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Photographs, illustrations, maps, charts, and texts are celebrating the arrival of a larger size and beautiful colors to the fourth edition of World Civilizations: Sources, Images, and Interpretations. This collection of primary, secondary, and visual sources for world history survey courses offers a broad introduction to the materials historians use and the interpretations historians make.
This text also provides introductions, commentaries, guides, and questions, making it a truly valuable source for world history courses. The selections and accompanying notes, drawn from a vast spectrum of approaches, provide insight into how historians work and place the material in a context that furthers readers’ understanding.
Topical ContentsPrefaceUsing this BookA Note on Chinese Romanization13. Global Encounters and Cultures in Conflict, 1500-1700Primary SourcesUsing Primary Sources: The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of GuineaAzurara, The Chronicle of the discovery and Conquest of GuineaAfonso I of Kongo, Africa and Europe: The Problems of AlliancesTomé Pires, The Suma OrientalFrancesco Carletti, Women and Poverty in JapanDiego Munoz Camargo, The Aztec Account of the Conquest of MexicoLaws of the Burgos: the Spanish Colonize Central and South AmericaDavid Pietersz, Voyages from Holland to America: The Dutch Colonize North AmericaJorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, A Voyage to South America: Caste and Race in Latin AmericaVisual SourcesUsing Visual Sources: Exploration, Global Encounters, and PoliticsExploration, Expansion, and PoliticsA Buddhist Temple: European Views of AsiaThe Conquest of Mexico as Seen by the AztecsSecondary SourcesUsing Secondary Sources: The Expansion of EuropeRichard B. Reed, The Expansion of EuropeWilliam Cronon, The Changing Ecology of New EnglandMorris Rossabi, Muslims in Ming ChinaJohn K. Fairbank and Ssu-yu Teng, China’s Response to the WestJean-Pierre Lehmann, Europeans Arrive in JapanM. L. Bush, The Effects of Expansion on the Non-European World14. Europe’s Early Modern Era, 1500-1789Primary SourcesMartin Luther, Justification by FaithJames I, The Powers of the Monarch in EnglandThe House of Commons, The Powers of Parliament in EnglandPeter the Great, Decree on the Invitation of ForeignersVisual SourcesLuther and the New TestamentSebald Beham, Luther and the Catholic Clergy DebatePeter Paul Rubens, Loyola and Catholic ReformPieter Brueghel, the Elder, The HarvestersThomas Hobbes, The Leviathan: Political Order and Political TheoryJean-Honoré Fragonard, Happy Accidents of the SwingSecondary SourcesEuan Cameron, What Was the Reformation? Marilyn J. Boxer and Jean H. Quataert, Women in the ReformationPeter Laslett, The World We Have Lost: The Early Modern FamilyJerome Blum, Lords and PeasantsJohn Roberts, The Ancien Régime: Ideals and Realities15. Asia, 1500-1700Primary SourcesYamaga Sokō, The Way of the SamuraiEkiken Kaibara, Greater Learning for WomenHabbah Khātūn: A Woman’s Voice in IndiaFrançois Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire: Politics and Society in IndiaVillage Life and Government in ChinaGhiselin de Busbeceq, The Ottoman Social OrderVisual SourcesTulsi the Elder, Bandi, and Madhu the Younger, Akbar Inspecting the Construction of Fatehpur-SikriArchitecture and the Imperial CityExpansion of the Ottoman Empire, 1520-1639Secondary SourcesV. P. S. Raghuvanshi, Marriage, Caste, and Society in IndiaPeter Mansfield, The Ottoman Empire and Its SuccessorsJonathan Spence, Hard Times and the Fall of China’s Ming Dynasty16. A World of Reason and Motion: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment in the West, 1600-1800Primary SourcesRené Descartes, The Discourse on MethodSir Isaac Newton, Mathematical Principles of Natural PhilosophyImmanuel Kant, What Is Enlightenment? Denis Diderot, Prospectus for the Encyclopedia of Arts and SciencesMary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of WomanJean Jacques Rousseau, The Social ContractVisual SourcesFrontispiece to Marco Vincenzo Coronelli’s Atlas, 1691Joseph Wright, Experiment with an Air PumpSecondary SourcesDick Teresi, Islamic and Western Science and An Ottoman ObservatoryBonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, Women and the Scientific RevolutionLester G. Crocker, The Age of Enlightenment17. Revolution, Nationalism, and the State in Europe 1789-1914Primary SourcesThe Cahiers: Discontents of the Third EstateWomen of the Third EstateThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenMaximilien Robespierre, Speech to the National Convention—February 5, 1794: The Terror JustifiedMadame de Remusat, Memoirs: Napoleon’s AppealPrince Klemens von Metternich, Secret Memorandum to Tsar Alexander I, 1820: Conservative PrinciplesJohn Stuart Mill, On LibertyThe First Chartist Petition: Demands