Word Meaning and Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague's PTQ / Edition 1

Word Meaning and Montague Grammar: The Semantics of Verbs and Times in Generative Semantics and in Montague's PTQ / Edition 1

by D. R. Dowty

Product Details

Springer Netherlands
Publication date:
Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy Series, #7
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
1.06(w) x 9.21(h) x 6.14(d)

Table of Contents

1. Montague’s General Theory of Languages and Linguistic Theories of Syntax and Semantics.- 1.1 The meaning of “Universal” in “Universal Grammar”.- 1.2 Syntax in the UG Theory and in Linguistic Theories.- 1.2.1 Language and Disambiguated Language in UG.- 1.2.2 Montague’s Use of the Ambiguation Relation R.- 1.2.3 Other Ways of Construing the Ambiguating Relation R.- 1.2.4 The Relation R as Transformational Component.- 1.2.5 R and the Potential Vacuity of the Compositionality Thesis.- 1.2.6 Trade-Offs between R and the Syntactic Operations.- 1.2.7 Transformations as Independent Syntactic Rules.- 1.3 Semantics in UG.- 1.3.1 The Compositionality of Meanings.- 1.3.2 Katz’ Early Theory as an Instance of the General Theory of Meanings.- 1.3.3 The Theory of Reference in UG.- 1.3.4 Generative Semantics as an Instance of UG.- 1.4 Interpretation by Means of Translation.- 1.4.1 Translations and Semantic Representation.- 1.4.2 Classical GS and Upside-down GS.- 1.4.3 Directionality.- 1.5 Preliminaries to the Analysis of Word Meaning.- 1.5.1 The Direction of Decomposition.- 1.5.2 Is a Level of “Semantic Representation” Necessary?.- 1.5.3 Lexical Decompositions and the Description of Entailments.- 1.5.4 Decomposition and Structuralism.- 1.5.5 Possible Word Meanings in Natural Language.- Notes.- 2. The Semantics of Aspectual Classes of Verbs in English.- 2.1 The Development of Decomposition Analysis in Generative Semantics.- 2.1.1 Pre-GS Decomposition Analyses.- 2.1.2 Causatives and Inchoatives in Lakoff’s Dissertation.- 2.1.3 McCawley’s Post-Transformational Lexical Insertion.- 2.1.4 Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Evidence for Decomposition.- 2.1.5 The Place of Lexical Insertion Transformations in a GS Derivation.- 2.2The Aristotle-Ryle-Kenny-Vendler Verb Classification.- 2.2.1 The Development of the Verb Classification.- 2.2.2 States and Activities.- 2.2.3 Activities and Accomplishments.- 2.2.4 Achievements.- 2.2.5 Lexical Ambiguity.- 2.2.6 The Problem of Indefinite Plurals and Mass Nouns.- 2.2.7 Examples of the Four Vendler Categories in Syntactic and Semantic Subcategories.- 2.3 An Aspect Calculus.- 2.3.1 The Goal and Purpose of an Aspect Calculus.- 2.3.2 Statives, von Wright’s Logic of Change, and BECOME.- 2.3.3 A Semantic Solution to the Problem of Indefinites and Mass Nouns.- 2.3.4 Carlson’s Treatment of ‘Bare Plurals’.- 2.3.5 Degree-Achievements.- 2.3.6 Accomplishments and CAUSE.- 2.3.7 CAUSE and Lewis’ Analysis of Causation.- 2.3.8 DO, Agency and Activity Verbs.- 2.3.9 The Semantics of DO.- 2.3.10 DO in Accomplishments.- 2.3.11 Summary of the Aspect Calculus.- 2.4The Aspect Calculus as Restricting Possible Word Meanings.- Notes.- 3. Interval Semantics and the Progressive Tense.- 3.1 The Imperfective Paradox.