Working in Groups: Communication Principles and Strategies / Edition 4

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Overview

Working in Groups provides students with strategies for using theory and contemporary research findings to enhance group communication, group productivity, and member satisfaction.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205554874
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Publication date: 8/28/2006
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 448
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.18 (h) x 0.66 (d)

Meet the Author

Isa Engleberg is a Professor of Speech Communication and Director of the Humanities Resource Center at Prince George's Community College in Largo, Maryland. She is coauthor of two other Houghton Mifflin Communication titles: Presentations in Everyday Life, with John Daly, and Working in Groups, with Dianna Wynn. In NCA she has served as President, Chair of the Research Board, and as a member of the Administrative Committee. She has planned many NCA conferences and has published more that 30 articles in a variety of publications. Isa has won numerous teaching and service awards, including NCA's Outstanding Community College Educator award and the President's Medal at Prince George's Community College.

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Table of Contents


Preface     xiii
Basic Group Concepts     1
Introduction to Group Communication     2
Succeeding in Groups     3
Defining Group Communication     4
Three or More People     5
Interaction     6
Common Goal     6
Interdependence     7
Working     7
The Process of Group Communication     7
Types of Groups     9
Primary Groups     9
Social Groups     10
Self-Help Groups     10
Learning Groups     10
Service Groups     11
Work Groups     12
Public Groups     12
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working in Groups     15
Advantages     15
Disadvantages     18
Balance: The Guiding Principle of Group Work     20
Group Dialectics     20
Ethics and Balance     25
GroupWork: It Was the Best of Groups; It Was the Worst of Groups     27
GroupAssessment: Essential Group Elements     28
Group Development     31
The Life Cycle of Groups     32
Group Development Stages     32
Characteristics of Effective Groups     34
Forming: Balancing Individual and Group Needs     35
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs     36
Schutz's Theory of Interpersonal Needs     38
Forming Tensions     41
Storming: Balancing Conflict and Cohesion     45
Norming: Balancing Conformity and Nonconformity     46
Types of Norms     46
Conformity     47
Nonconformity     48
Performing: Balancing Task and Maintenance Dimensions     51
Group Task Roles     54
Group Maintenance Roles     55
Self-Centered Roles     56
Adjourning: Balancing Engagement and Disengagement     58
Balancing Needs, Norms, and Roles     58
GroupWork: Classroom Norms     60
GroupAssessment: Group Attraction Survey     60
Group Member Diversity     63
Heterogeneous Groups     64
Personality Dimensions     65
Personality Theory     66
Implications of Personality Dimensions     71
Cultural Dimensions     72
Individualism-Collectivism     74
Power Distance     75
Uncertainty Avoidance      76
Masculine-Feminine     77
High Context-Low Context     77
Monochronic Time-Polychronic Time     78
Barriers to Cultural Understanding     79
Gender Dimensions     82
Generational Dimensions     85
Balanced Diversity     87
GroupWork: Personality Preferences     89
GroupAssessment: Identifying Cultural Dialectics     91
Interaction Skills     95
Confidence in Groups     96
Group and Member Confidence     97
Communication Apprehension     97
Sources of Anxiety     98
Apprehension in Groups     99
Strategies for High Apprehensives     102
You Are Not Alone     102
Be Well Prepared     103
Learn Communication Skills     103
Re-lax, Re-think, Re-vision     104
Strategies for Low Apprehensives     106
Be Supportive     106
Provide Constructive Feedback     107
Include Anxious Members     108
Stop Talking     108
Assertiveness     108
Balancing Passivity and Aggression     110
Assertiveness and Diversity     112
Assertiveness Skill Building     113
Balancing Ability and Confidence     116
GroupWork: Sorting the Symptoms     116
GroupAssessment: Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24)     117
