Words Their Way with Struggling Readers: Word Study for Reading, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction, Grades 4 - 12

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Intended for the classroom teacher, this newest addition to the Words Their Way® series provides specific guidance, strategies, and tools for helping struggling students, grades 4 and up, catch up with their peers in literacy. The thrust is intervention — specifically, utilizing word study with its hands-on, assessable approach to aid students struggling with the vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension load of middle and secondary classrooms. This book will help you determine student needs, provide you with the strategies to guide each student toward success in content area comprehension, and even outline ideas for fitting these strategies into your crowded schedule.

Check out what educators are saying about Words Their Way ® with Struggling Adolescent Readers!

"Your chapters deal with the realities of a teacher’s day and demonstrate ways that teachers can incorporate skills and strategies across the content areas. I really learned a great deal from this copy. You have so many excellent ideas that will help teachers."

Karen Polk, Northport Schools, New York

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

Your chapters deal with the realities of a teacher’s day and demonstrate ways that teachers can incorporate skills and strategies across the content areas. I really learned a great deal from this copy. You have so many excellent ideas that will help teachers.

Karen Polk, Northport Schools, New York

I see the goal as an attempt to answer the needs of knowledgeable teachers and reading specialists working with adolescents in school settings. I think the authors have struck a near perfect rendition of the scope needed to address their goals.

Rod Winters, Winona State University

The major goal of this book is to provide specific strategies to improve the reading skills of struggling older readers. I believe that the authors have fully accomplished this goal. They have also successfully provided many great suggestions and activities to help content area teachers make content reading and comprehension more accessible.

Debbie Cottle, Columbus Academy, Ohio

The authors' in-depth description of classroom management and organization should go a long way toward alleviating fears that teachers have of implementing word study in the intermediate or secondary grades. Teachers of any subject area can immediately begin using these strategies in their classrooms and feel confident doing so. Every middle or high school teacher should have a copy of Words Their Way ® with Struggling Adolescent Readers in their classroom regardless of the subject being taught.

David Smith, University of Nevada, Reno

Well written, lots of good teaching examples, some wonderful insights about vocabulary that will stick with teachers. The teaching activities are excellent and teachers will find them highly useful. I very much appreciated having the great assessment tools. The goal settng guide is also excellent. Teachers won't get this information elsewhere.

Timothy Shanahan, University of Illinois, Chicago

The authors have created a comprehensive text for teaching struggling readers, English Language Learners, and even most all of our students how to learn vocabulary and word study. There is a definite need for this kind of instruction, and these authors do quite well in presenting the material for pre-service and practicing teachers.

Jackie Glasgow, Ohio University


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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780135135211
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 5/31/2010
  • Series: Words Their Way Series
  • Pages: 360
  • Sales rank: 194,678
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Kevin R. Flanigan has taught as both a classroom teacher in the upper elementary/middle grades and as a reading specialist/literacy coach working with kindergartners through middle-grades students. He has authored or co-authored articles in The Reading Teacher, The Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, and the Journal of Literacy Research and has presented frequently at regional, national, and international conferences.

Latisha Hayes is an Assistant Professor at the University of Virginia in the department of Curriculum, Instruction and Special Education. She is the 2003 award recipient of the Jeanne S. Chall Research Fellowship, which encourages and supports reading research by promising scholars.

Shane Templeton is Foundation Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Nevada, Reno, where he is Program Coordinator for Literacy Studies. A former elementary and secondary teacher, his research focuses on the development of orthographic knowledge. He has written several books on the teaching and learning of reading and language arts and is a member of the Usage Panel of the American Heritage Dictionary. He is author of the "Spelling Logics" column in Voices from the Middle, the middle school journal of the National Council of Teachers of English.

Donald R. Bear is director of the E. L. Cord Foundation Center for Learning and Literacy where he and preservice, Master’s and doctoral students teach and assess children who struggle to learn to read and write. Donald is a professor in the Department of Educational Specialties in the College of Education at the University of Nevada, Reno. Donald has been a classroom teacher and he researches and writes about literacy development and instruction. He is an author of numerous articles, book chapters, and books, including Words Their Way® , Words Their Way ® with English Learners, and Vocabulary Their Way.

