Work, Identity, And Legal Status At Rome

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In Work, Identity, and Legal Status at Rome, Sandra R. Joshel examines Roman commemorative inscriptions from the first and second centuries A.D. to determine ways in which slaves, freed slaves, and unprivileged freeborn citizens used work to frame their identities. The inscriptions indicate the significance of work-as a source of community, a way to reframe the conditions of legal status, an assertion of activity against upper-class passivity, and a standard of assessment based on economic achievement rather than birth.

Drawing on sociology, anthropology, ethnography, and women’s history, this thoroughly documented volume illuminates the dynamics of work and slavery at Rome.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780806124445
  • Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
  • Publication date: 4/15/1992
  • Series: Oklahoma Series in Classical Culture
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 256
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.50 (h) x 0.58 (d)

Meet the Author

Sandra R. Joshel, who holds a doctoral degree in history from Rutgers University, teaches at the New England conservatory of Music.

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Read an Excerpt

Native American Placenames Of The Southwest

A Handbook For Travelers

By William Bright, Alice Anderton, Sean O'Neill


Copyright © 2013 University of Oklahoma Press
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-8061-2444-5




A'AI STO (AZ, Pima Co.) A Tohono O'odham (Papago) community; the Tohono O'odham name a'ai sto means 'onboth-sides white', describing the surrounding valley.

AASAYII Wash (AZ, Navajo Co.) \ah SAH yee\. Probably from Navajo ásaayi' 'in a bowl', from ásaa' 'bowl'. A related name is Asayi (NM, McKinley Co.).

ABIQUIU (NM, Rio Arriba Co.) \AH bi kyoo, ah bi KYOO\. The Spanish town was founded in the 1500s on the site of a Tewa village called p'ešu(-mbu'u) 'timber-end (town)', but the source of the name Abiquiu is unknown. The modern town was made famous as the longtime residence of the late artist Georgia O'Keeffe, whose house is now open to the public as a museum.

ABO (NM, Torrance Co.) \ah BOH\. From the extinct Tompiro language; said to have meant 'water bowl'. First visited by Spaniards in 1598. The archaeological site is part of the Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument.

ACALA (TX, Hudspeth Co.) \uh KAL uh\. The name is from Acala cotton, a variety originating in Acala, Chiapas, Mexico. The Mexican placename is from Aztec acallan 'place of boats', from acalli 'boat'.

ACHI (AZ, Pima Co.) \AH chee\. A village on the Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation; the name aji means 'thin, narrow'. This is the traditional site of a special prayer stick ceremony.

ACOMA \AH koh muh, AK oh muh, AK uh muh\. From Spanish Ácoma, from Keresan áak'úume 'a person from Acoma', containing áak'u 'Acoma pueblo'. Acoma Pueblo (NM, Cibola Co.), with its adjacent visitor center and museum, is the ceremonial center of the Acoma Indian Reservation. Because of its location on top of a mesa, Acoma is sometimes called "Sky City." There is also an Acoma in Arizona (Maricopa Co.).

ACOMILLA (NM, Socorro Co.) \ah kuh MEE yuh\. The name of this historic site is a Spanish diminutive of Ácoma, the term for the pueblo.

ACOMITA (NM, Cibola Co.) \ah kuh MEE tuh\. An alternative Spanish diminutive of Ácoma. This village was settled by residents of nearby Acoma Pueblo around 1870, when danger of raids by Apaches and Navajos no longer existed.

ADAHCHIJIYAHI Canyon (AZ, Navajo Co.) From Navajo adah ch'íjíyáhí 'where someone walked off a cliff', containing adah 'downward'.

ADAIR (OK, Mayes Co.) \AY dar\. A Cherokee family name. Named after William Penn Adair, a Cherokee leader. There is also an Adair County, Oklahoma.

ADULTERY Dune (AZ, Apache Co.) Corresponds to Navajo séí adiléhé 'adultery sand', from séí 'sand' and adilyé 'adultery'. The dune was a secluded place visited by illicit lovers.

AGATHLA Peak (AZ, Navajo Co.) \uh GATH luh\. From Navajo aghaalá 'animal hair', from aghaa 'hair of animal, wool' and 'much'. A tradition holds that Indians killed an antelope herd near here and scraped the hair from the hides against rocks at the base of this volcanic peak.

AGAWAM (OK, Grady Co.) \A guh wahm\. A transfer name from Agawam, Massachusetts (Hampden Co.); from southern New England Algonquian, containing -woonki 'crooked'.

AGUA SAL Creek (AZ, Apache Co.) Corresponds to Navajo tó dík'oozh ch'íníli 'salty water flows out' (lit. 'water salt flows-out').

