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Working with School-Age Children / Edition 1

Working with School-Age Children / Edition 1

by Marlene Bumgarner

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ISBN-10: 0132080850

ISBN-13: 9780132080859

Pub. Date: 09/01/2010

Publisher: Pearson

Working with School-Age Children examines the role of adults in children’s lives outside of the classroom. It offers guidance for adult staff as they interact with children during out-of-school time.

Building on a foundation of child development theory, the author explores the importance of quality and the characteristics of effective programs


Working with School-Age Children examines the role of adults in children’s lives outside of the classroom. It offers guidance for adult staff as they interact with children during out-of-school time.

Building on a foundation of child development theory, the author explores the importance of quality and the characteristics of effective programs and individuals who can best meet children’s needs. The text contains strategies for adult involvement, healthy and productive activities, and guidelines for developing and sustaining afterschool programs.

School-age program staff and afterschool teachers will find this book a valuable resource for becoming involved in children’s lives outside of school, and for providing the best possible environments for children.

Product Details

Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.50(d)

Table of Contents

Part 1School-Age Children and the People Who Work with them1
1Who Are the Children in Out-of-School Programs?1
Meet the Children1
The Children Speak6
Their Parents Speak9
Their Teachers Speak11
The Theorists Speak11
2Out-of-School Child and Youth Care: An Emerging Profession and a Challenge for Communities14
Varieties of Care Options for School-Age Children14
In-Home Care15
Out-of-Home Care24
Child Care in Other Countries35
Elements of an Effective Before- and After-School Program39
3Who Are the People Who Work With School-Age Children?44
Meet the Adults44
Classroom Aide46
School-Bus Driver and Yard Duty Supervisor47
Community Volunteer47
Security Guard47
Athletic Coach48
Service Club Youth Leader48
Family Child-Care Provider48
School-Age Child-Care Center Director49
The Common Need: Knowledge of Child Development50
Characteristics of People Who Work Successfully With Children51
Enjoy Interacting With School-Agers54
Serve as Positive Role Models55
Understand the Developmental Needs of School-Agers and How to Meet Them55
Have Energy, Flexibility, and a Sense of Humor57
Use an Effective, Positive Style of Guidance and Discipline58
Be Able to Work Well With Other Adults58
4Theories of Child Development61
Physical Growth and Development61
Arnold Gesell (1880-1961)61
Psychosocial Development62
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)62
Erik H. Erikson (1902-1994)65
Robert Havighurst (1900-1991)69
Intellectual Development71
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)71
Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (1896-1934)75
Howard Gardner (1943-)75
Moral Development76
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)76
Carol Gilligan (1936-)78
William Damon (1944-)80
Learning Theory81
B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)81
Albert Bandura (1925-)83
Part 2The Setting87
5The Adult's Role in Socialization and Development87
Adults as Agents of Socialization88
Adults and the Development of the Personality91
Adults as Teachers in Out-of-School Settings95
Life Skills and Job Skills96
Social Skills and Strategies97
Problem Solving and Competence99
Literacy and a Love of Learning100
Lifelong Health and Fitness Habits101
Moral Reasoning and Values Clarification106
6Issues Facing Today's Children109
Developmental Issues and Generational Issues109
Concerns of Parents110
Concerns of Children111
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs112
Common Fears of Childhood113
Generational Fears114
The Role of the Adult in the Fear Cycle115
Some Strategies That Can Help115
Violence in the Home and Community117
Media-Induced Fear118
Family Issues--Divorce, Loss, Relocation120
Societal Issues122
Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs123
7Conditions Affecting Children's Behavior126
Understanding the Behavior of School-Age Children126
The Guidance System127
Developmental Characteristics of School-Age Children128
Techniques Used by Adults to Influence Children's Behavior130