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Groups     121
Two Essential Tools     122
Language and Meaning     122
Denotation and Connotation     122
Levels of Meaning     123
Team Talk     124
Language Difficulties     126
Bypassing     126
Offensive Language     126
Jargon     127
Adapting to Language Differences     129
Language and Gender     129
Language and Culture     130
Improving Verbal Communication     130
Improve Your Vocabulary     131
Use I, You, and We Language     132
Use Appropriate Grammar     132
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication     133
Nonverbal Behavior     134
Personal Appearances     134
Facial Expression     134
Vocal Expression     135
Physical Expression     137
The Nonverbal Environment     137
Arrangement of Space     137
Perceptions of Personal Space     139
Nonverbal Communication and Culture     141
Creating a Supportive Communication Climate     141
Evaluation and Description     142
Control and Problem Orientation     143
Strategy and Spontaneity     143
Neutrality and Empathy     143
Superiority and Equality     143
Certainty and Provisionalism     144
Balancing Language and Nonverbal Behavior     144
GroupWork: Context, Context, Context     144
GroupAssessment: Auditing Team Talk     145
Listening in Groups     148
The Challenge of Listening in Groups     149
The Nature of Listening     149
The Dialectics of Listening     151
Types of Listening     152
Discriminative Listening     152
Comprehensive Listening     152
Empathic Listening     153
Analytical Listening     154
Appreciative Listening     155
Group Roles and Listening     155
Task Roles and Listening     155
Maintenance Roles and Listening     156
Leadership Functions and Listening      157
Improving Listening     151
Use Your Extra Thought Speed     157
Apply the Golden Listening Rule     158
Listening Strategies     158
The Art of Paraphrasing     161
Listening to Differences     164
Taking Notes in Groups     165
Self-Listening in Groups     165
Balanced Listening     167
GroupWork: Practice Paraphrasing     169
GroupAssessment: Shafir's Self-Listening Test     170
Conflict and Cohesion in Groups     174
Conflict in Groups     175
Substantive Conflict     175
Affective Conflict     175
Procedural Conflict     176
Constructive and Destructive Conflict     176
Conflict Styles     178
Avoidance     179
Accommodation     180
Competition     180
Compromise     181
Collaboration     181
Choosing a Conflict Style     181
Conflict Management Strategies     182
The 4Rs Method     183
The A-E-I-O-U Model     184
Negotiation     185
Mediation     186
Arbitration      187
Group Cohesion     188
Enhancing Cohesion     188
Groupthink     189
Adapting to Differences     191
Cultural Responses to Conflict     191
Gender Responses to Conflict     192
Balancing Conflict and Cohesion     193
GroupWork: Win as Much as You Can     194
GroupAssessment: Ross-DeWine Conflict Management Message Style Instrument     195
Achieving Group Goals     201
Group Leadership     202
What Is Leadership?     203
Leadership and Power     203
Reward Power     203
Coercive Power     204
Legitimate Power     204
Expert Power     205
Referent Power     205
Becoming a Leader     207
Designated Leaders     207
Emergent Leaders     209
Strategies for Becoming a Leader     209
Leadership Theories     211
Trait Theory     211
Styles Theory     212
Situational Theory     215
Transformational Theory     217
The 4M Model of Leadership Effectiveness     219
Model Leadership Behavior      220
Motivate Members     220
Manage Group Process     221
Make Decisions     221
Diversity and Leadership     222
Gender and Leadership     223
Cultural Diversity and Leadership     224
Balanced Leadership     226
GroupWork: The Least-Preferred-Coworker-Scale     227
GroupAssessment: Are You Ready to Lead?     228
Structured and Creative Problem Solving in Groups     232
Group Decision Making     233
Decision Making and Problem Solving     233
Decision-Making Methods     234
Decision-Making Goals     237
The Need for Procedures     238
The Need for Structured Procedures     239
The Need for Creative Procedures     239
Structured Problem Solving     241
The Standard Agenda     242
The Functional Theory Approach     246
The Single Question Format     248
Creative Problem Solving     251
Brainstorming     251
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)     252
Decreasing Options Technique (DOT)     254