AGUICO (NM, Cibola Co.) \HAH wi koo\. This archeological site was once a Zuni village; it was encountered by Spanish explorers in 1539. The name was earlier written HAWIKUH and is now often written Hawikku.

AHAN OWUCH (AZ, Pima Co.) A Tohono O'odham (Papago) village; the name a'an owij is literally 'feather awl'.

AHE VONAM (AZ, Pima Co.) A Tohono O'odham (Papago) village. The Tohono O'odham name a'ai wonami means 'hat on-both-ends', supposedly because one of the nearby Brownell Mountains looks like a hat when viewed from either side.

AHLOSO (OK, Pontotoc Co.) \uh LOS oh\. From the Chickasaw placename haalooso. A post office here was so named between 1904 and 1917.

AHOL SAH (AZ, Coconino Co.) Perhaps from Navajo ahoodzá 'hole, cavity'.

AHPEATONE (OK, Cotton Co.) \uh PEE uh tone\. The name of a post office from 1907 to 1916; said to be from Kiowa á:fìtaugàu 'lance-wood', referring to the Kiowa leader called Wooden Lance in English.

AH-SHI-SLE-PAH Wash (NM, San Juan Co.) \ah shee SHLEP uh\. From Navajo áshiihlibá, lit. 'salt-gray'. Part of the colorful landforms here are administered as a wilderness area by the Bureau of Land Management.

AHWATUKEE (AZ, Maricopa Co.) \ah wah TOO kee\. This settlement was built around a house called in Spanish Casa de Sueños 'house of dreams'; the name is said to represent a translation of that phrase into Crow, a Siouan language of Montana. The closest counterpart identifiable in Crow, however, is awachúhka 'flat land, prairie'.

AJO (AZ, Pima Co.) \AH ho\. Perhaps a Spanish spelling of the Tohono O'odham (Papago) word for a red ore used for painting one's body; it has nothing to do with Spanish ajo 'garlic'. The post office was established in 1900 at Old Ajo, but when that town burned to the ground, the name was transferred to the nearby settlement of Cornelia. Ajo was the home of the first copper mine in the state, and visitors can now view the New Cornelia Open Pit Mine, nearly two miles wide.

AK CHIN (AZ, Pinal Co.) \ahk CHIN\. A village on the Maricopa Ak Chin Indian Reservation, south of Phoenix; the Pima name aki ciñ means 'arroyo mouth'.

AK CHUT VAYA (AZ, Pima Co.) \AHK tit VWAH ya, AHK chit vwahya\. On the Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation; from Tohono O'odham aki ched wahia 'arroyo well'.

AK KOMELIK (AZ, Pima Co.) \ahk KO muh lik\. On the Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation; the Tohono O'odham name akiikomalik is literally 'arroyo flat'.

ALABAMA. This word, the name of a Muskogean-speaking tribe affiliated with the Muskogee, was also given to the state of Alabama. The name is probably from a Choctaw term meaning 'plant cutters'. The present-day Choctaw form is albaamu, from albah 'plant' and amo 'to clear'; the word albah may refer specifically to medicinal plants. Descendants of the Alabama tribe currently live on the Alabama-Coushatta Reservation near Livingston, Texas (Polk Co.), and in the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, affiliated with the Creek Nation, at Henryetta, Oklahoma (Okmulgee Co.). There are streams named Alabama Creek in Texas (Trinity Co.) and Oklahoma (Okfuskee Co.).

ALCHESAY Canyon (AZ, Maricopa Co.) \al chi SAY\. In 1917 this site was given the name of a famous White Mountain Apache leader, alchísé, meaning 'little one'.

ALI AK CHIN (AZ, Pima Co.) \ah lee ahk CHIN\. On the Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation; the Tohono O'odham name ali aki ciñ means 'little arroyo mouth'.

ALI CHUK (AZ, Pima Co.) \ah lee CHUK\. On the Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation; the Tohono O'odham name is ali jeg 'small hole'.

ALI CHUKSON (AZ, Pima Co.) \ah lee CHOOK son\. A village on the Tohono O'odham (Papago) reservation; the Tohono O'odham name ali cukson 'little black base' refers to the foot of a black lava hill. A Spanish name for the site is Tucsoncito 'little Tucson', reflecting the fact that the name TUCSON is derived from the Native term cukson 'black base'.

ALIKCHI (OK, McCurtain Co.) \ah LIK chee, ah LIK shee\. From Choctaw alikchi 'doctor,' a reference to the nearby sulfur springs. During the period 1864–1907, Alikchi was the seat of NASHOBA County in APUKSHUNNUBBEE District of the Choctaw Nation. A post office was there between 1888 and 1931.