The Environment138
Setting and Enforcing Limits139
Natural Consequences139
Logical Consequences140
Involving Parents141
8Environments for Care of School-Age Children145
Settings for School-Age Child Care145
Private Homes145
School-Site Centers146
Churches, Mosques, or Synagogues146
Permanent or Relocatable Buildings Not on School Sites147
Environments for Care of School-Age Children147
A Nurturing Environment148
An Attractive Environment155
An Interesting Environment161
A Safe Environment164
The ADA and Environments for School-Agers169
Part 3Things to Do with School-Age Children172
9Cooperative Program Planning172
The "Curriculum" of School-Age Child Care172
Why Plan?173
Scheduling Key Areas175
Acquiring Materials, Equipment, and Supplies175
Allocating Staff175
Encouraging Children to Contribute Their Ideas176
Learning Important Skills177
Enjoying the Anticipation of the Event or Activity178
Furthering the Stated Goals of the Out-of-School Program178
Planning the Year179
Identifying Goals, Objectives, and Leadership Strategies179
Ensuring a Balanced, Integrated Curriculum181
Planning the Season183
Planning the Month183
Monthly Staff Planning Calendar183
Monthly Parent/Child Calendar184
Planning a Week186
Planning a Day186
Planning an Activity188
Planning Long-Term Activities189
Evaluating Activities190
10Inside, Outside, Upside Down: Outdoor Activities With School-Age Children193
Organized Outdoor Games193
Stop and Go196
Tag and Freeze Tag198
Growing a Garden198
Planting and Cultivating200
Extra Benefits of Gardens200
Parachute Activities200
Bounce the Beach Ball201
Slithering Snakes202
Parachute Cave202
Water Fun203
Working with Wood204
Start Small204
Try Larger Projects205
Raising Animals205
Team Sports207
Other Outdoor Games208
11Rainy Day and Snowy Day Projects: Especially Engaging Things to Do Inside210
Organized Active Games211
Indoor Hide and Seek211
Freeze Dance (Statues)212
Cooking and Science Activities212
Food Preparation212
Simple Science Projects214
Learning to Use a Sewing Machine218
Making Jewelry219
Dramatic Activities219
Fantasy Play219
Staging a Play220
Specialized Prop Boxes221
Puppet Making222
Puppet Play223
Large Constructions223
Literature-Related Activities224
Writing Letters; Global Friendships226
12Working With Older School-Age Children and Teens229
Some Differences in Programs for Older Children230
Role of the Staff232
A Room of Their Own232
Key Characteristics of Programs for Older Children233
Involve Youngsters in Planning233
Be Flexible234
Offer a Wide Variety of Activities234
Challenge Children's Skills238
Provide Links With Community Agencies238
Special Challenges--Full-Day Programs and Programs for Teens239
Extended-Day Programs for Older Children239
Out-of-School Programs for Teenagers240
Part 4Administering A Program For School-Agers246
13Legal and Budget Issues, Policies, Procedures, and Personnel246
Licensing and Regulations250
Developing Admission Agreements251
Liability: Who Is Responsible?252
Funding and Finances253
Transportation and Parking254
Getting Along With Your Neighbors255
Developing a Policies and Procedures Manual255
Setting a Schedule256
14Developing Partnerships With Families and the Community261
The Concept of Partnership in Out-of-School Programs262
Setting the Tone at the First Contact262
Admission and Enrollment Policies and Parent Handbooks263
Back-to-School Night and Parent Conferences264
Father/Male Involvement in Out-of-School Programs265
Family Fun Nights, Parent Meetings, and Parenting Assistance268
Day-to-Day Communication268
Personal Conversations269
Telephone Contact269
Resolving Parent-Staff Differences271
Developing Community Partnerships271
Community Partnerships Improve Children's Futures271
Community Partnerships Reduce Crime272
Community Partnerships That Work273
Community Partnerships Take Time274
15Ensuring Program Quality: Program Improvement and Accreditation277
Quality in an Expanding Field277
Rapid Growth Brings Challenges279
School-Age Child Care: A Profession in the Making279
The Role of Professional Organizations in Program Quality282
Assessing Program Quality284
Accreditation of School-Age Programs285
NAEYC Early Childhood Program Accreditation286
NSACA National Improvement and Accreditation System288
Appendix 1Safety Checklist293
Appendix 2Injury Report Form303
Appendix 3Organizations Serving Child Care and Related Professions304

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