Working With Chinese Expatriates In Business Negotiations

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This is a study of Chinese expatriates who are working for American clients that seek joint ventures and other business relationships with mainland Chinese business and governmental organizations. The main focus of the study is how these Chinese middlemen and women work to create harmonious business relationships between members of the two very different cultures. The data and the interpretations will be of keen interest to any American business seeking to conduct joint ventures and other forms of commerce in China. The research will also be of interest to any Chinese organization seeking to work more effectively with Americans.

Dr. Lam explains the problems of U.S. and Chinese negotiators—as perceived by Chinese expatriate middlemen—thus bringing a new depth of understanding. The study shows how Chinese expatriates, acting as middlemen, attempt to establish trust and bridge the cultural differences between U.S. and Chinese negotiators in the pre-negotiation stage as preparation for formal negotiations of joint ventures and cooperative projects. Different types of Chinese expatriates are highlighted and this classification illustrates how each type will act in negotiations and what might hinder them from doing what American clients want or need. A representative of each type is described in detail at the end of each chapter. Finally, Dr. Lam provides training strategies to Chinese expatriates and American negotiators.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781567203271
  • Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 7/30/2000
  • Pages: 206
  • Lexile: 1280L (what's this?)
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Meet the Author

MARIA LAI-LING LAM is Assistant Professor of Marketing and International Business at Lingnan University in Hong Kong.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1. Introduction 1
Background 2
Methodology 5
U.S. and Chinese Negotiation Styles 6
Looking Ahead: An Overview 8
2. General Portraits of Chinese Expatriates 9
General Characteristics 9
Chineseness (Minzu) 9
Chinese Expatriates' Work 10
Preparation 10
Negotiation 11
Post-negotiation 12
Concerns During Negotiation 12
Summary 12
Objectives 13
Strategies 13
Compensation Strategy and Developing Norms of Reciprocity 14
Case Study: Interviewee 44 14
The "Little Cheating Strategy" 15
The "Little Integrative Strategy" 15
Summary 15
Major Obstacles 15
Problems of American Representatives 16
Case Study: Interviewees 32 and 33 21
Problems of Chinese Representatives 26
Imperfect Translation and Interpretation 30
Summary 33
Ways of Establishing Relationships Between U.S. and Chinese Representatives 34
Relationship Patterns Between the Americans and the Chinese 34
Strategies and Tactics in Triangular Relationships 34
Resource Dependence 36
Expatriates' Advantages over Americans in Developing Trusting Relationships 37
Why Interviewees Prefer Developing Relationships with the Chinese Representatives 39
Conclusion 41
A Rationale for Classifying Interviewees into Five Types 43
3. Type I Interviewees 47
Characteristics 47
Authority and Roles 48
Defense of the Chinese Bureaucratic System 49
Case Study: Interviewee 46 49
Case Study: Interviewee 23 50
Case Study: Interviewee 13 51
Perceptions of American Representatives' Problems 53
Case Study: Interviewee 8 56
Case Study: Interviewee 4 57
Summary 58
Perceptions of Chinese Representatives' Problems 58
Trust-Building and Cross-Cultural Understanding 59
A Representative of Type I Interviewees: Miss Chan 60
Conclusion 68
4. Type II Interviewees 70
Characteristics 70
Advocacy of Local Chinese Practices 73
Perceptions of American Representatives' Problems 75
Perceptions of Chinese Representatives' Problems 77
Trust-Building and Cross-Cultural Understanding 78
A Representative of Type II Interviewees: Miss Lee 81
Conclusion 93
5. Type III Interviewees 94
Characteristics 94
Advocacy of U.S. Professional Practices 96
Perceptions of American Representatives' Problems 100
Perceptions of Chinese Representatives' Problems 100
Trust-Building and Cross-Cultural Understanding 103
A Representative of Type III Interviewees: Mr. Ho 104
Conclusion 109
6. Type IV Interviewees 111
Characteristics 112
Characteristics of Type IV Interviewees 112
Inexperienced Type IV Interviewees 112
Experienced Type IV Interviewees 113
Summary 114
Advocacy of American Corporate Practices 114
Perceptions of American Representatives' Problems 116
Perceptions of Chinese Representatives' Problems 117
Case Study: Interviewee 47 118
Trust-Building and Cross-Cultural Understanding 119
A Representative of Type IV Interviewees: Mr. Wong 121
Conclusion 129
7. Type V Interviewees 131
Characteristics 131
Perspectives on Conducting U.S.-China Business 134
Perceptions of American Representatives' Problems 136
Perceptions of Chinese Representatives' Problems 136
Trust-Building and Cross-Cultural Understanding 138
Case Study: Interviewee 27 138
A Representative of Type V Interviewees: Mr. Cheung 140
Conclusion 145
8. Conclusions 146
Work Issues 146
Influence of Chinese Culture 146
Paradoxes 151
Suggested Training Strategy 153
Implications 156
Conclusion 158
Appendix Interview Guideline 160
Notes 163
References 171
Index 183
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