ALI MOLINA (AZ, Pima Co.) \ah lee mo LEE nuh\. On the Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation; the term ali mali:na 'little Magdalena' refers to a town in Mexico named Magdalena.

ALI OIDAK (AZ, Pima Co.) \ah lee OI dahk\. A Tohono O'odham (Papago) community; in Tohono O'odham ali oidag means 'little field'.

ALI WUA Pass (AZ, Pima Co.) \ah lee WOO uh\. The Tohono O'odham (Papago) name ali wua means 'little pond'.

ALLUWE (OK, Nowata Co.) \AL oo way\. From Delaware alëwi 'more'. A post office had this name between 1883 and 1909.

AL TSE TOH (AZ, Apache Co.) \ahl SEE to\. Apparently from Navajo áltsé tó, lit. 'first water'.

ALUMA, Lake (OK, Oklahoma Co.) \uh LOO muh\. This reservoir and municipality, adjoining Oklahoma City on the northeast, was originally a game preserve. The name is said to be a shortening of Choctaw aaloma cholosa 'peaceful retreat'.

ALZONA Park (AZ, Maricopa Co.) \al ZOH nah\. A government housing project built on the outskirts of Phoenix during World War II; the name was formed by combining the "Al" from the Alcoa Aluminum Company with the last part of the name Arizona.

AMABALA (OK, Okfuskee Co.) \am uh BA la\. A reversed spelling of the name Alabama. That state is named after a Muskogean-speaking Indian tribe associated with the Muskogee; the term may be from Choctaw albaamu 'plant cutters'. An Amabala post office existed from 1900 to 1907.

AMOLA Ridge (NM, Mora Co.) Perhaps based on a form of amole, the Spanish name of a plant, sometimes called soaproot, ultimately from Aztec amolli.

AMOLE Peak (AZ, Pima Co.) \uh MOH lee\. The Spanish name of a plant, sometimes called soaproot, ultimately from Aztec amolli. The name occurs elsewhere in Cañada de Amole (NM, Santa Fe Co.), in Los Amoles (NM, Doña Ana Co.), which used the Spanish plural form, and perhaps in AMOLA Ridge (NM, Mora Co.).

AMOXIUMQUA (NM, Sandoval Co.) \uh MAHK see uhm kwah\. The Spanish spelling reflects Jemez amun-sho-kwa 'ant hill'.

AMUSOVI Mesa (AZ, Navajo Co.) From Hopi angwus'ovi 'high raven place'; from angwusi 'raven', ooveq 'high', and -vi 'place'.

ANACACHO (TX, Kinney Co.) \an uh KAH choh\. Perhaps an Indian name, but the derivation is not clear. The Anacacho Mountains are nearby.

ANADARCHE Creek (OK, Love Co.) \an uh DAHR kee\. From the same origin as ANADARKO.

ANADARKO (OK, county seat of Caddo Co.) \an uh DAHR ko\. From Caddo \ nadá:kuh\ 'bumblebee place', referring to the Caddo-speaking Bumblebee people. The post office was established here in 1873. There is also an Anadarko in Texas (Rusk Co.). A related name is Anadarche Creek.

ANALCO (NM, Santa Fe Co.) \uh NAL koh\. This neighborhood of Santa Fe was settled around 1610 by Indians whom Spanish colonists brought from Tlaxcala, Mexico. They spoke Aztec, and it was they who brought the name analco 'on the other side of the water'. This is the oldest settled area in Santa Fe, apart from the area immediately around the central plaza.

ANAHUAC (TX, seat of Chambers Co.) \AN uh wahk\. This name, dating from 1870, was transferred from Mexico; the Aztecs applied the word anahuac, lit. 'near the water', to their territory in central Mexico. The Spanish or Aztec pronunciation is \ah NAH wahk\. The Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge in Texas is on Galveston Bay.

ANASAZI Ruins (AZ, Apache Co.) \ah nuh SAH zee\. The term Anasazi designates pueblo dwellers who flourished from around a.d. 100 to 1300. The name was borrowed from Navajo anaasázi 'ancestors of enemies', referring to the modern Pueblo peoples of the Southwest as enemies of the Navajos; from Navajo ana'í 'enemy' and asází 'ancestor'.

ANEGAM (AZ, Pima Co.) On the Tohono O'odham (Papago) Reservation; from Tohono O'odham aanegam 'desert broom plants'.

ANNONA (TX, Red River Co.) This is the botanical name for the fruit genus otherwise known as the sweetsop or cherimoya; it is from Spanish anona, borrowed from an Arawakan language of the Caribbean area.

