subject of women serving in combat roles remains highly controversial.

Women in Combat: A Reference Handbook examines the historical background, current dilemmas, and global context of this contentious issue. The author explores both sides of the argument, presenting information from leading sources and gleaned from personal interviews. Statistical data, primary source documents, a directory of organizations, and print and electronic resources offer additional insight.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"A solid, unbiased reference handbook concerning a vital modern-day issue—that of women serving in military combat. . . . Women in Combat is highly recommended especially for public and college library military shelves."

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Midwest Book Review

"A new addition to the Contemporary World Issues series, this work provides a good overview of the issue of women in combat. . . . Overall, this work is a nicely arranged, easy-to-use introduction to the topic."

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Choice

"The thoroughness of this work, and the impressive list of references concluding each chapter, indicates the enormous amount of research that went into it. . . . Researchers will appreciate the lengthy annotated list of print and non-print resources, definitive glossary, and extensive index."

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School Library Journal

School Library Journal
Gr 10 Up—The thoroughness of this work, and the impressive list of references concluding each chapter, indicates the enormous amount of research that went into it. The first chapter provides background and history on one of the most controversial issues regarding women in the military: Should they be allowed to participate in combat? Fueling the debate is the fact that opinions and policies vary as to what, exactly, constitutes combat. Excerpts from speeches, interviews, military documents, and other primary sources are a major portion of the balanced narrative. One chapter offers a worldwide perspective on the issue, while another is an extensive chronology of people and events that have been part of the debate. Biographical sketches of 29 military women give credence to the arguments made in the text that women should be allowed to participate in combat, while two civilians who believe that women should remain out of combat situations are also profiled. A helping of pie charts, graphs, and tables illustrates many of the statistics cited in the narrative, and a chapter on governmental and nongovernmental organizations contains a wealth of information on, for example, veteran's organizations and museums. E-mail addresses and websites are listed for each entry. Researchers will appreciate the lengthy annotated list of print and non-print resources, definitive glossary, and extensive index. While background knowledge is essential to the use and understanding of this title, it will be a useful additional resource.—Eldon Younce, Anthony Public Library, KS
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781598844597
  • Publisher: ABC-Clio, LLC
  • Publication date: 1/19/2011
  • Series: Contemporary World Issues Series
  • Pages: 319
  • Sales rank: 1,040,970
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures xi

Preface xiii

1 Background and History 1

The Link between the History of the Definition of Combat and the Controversy 2

Legal Definition of Combat 4

The Status of Women Is Affected by Policy 4

Evolution of the Law 5

Legal Definition of Direct Ground Combat through Policy 7

The Role and Influence of Congress 15

History, Combat, and Culture 18

History and Women in Combat 19

United States History 19

Change 25

References 28

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 33

Problems 33

Policy 33

Issues That Present Challenges to Women 35

Controversies Surrounding Women in Combat and in the Military 56

Women in Direct Ground Combat 57

Physical Abilities 58

Exposure to Danger 62

Women's Effect on Unit Cohesion 62

Women's Effect on Readiness 65

The Issue of Equality 66

The Issue of Motherhood 66

Women in Combat and Societal Expectations 69

Religious Conviction and Women in Combat 70

Solutions 72

Facsimile to Reinstating the Risk Rule 72

All-Female Platoons 72

Eliminate Policy Prohibitions and Establish Gender-Neutral Performance-Based Requirements 73

References 73

3 Worldwide Perspective 83

Women as Combatants in State-Based Military 84

International Framework 84

Incidence 85

Examples of Military Roles in Some Countries 90

Progress toward Gender Equality in Women in Combat Roles 100

Selected Countries Allowing Women in Occupations Flying Aircraft or Aboard Combat Ships 101