Enhancing Group Creativity     257
Problem-Solving Realities      260
Politics     260
Preexisting Preferences     260
Power     261
Balanced Problem Solving     261
GroupWork: Game Building     262
GroupAssessment: Problem-Solving Competencies     262
Argumentation in Groups     266
Why Argue?     267
Arguments and Argumentation     267
The Value of Argumentation in Groups     268
Argumentativeness     269
Argumentativeness and Group Decision Making     270
Learning to Be Argumentative     270
The Structure of an Argument     270
Components of the Toulmin Model     271
Applying the Toulmin Model     272
Supporting Evidence     274
Presenting Your Arguments     276
State the Claim     276
Support the Claim with Valid Evidence     277
Provide Reasons for the Claim     277
Summarize Your Argument     278
Refuting Arguments     278
Listen to the Argument     279
State the Claim You Oppose     279
Give an Overview of Your Objections     280
Assess the Evidence     280
Assess the Reasoning      280
Summarize Your Refutation     282
Adapting to Argumentative Styles     282
Gender Differences     282
Cultural Differences     284
Argumentation and Emotional Intelligence     285
Balanced Argumentation     286
GroupWork: Got Water?     288
GroupAssessment: Argumentativeness Scale     289
Goal Setting and Motivation in Groups     292
Goal Setting     293
Goal Theory     293
Setting Motivating Goals     294
Member Motivation     296
Motivating by Meeting Needs     296
Motivating Diverse Personality Types     300
Group Motivation     303
A Sense of Meaningfulness     303
A Sense of Choice     304
A Sense of Competence     305
A Sense of Progress     306
Assessment and Feedback     308
The Role of Assessment     308
The Role of Feedback     308
Rewards and Punishment     311
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards     311
Objective Rewards     313
Effective Rewards     313
The Role of Punishment     316
Balancing Mission and Motivation     318
GroupWork: Your Guiding Motive     318
GroupAssessment: Group Motivation Inventory     320
Participation Tools     325
Planning and Conducting Meetings     326
Meetings, Meetings, Meetings     327
Planning the Meeting     328
Why Are We Meeting?     328
Who Should Attend the Meeting?     330
When Should We Meet?     330
Where Should We Meet?     330
What Materials Do We Need?     331
Preparing the Agenda     332
Elements of an Agenda     332
Determining the Order of Items     333
Double-Checking the Agenda     334
The Chairperson's Responsibilities     335
Dealing with Difficult People     337
Nonparticipants     337
Loudmouths     337
Interrupters     338
Whisperers     338
Latecomers and Early Leavers     338
Adapting to Differences     340
Preparing the Minutes     340
Select a Recorder     341
Determine What Information to Include     341
Taking Minutes     342
Evaluating the Meeting      344
Balanced Meetings     344
GroupWork: Meet the People Problems     345
GroupAssessment: Post-Meeting Reaction (FMR) Form     346
Making Presentations in Groups     348
Presentations in Groups     349
Presentation Guidelines     349
Purpose     350
Audience     351
Logistics     352
Content     353
Organization     353
Credibility     356
Performance     356
Group Presentations     359
Public Group Presentations     360
Team Presentations     360
Questions and Answers     362
Presentation Aids     363
Creating Presentation Aids     364
Pitfalls of PowerPoint     367
Using Presentation Aids     367
Balanced Presentations     369
GroupWork: A Practice Presentation     369
GroupAssessment: Presentation Rating Scale     370
Technology and Virtual Groups     372
Technology and Group Communication     373
Virtual Groups     373
Synchronous and Asynchronous Communication     375
Group Communication Media      376
Audioconferences     376
Videoconferences     379
Text-Based Computer Conferences     382
Groupware     385
Email     386
Bulletin Boards     388
Electronic Chat     391
Electronic Meeting Systems     392
Collaborative Presentation Technology     396
Group Diversity and the Digital Divide     397
The Digital Divide     397
Implications for Virtual Groups     399
Balancing Technology in Groups     400
GroupWork: Computer and Teleconference Simulation     400
GroupAssessment: Virtual Meeting Evaluation     401
Glossary     405
Index     417
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