APACHE \uh PACH ee\. This is a cover term for several Indian peoples speaking languages related to Navajo. The Spanish form apache was first recorded in New Mexico in 1598; it is derived not from any Apachean language but from Yavapai 'paacha 'people'. At present, members of the Western Apache tribe live in Arizona on the Fort Apache and San Carlos Indian reservations and on the Tonto Indian Reservation near Payson (Gila Co.). The Mescalero Apache tribe lives on the Mescalero Indian Reservation in New Mexico (Otero Co.). Members of the Lipan Apache tribe also live on the Mescalero Reservation. The Jicarilla Apache tribe lives on the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation in northwestern New Mexico. The Chiricahua Apache tribe lives partly on the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico and partly in the Fort Sill Apache community near Lawton, Oklahoma (Comanche Co.). The Plains Apaches (formerly known as Kiowa-Apaches) are represented by the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, located at Anadarko, Oklahoma (Caddo Co.). The placename Apache occurs in many states; examples are the settlement of Apache in Oklahoma (Caddo Co.), Apache County (AZ), Fort Apache (AZ, Navajo Co.), Apache Peak and Apache Lake (AZ, Maricopa Co.), and Apache Peak (NM, Colfax Co.).

APACHERÍA (AZ, Gila Co.) \uh pach uh REE uh\. Spanish for 'Apache country'; see APACHE.

APONIVI (AZ, Navajo Co.) \uh POH nee vee\. From the Hopi placename apòonivi, of unclear meaning.

APPALACHIA (OK, Pawnee Co.) \ap uh LAY chee uh\. The exact location of this historic site, adjoining Keystone, is not on record. From Apalachee, the name of a Muskogean-speaking Indian tribe originally living in northwestern Florida; perhaps derived from Apalachee abalahci 'other side of the river'. The name of the Appalachian Mountains, in the eastern United States, is derived from the same source, as is, probably, the name of the Florida town Appalachicola.

APPALOOSA Ridge (AZ, Coconino Co.) \ap uh LOO suh, ah puh LOO sah\. Named after a breed of horse traditionally associated with the Nez Percé tribe of Idaho and the Palouse River of their region. The term is perhaps better associated, however, with the placename Opelousas (Louisiana, St. Landry Parish). Palouse is from Sahaptin palú:s 'what is standing up in the water'; Opelousas may be from Choctaw api losa 'black body'.

APUKSHUNNUBBEE District (OK) \ah puhk shuh NUH bee\. Named after a prominent Choctaw leader whose name included abi 'kill'. The area was part of the Choctaw Nation in the period 1864—1907; it corresponds to several present-day counties in the extreme southeastern corner of Oklahoma.

AQPI (AZ, Navajo Co.) This name of a spring may be from Hopi.

ARANSAS (TX) \uh RAN zus\. The name originally referred to the channel between Mustang and St. Joseph's islands; the Indian term aranzu (perhaps from the now extinct language Karankawa) was applied by a Spanish explorer in 1746. The name was later applied to Aransas County, to the Aransas River (Refugio and San Patricio Cos.), and to the towns of Aransas Pass (San Patricio Co.) and Port Aransas (Nueces Co.), all in Texas. Aransas National Wildlife Refuge is in adjacent Calhoun County.

ARAPAHO (OK, county seat of Custer Co.) \uh RAP uh hoh\. The name refers to a Plains Indian tribe of the Algonquian language family; at present one branch lives in Wyoming, and the other, near Concho, Oklahoma (Canadian Co.). The name of the tribe may have been borrowed by whites from Crow aa-raxpé-ahu, 'tattoo'. The headquarters of the Cheyenne-Arapahoe Tribes of Oklahoma is at Concho, Oklahoma (Canadian Co.).

ARAVAIPA (AZ, Graham Co.) \air uh VIE puh, ah ruh VIE puh\. The name was first given to Aravaipa Creek, probably from Tohono O'odham (Papago) ali waippia 'little wells' (plural of wahia 'well'). The post office dates from 1892.


Excerpted from Native American Placenames Of The Southwest by William Bright, Alice Anderton, Sean O'Neill. Copyright © 2013 University of Oklahoma Press. Excerpted by permission of UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA PRESS.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents


List of Maps,
Author's Introduction,
Editors' Introduction,
Guide to English Pronunciation,
Guide to the Pronunciation of Native Words,
Comments on Spelling Systems,
Abbreviations Used in the Placename Entries,
Native American Placenames,
Appendix 1. Languages and Language Families Mentioned in This Guide,
Appendix 2. Tribal Contact Information,
Selected References,

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