Women as Combatants in Nonstate-Based Revolutionary and Guerilla Military 103

Afghanistan and the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan 105

Female Suicide Bombers 107

References 112

4 Chronology 119

5 Biographical Sketches 147

Specialist Veronica Alfaro, U.S. Army p147

Colonel Ruby Bradley, U.S. Army 148

Specialist Monica L. Brown, U.S. Army 149

Major Kim Campbell, U.S. Air Force 150

Colonel Eileen M. Collins, U.S. Air Force (Ret.) and Former NASA Astronaut 151

Brigadier General Rhonda Cornum, Ph.D., M.D., U.S. Army 152

Lieutenant Mary (Missy) L. Cummings, U.S. Navy 153

Elaine Donnelly 154

Major L. Tammy Duckworth, U.S. Army 155

General Ann E. Dunwoody, U.S. Army 156

Sergeant Theresa Lynn Flannery, U.S. Army 157

Captain Dawn Halfaker, U.S. Army (Ret.) 158

Colonel Kelly Hamilton, U.S. Air Force (Ret.) 159

Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester, U.S. Army 159

Major General Jeanne M. Holm, U.S. Air Force (Ret.) 160

Captain Kathleen Christine Horner, U.S. Marine Corps 162

Rear Admiral Michelle Howard, U.S. Navy 162

Lieutenant Kara Hultgreen, U.S. Navy 163

Specialist Shoshana Johnson, U.S. Army (Ret.) 165

First Lieutenant Cheryl Lamoureux, U.S. Air Force 166

Dr. Peter A. Lillback, President, Westminster Theological Seminary 166

Captain Rosemary Bryant Mariner, U.S. Navy (Ret.) 167

Sergeant April Pashley, U.S. Army Reserves 168

Major Lillian Pfluke, U.S. Army (Ret.) 169

Private Lori Piestewa, U.S. Army 170

Command Sergeant Major Cynthia A. Pritchett, U.S. Army 171

Phyllis Schlafly 172

Corporal Ramona M. Valdez, U.S. Marine Corps 173

Brigadier General Wilma L. Vaught, USAF (Ret.) 174

Lieutenant (Lt.) Kendra Williams, U.S. Navy 176

Captain Elizabeth (Betsy) G. Wylie, U.S. Navy (Ret.) 176

6 Data and Documents 179

Data Overview of the Women in the Military 179

Documents and Testimony Overview 207

Combat Exclusion Law, Air Force, Title 10 Armed Forces (USC), Subt. C, § 8549 (1976)-Repealed 1991 207

Combat Exclusion Law, Navy and Marine Corps, Title 10 Armed Forces (USC), Subt. C, § 6015 (1956)-Repealed: 1993 207

The Secretary of the Army, U.S. Code. Title 10 Subtitle B, Part I § 3013(g) 208

Army Direct Combat Probability Coding (DCPC) System, 1992 209

Army Policy for the Assignment of Female Soldiers, 1992 (Major Relevant Parts) 210

DoD Assignment Policy, 2010: Direct Ground Combat Definition and Assignment Rule 1994 (Rescinding 1988 Risk Rule) 212

Soldier's Creed 214

U.S. Constitution, Articles I-The Legislative Branch and Article II-The Executive Branch (Article I, Section 8 to Article II, Section 2) 215

Excerpt from Elaine Donnelly's Congressional Testimony, 1993 219

Profile of a Soldier 220

Policy Concerning Homosexuality in the Armed Forces: Federal Law Pub. L. 103-160 (10 U.S.C. § 654).U.S. House Repealed May 27, 2010 to Take Effect December 1, 2010 221

7 Directory of Organizations 225

Government Organizations 225

NGOs (Nongovernmental Organizations) 233

8 Resources 255

Print Resources 255

Books 255

Articles, Journals, and Journal Articles 269

Hearings and Reports 277

Legal Cases 285

Papers, Proceedings, and Memoranda 290

Theses and Dissertations 291

Nonprint Resources 293

Bibliographies 293

Databases 295

DVDS/Videotapes 297

Films/Multimedia 298

Internet Sites 300

Glossary 307

Index 311

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