Marcia Invernizzi is a professor of reading education at the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia. Marcia is also the director of the McGuffey Reading Center, where she teaches the clinical practica in reading diagnosis and remedial reading. Formerly an English and reading teacher, she works with Book Buddies, Virginia's Early Intervention Reading Initiative (EIRI), and Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS).

Francine Johnston is a former first grade teacher and reading specialist who learned about word study during her graduate work at the University of Virginia. She is now an associate professor in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, where she teaches courses in reading, language arts, and children's literature. Francine frequently works with regional school systems as a consultant and researcher. Her research interests include current spelling practices and materials as well as the relationship between spelling and reading achievement.

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Table of Contents


PART I Introduction to Word Study with Struggling Readers, Grades 4-12

Chapter 1 Word Study with Older Struggling Readers 1

The Statistics on Older Struggling Readers 2

The Importance of Word Knowledge for Struggling Readers 3

The Difficulties Facing Older Struggling Readers 6

Word Study Instruction with Older Struggling Readers 12

How Word Study Differs from Traditional Approaches to Spelling, Reading, and Vocabulary Instruction 14

The Basis of Word Study 18

Three Layers of English Orthography 18

Word Study is Developmental---Even for Struggling Readers 20

Chapter 2 Core Word Study Principles and Practices for Spelling, Reading, and Vocabulary Instruction 27

Five Core Principles of Word Study for Spelling, Reading, and Vocabulary Instruction 28

Core Word Study Practices That Build Spelling and Reading Knowledge 39

Core Word Study Practices That Build Vocabulary Knowledge 51

Core Vocabulary Activities 54

PART II Word Study Assessment and Instruction for Spelling and Reading

Chapter 3 Assessment: Spelling and Reading 59

"Why Are They Spelling Pounce as Panse?" 59

Why Developmental Assessment? 59

Strategically Observe Spelling 60

Qualitative Spelling Inventories 62

Strategically Observe Reading 81

Progress Monitoring 85

Organizing Your Classroom 88

Chapter 4 The Within Word Pattern Stage 93

Reading, Writing, and Spelling Characteristics 95

The Within Word Pattern Stage: Sequence of Development 100

The Within Word Pattern Stage: Development and Instruction 100

Word Study Activities for Struggling Readers at the Within Word Pattern Stage 112

Chapter 5 The Syllables and Affixes Stage 125

Reading, Writing, and Spelling Characteristics 126

The Syllables and Affixes Stage: Sequence of Development 131

The Syllables and Affixes Stage: Development and Instruction 131

Word Study Activities for Struggling Readers at the Intermediate/Syllables and Affixes Stage 145

PART III Word Study Assessment and Instruction for Vocabulary

Chapter 6 Generative Vocabulary Instruction: Teaching Struggling Readers to Crack the Meaning Code in English 161

A Comprehensive Approach to Teaching Vocabulary 162

The Power of Generative Vocabulary Instruction: Catching Up with the Classics 162

Generative Vocabulary: Sequence of Instruction for Core Affixes and Roots 168

Generative Vocabulary Instruction: Guidelines and Resources 175

Activities for Generative Vocabulary Instruction 178

Chapter 7 Word-Specific Vocabulary Instruction 201

Critical Questions for Vocabulary Instruction 202

Matching Students, Goals, Words, and Activities 202

The Nature of Words: Three Types of Vocabulary 203

The Three-Level Framework: All Words Are Not Created Equal 204

A Process for Choosing, Organizing, and Prioritizing Words 207

Activities for Word-Specific Vocabulary Instruction 210

Chapter 8 Vocabulary Assessment and Organization 235

Assessing Vocabulary: What Does it Mean to Know a Word? 236

Word-Specific Vocabulary Assessment and Learning 239

Generative Vocabulary Assessment and Learning 249

Include Students in Assessment-Based Planning and Goal Setting 252

Classroom Organization and Scheduling for Vocabulary Instruction 256


Appendix A Assessment Materials 264

Appendix B Goal-Setting/Monitoring Charts 277

Appendix C Reading Error Analysis 283

Appendix D Choosing Words 285

Appendix E Creating Your Own Word Sorts 307

Appendix F Word and Root Lists for Generative Activities and Word Sorts 317

Appendix G Vocabulary Templates 325

Appendix H Vocabulary Assessment Activities 329

References 345

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