- 3.2 Truth Conditions Relative to Intervals, not Moments.- 3.3 Revised Truth Conditions for BECOME.- 3.4 Truth Conditions for the Progressive.- 3.5 Motivating the Progressive Analysis Independently of Accomplishment Sentences.- 3.6 On the Notion of ‘Likeness’ Among Possible Worlds.- 3.7 Extending the Analysis to the “Futurate Progressive”.- 3.8 Another Look at the Vendler Classification in an Interval-Based Semantics.- 3.8.1 The Non-Homogeneity of the Activity Class.- 3.8.2 “Stative” Verbs in the Progressive Tense.- 3.8.3 A Revised Verb Classification.- 3.8.4 Accomplishments with Event-Objects.- Notes.- 4. Lexical Decomposition in Montague Grammar.- 4.1 Existing “Lexical Decomposition” in the PTQ Grammar.- 4.2 The General Form of Decomposition Translations: Lambda Abstraction vs. Predicate Raising.- 4.3 Morphologically Derived Causatives and Inchoatives.- 4.4 Prepositional Phrase Accomplishments.- 4.5 Accomplishments with Two Prepositional Phrases.- 4.6 Prepositional Phrase Adjuncts vs. Prepositional Phrase Complements.- 4.7 Factitive Constructions.- 4.8 Periphrastic Causatives.- 4.9 By-Phrases in Accomplishment Sentences.- 4.10 Causative Constructions in Other Languages.- Notes.- 5. Linguistic Evidence for the Two Strategies of Lexical Decomposition.- 5.1 Arguments that Constraints on Syntactic Rules Rule Out “Impossible” Lexical Items.- 5.2 Arguments that Familiar Transformations Also Apply Pre-Lexically.- 5.3 Pronominalization of Parts of Lexical Items.- 5.4 Scope Ambiguities with Almost.- 5.5 Scope Ambiguities with Adverbs: Have-Deletion Cases.- 5.6 Scope Ambiguities with Adverbs: Accomplishment Cases.- 5.7 Arguments from Re- and Reversative Un-.- 5.8 Accommodating the Adverb Scope Data in a PTQ Grammar.- 5.8.1 Treating the Verb as Ambiguous.- 5.8.2 Treating the Adverb as Ambiguous.- 5.8.3 Accommodating the “Have-Deletion” Cases.- 5.9 Overpredictions of the Generative Semantics Hypothesis.- 5.9.1 Newmeyer’s and Aissen’s Cases: Interaction with Familiar Cyclic Transformations.- 5.9.2 Adverb Raising/Operator Raising.- 5.9.3 Pre-Lexical Quantifier Lowering.- 5.9.4 Quantifier Lowering and Carlson’s Analysis of Bare Plurals.- 5.10 Concluding Evaluation.- Notes.- 6. The Syntax and Semantics of Word Formation: Lexical Rules.- 6.1 Montague’s Program and Lexical Rules.- 6.2 A Lexical Component For a Montague Grammar.- 6.3 Lexical Rules and Morphology.- 6.4 Lexical Rules and Syntax.- 6.5 Examples of Lexical Rules.- 6.6 Problems for Research in the Pragmatics and in the Semantics of Word Formation.- Notes.- 7. The Syntax and Semantics of Tenses and Time Adverbials in English: An English Fragment.- 7.1 The Syncategorematic Nature of Tense-Time Adverbial Interaction.- 7.2 Rules for “Main Tense” Adverbials.- 7.3 Aspectual Adverbials: For an Hour and In an Hour.- 7.4 The Syntactic Structure of the Auxiliary.- 7.5 The Present Perfect.- 7.6 Negation.- 7.7 An English Fragment.- 7.7.1 Basic Model-Theoretic Definitions.- 7.7.2 The Syntax and Interpretation of the Translation Language.- 7.7.3 The Syntax and Translation of English.- 7.7.4 Lexical Rules.- 7.7.5 Lexicon.- 7.7.6 Examples.- Notes.- 8. Intensions and Psychological Reality.- Notes.- References.

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