A Working Guide to Process Equipment, 2nd Edition / Edition 2

A Working Guide to Process Equipment, 2nd Edition / Edition 2

by Norman P. Lieberman, Elizabeth T. Lieberman, Elizabeth T. Lieberman, Elizabeth T. Lieberman

ISBN-10: 0071390871

ISBN-13: 9780071390873

Pub. Date: 10/01/2002

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing

Working Guide to Process Equipment, 2nd Ed. carefully and clearly explains all the basic technical issues that you need to know to trouble-shoot most process equipment problems. This guide contains a wealth of useful diagnostic tips, worked-out calculations, practical examples, and informative illustrations to help you quickly pinpoint trouble and repair


Working Guide to Process Equipment, 2nd Ed. carefully and clearly explains all the basic technical issues that you need to know to trouble-shoot most process equipment problems. This guide contains a wealth of useful diagnostic tips, worked-out calculations, practical examples, and informative illustrations to help you quickly pinpoint trouble and repair typical malfunctions in: Trayed and packed distillation towers; Natural and forced reboilers; Partial and total condensers; Steam systems and deaerators; Vaccuum systems; Fired heaters; Shell and tube heat exchangers; Centrifugal compressors; Gas turbines and reciprocating engines; Centrifugal pumps and motor drivers.

In no time at all, this essential problem-solving manual will become your most trusted on-the-job tool for dealing effectively wtih costly equipment malfunctions.

Product Details

McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date:
Professional Engineering Ser.
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
6.46(w) x 9.16(h) x 1.69(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to Second Edition

Preface to First Edition


Chapter 1. How Trays Work: Flooding (Downcomer Backup)

Tray Efficiency

Downcomer Backup

Downcomer Clearance

Vapor--Flow Pressure Drop

Jet Flood

Incipient Flood

Tower Pressure Drop and Flooding

Chapter 2. How Trays Work: Dumping (Weeping Through Tray Decks)

Tray Pressure Drop

Other Causes of Tray Inefficiency

Bubble-Cap Trays

New High Capacity Trays

Chapter 3. Why Control Tower Pressure (Options for Optimizing Tower Operating Pressure)

Selecting an Optimum Tower Pressure

Raising the Tower Pressure Target

Lowering the Tower Pressure

The Phase Rule in Distillation

Chapter 4. What Drives Distillation Towers (Reboiler Function)

The Reboiler

Heat-Balance Calculations

Chapter 5. How Reboilers Work (Thermosyphon, Gravity Feed, and Forced)

Thermosyphon Reboilers

Forced-Circulation Reboilers

Kettle Reboilers

Don't Forget Fouling

Chapter 6. How Instruments Work (Levels, Pressures, Flows, and Temperatures)


Foam Affects Levels




Chapter 7. Packed Towers: Better than Trays? (Packed-Bed Vapor and Liquid Distribution)

How Packed Towers Work

Maintaining Functional and Structural Efficiency in Packed Towers

Advantages of Packing vs. Trays

Chapter 8. Steam and Condensate Systems (Water Hammer and Condensate Backup, Steam-Side Reboiler Control)

Steam Reboilers

Condensing Heat--Transfer Rates

Maintaining System Efficiency

Carbonic Acid Corrosion

Condensate Collection Systems


Surface Condensers

Chapter 9. Bubble Point and Dew Point (Equilibrium Concepts in Vapor-Liquid Mixtures)

Bubble Point

Dew Point

Chapter 10. Steam Strippers (Source of Latent
Heat of Vaporization)

Heat of Evaporation

Stripper Efficiency

Chapter 11. Draw-off Nozzle Hydraulics (Nozzle Cavitation Due to Lack of Hydrostatic Head)

Nozzle Exit Loss

Critical Flow

Maintaining Nozzle Efficiency

Overcoming Nozzle Exit Loss Limits

Chapter 12. Pumparounds and Tower Heat Flows (Closing the Tower Enthalpy Balance)

The Pumparound

Vapor Flow


Chapter 13. Condensers and Tower Pressure Control (Hot-Vapor Bypass: Flooded Condenser Control)

Subcooling Vapor Binding, and Condensation

Pressure Control

Chapter 14. Air Coolers (Fin-Fan Coolers)

Fin Fouling

Fan Discharge Pressure

Effect of Reduced Airflow

Adjustments and Corrections to Improve Cooling

Designing for Efficiency

Chapter 15. Deaerators and Steam Systems (Generating Steam in Boilers and BFW Preparation)

Boiler Feedwater


Convection Section Waste-Heat Steam Generation

Chapter 16. Vacuum Systems: Steam Jet Ejectors (Steam Jet Ejectors)

