Women in Iraq: The Gender Impact of International Sanctions

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Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly

In this deeply affecting, scrupulously researched study, scholar Al-Jawaheri examines how women bore the brunt of the impact of the 13 years of U.N.-backed sanctions on Iraq. Intended to force Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein to comply with international law, the sanctions "failed miserably," Al-Jawaheri writes. Indeed, "the cruel irony is that the dictator and his henchmen grew obscenely rich... while helpless civilians... were made to suffer hunger, disease, or even death." Combining heartrending statistics with case studies of women across the economic spectrum, Al-Jawaheri demonstrates that sanctions devastated the state mechanisms that had only latterly begun to free women from the constraints of a patriarchal society, "the desperate situation [forcing]... young women in Iraq to take up positions for which nothing in their lives had prepared them." Studies that focus on gender are too often consigned to the cul-de-sac of "women's studies," but in a country where women both form the majority and are responsible for somehow feeding and protecting the next generation, this story of Iraq's women is the story of Iraq's future. (July)

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781588265746
  • Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
  • Publication date: 3/1/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 229
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents

Acronyms and Abbreviations

1 The United Nations Sanctions on Iraq 1

Sanctions and War Scenarios 1

Destruction of Iraq's Economy and Welfare Scenarios 6

Gendered Analysis of Sanctions 10

Samples and Methods of Research 11

Location of the Fieldwork 12

Structure of the Book 13

2 Iraqi Women and the State: A Historical Review 15

Recasting the Nation-State in Iraq 15

Dynamics of Gender in the 1970s 17

Dynamics of Gender in the 1980s 20

Female Labour Participation in Relation to Gender Dynamics 24

Conclusion 27

3 Iraqi Women's Employment and Income under United Nations Sanctions 30

Iraqi Women's Employment Status: Statistical Review 31

Respondents' Occupational and Income Status in the Public Sector 33

Respondents' Occupational and Income Status in the Private Sector 38

Respondents' Occupational and Income Status in Family Enterprises 42

Informal Economic Activities and Self-Employment 44

Respondents' Previous and Current Employment Status 50

Conclusion 54

4 The Crisis of Female Education under the UN Sanctions 57

Recasting the Development of Female Education in Iraq 57

The Education of Females: Statistical Aggregates 59

Quality of Education under Sanctions: An Assessment 64

Material Incentive of Female Education under Sanctions 70

The Crisis in Education: A Crisis of Many Faces 73

Conclusion 76

5 The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Gender Relations Inside the Family 79

Case Studies 80

The Iraqi Family in Tradition and Contemporary Contexts 93

Conclusion 105

6 The Psychological Impact of Sanctions on Iraqi Women 108

Violence against Women: Definitions 108

Women's Domestic Responsibility118

Conclusion 125

7 Conclusion 127

International Sanctions: The New World Order 127

Iraq: A Unique Target for Sanctions 128

The Sanctions on Iraq: The Political Failure 130

Sanctions on Iraq: The Humanitarian Failure 131

Iraqi Women: The Gender Impact of Sanctions 134

Women in Pose-Invasion Iraq 141

Is it Democracy or a Backward Move? 144

Notes 147

Appendix 171

Bibliography 195

Index of Subjects 221

Index of Names 227

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