Theory of Operation

Converging and Diverging Compression

Calculations, Performance, and Other Measurements in Jet Systems

Optimum Vacuum Tower-Top Temperature

Chapter 17. Steam Turbines (Use of Horsepower
Values and Correct Speed Control)

Principle of Operation and Calculations

Selecting Optimum Turbine Speed

Chapter 18. Surface Condensers

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Surface Condenser Heat-Transfer Coefficients

Chapter 19. Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

Allowing for Thermal Expansion

Heat-Transfer Efficiency

Exchanger Cleaning

Mechanical Design for Good Heat Transfer

Chapter 20. Fired Heaters: Fire- and Flue-Gas Side (Draft and Afterburn; Optimizing Excess Air)

Effect of Reduced Air Flow

Absolute Combustion


Air Leakage

Efficient Air/Fuel Mixing

Optimizing Excess Air

Air Preheating, Lighting Burners, and Heat Balancing

Chapter 21. Fired Heaters: Process Side (Coking Furnace and Tube Failures)

Process Duty versus Heat Liberation

Heater Tube Failures

Flow in Heater Tubes

Annular Flow

Low-NOx Burners

Tube Fire-Side Heaters

Chapter 22. Refrigeration Systems (An Introduction to Centrifugal Compressors)

Refrigerant Receiver

Evaporator Temperature Control

Compressor and Condenser Operation

Refrigerant Composition

Chapter 23. Centrifugal Pumps: Fundamentals of Operation (Head, Flow, and Pressure)



Pump Impeller

Effect of Temperature on Pump Capacity

Chapter 24. Centrifugal Pumps: Driver Limits (Electric Motors and Steam Turbines)

Electric Motors

Steam Turbines


Chapter 25. Centrifugal Pumps: Suction Pressure Limits (Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head)

Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head

Subatmospheric Suction Pressure

Chapter 26. Separators: Vapor-Hydrocarbon-Water (Liquid Settling Rates)

Gravity Settling


Entrainment Due to Foam

Water-Hydrocarbon Separations

Electrically Accelerated Water Coalescing

Static Coalescers

Chapter 27. Gas Compression: The Basic Ideas (The Second Law of Thermodynamics Made Easy)

Relationship between Heat and Work

Compression Work

Chapter 28. Centrifugal Compressors and Surge (Overamping the Motor Driver)

Centrifugal Compression and Surge

Compressor Efficiency

Chapter 29. Reciprocating Compressors (The Carnot Cycle; Use of Indicator Card)

Theory of Reciprocating Compressor Operation

The Carnot Cycle

The Indicator Card

Volumetric Compressor Efficiency


Rod Loading

Variable Molecular Weight

Chapter 30. Compressor Efficiency

Controlling Vibration and Temperature Rise

Relative Efficiency

Relative Work: External Pressure Losses

Chapter 31. Safety Concerns (Relief Valves, Corrosion, and Safety Trips)

Relief-Valve Plugging

Corrosion Monitoring

Alarms and Trips

Autoignition of Hydrocarbons

Calculating Heats of Reaction

Chapter 32. Corrosion: Process Units

Erosive Velocities

Mixed Phase Flow

Carbonate Corrosion

Napthenic Acid Attack

A Short History of Corrosion

Corrosion--Fired Heaters

Oil Fired Heaters

Finned-Tube Corrosion

Chapter 33. Fluid Flow in Pipes (Basic Ideas to Evaluate Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Flow)

Fluid Pressure Drop Survey

Line Sizing for Low-Viscosity and Turbulent Flow

Frictional Pressure Loss in Rough and Smooth Pipes

Special Case for Laminar Flow

Smooth Pipes and Turbulent Flow

Very Rough Pipes and Very Turbulent Flow

Non-Newtonian Fluids

Some Types of Flow Behavior

Time-Dependent Flow

Viscoelastic Fluids

Identifying the Type of Flow Behavior

Apparent and Effective Viscosity of Non-Newtonian Fluids

The Power Law or Ostwald de Waele Model

Evaluating k and n

Generalized Reynolds Numbers

The Metzner Reed Reynolds Number

Friction Factor

Chapter 34. Super-Fractionation Separation Stage

Kettle Reboiler

Partial Condenser

Side Reboilers and Inter-Coolers

Chapter 35. Computer Modeling and Control

Modeling a Propane-Propylene Splitter

Computer Control

Material Balance Problems in Computer Modeling

Chapter 36. Field Troubleshooting Process Problems

De-Ethanizer Flooding

The Elements of Troubleshooting

Field Calculations

Troubleshooting Tools

Field Measurements

Troubleshooting Methods


The Norm Lieberman Video Library of Troubleshooting

Process Operations


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