for Change in EnglandHeinrich von Treitschke, Militant NationalismVisual SourcesJeaurat de Bertray, Allegory of the RevolutionInternal Disturbances and the Reign of TerrorAntoine-Jean Ghos, Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of JaffaSecondary SourcesGeorges Lefebvre, The Coming of the French RevolutionDonald M. G. Sutherland, The Revolution of the NotablesWilliam Doyle, An Evaluation of the French RevolutionBonnie G. Smith, Women and the Napoleonic CodeJohn Weiss, The Revolutions of 184818. Industrialism, Social Change, and Culture in the WestPrimary SourcesTestimony for the Factory Act of 1833: Working conditions in EnglandThe Knights of Labor: UnionizationKarl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist ManifestoSamuel Smiles, Self-Help: Middle-Class AttitudesElizabeth Poole Sandford, Woman in Her Social and Domestic CharacterEmmeline Pankhurst, Why We Are MilitantCharles Darwin, The Origin of Species and the Descent of ManVisual SourcesIndustrialization and Demographic ChangeIllustration from Life and Adventures of Michael ArmstrongWilliam Bell Scott, Iron and CoalClaude Monet, Gare St. LazareEastman Johnson, The Hatch Family: The Upper Middle ClassLéon Frédéric, The Stages of a Worker’s LifeCaspar David Friedrich, Abbey Graveyard in the Snow: Visual RomanticismSecondary SourcesRobert Heilbroner, The Making of Economic Society: England, the First to IndustrializePeter N. Stearns, The Industrial Revolution in RussiaEric R. Wolf, Europe and the People without History: Labor MigrationsMichael Anderson, The Family and Industrialization in Western EuropeEleanor S. Riemer and John C. Fout, European Women19. The Americas, 1700s-1914Primary SourcesThe Declaration of IndependenceSimon Bolivar, Independence in South AmericaHenry Koster, Travels in Brazil: Religion and Slavery in BrazilWilliam Lyon Mackenzie, Call to Revolution in CanadaAndrew Jackson, The Removal of Native Americans in the United StatesSeneca Falls Convention, Declaration of Sentiments: Women’s Rights in the United StatesEmiliano Zapata: For Land and LibertyUnited States House of Representatives, Banning Chinese Immigration to the United StatesVisual SourcesJohn Gast, Manifest DestinyDiego Rivera, The Mexican RevolutionThe Western Hemisphere, 1770 and 1830Secondary SourcesMerrill Jensen, Democracy and the American RevolutionRobert N. Burr, By Reasonable Force: Power Politics and International Relations in South AmericaGilberto Freyre, The Mansions and the Shanties: The Making of Modern BrazilBarbara Welter, The Cult of True Womanhood20. Africa, 1500-1880Primary SourcesJohann Peter Oettinger, Voyage to Guinea: The European Slave Trade in AfricaJohn Barbot, Government, Taxes, and War in BeninMungo Park, Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa: Urban Life and Women in West AfricaRobert Moffat, The Ndebele Nation in Central AfricaMoshweshewe, Letter to Sir George Grey: Conflict and Diplomacy in South AfricaErnest Linant de Fellefonds, Culture and Imperialism in East AfricaVisual SourcesThe Oba of BeninIndigenous States in Sub-Saharan Africa to the Nineteenth CenturySecondary SourcesJohn K. Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680: The Atlantic Slave TradeRobin Law, Disruption in the Yoruba Kingdom of OyoSusan Herlin Broadhead, Beyond Decline: The Kingdom of the Kongo in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries21. Asia, 1700-1914Primary SourcesConfessions of Taiping Rebels: The Chinese People RebelSun Yat-sen, Manifesto of the United LeagueTokugawa Nariaki, Japan, Reject the WesternersProclamation of the Young TurksVisual SourcesGountei Sadahide, Foreigners at YokohamaGhulam ‘Ali Khan, Rauneah, A Village in the PunjabThe Weakening of China, 1839-1895Secondary SourcesSusan Naguin and Evelyn S. Rawski, Being ChineseBernard Lewis, Minorities in the Ottoman EmpireNemai Sadan Bose, Stifling the Voice of Protest in India22. Imperialism and New Global Entanglements, 1880-1914Primary SourcesFrederich Fabri, Does Germany Need Colonies? Rudyard Kipling, the White Man’s BurdenImperial Edict, 1885, Nationalism and Colonialism in VietnamRaden Ajeng Kartini, Letters of a Javanese PrincessTheodore Roosevelt, The Roosevelt Corollary: American ImperialismJose Marti, A Vindication of CubaVisual SourcesGeorge Harcourt, Imperialism GlorifiedCharles Edwin Fripp, The Colonial BattlefieldAmerican Imperialism in Asia: Independence Day 1899Imperialism and the Looting of CulturesImperialism in AfricaSecondary SourcesEric. J. Hobsbawm, The Age of EmpireM. E. Chamberlain, The Scramble for AfricaDaniel R. Headrick, The Tools of EmpireManuel Maldonado-Denis, Imperialism in the Americas23. War, Revolution, and Authoritarianism in the WestPrimary SourcesReports from the Front: The Battle for Verdun, 1916Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est: DisillusionmentWoodrow Wilson, The Fourteen PointsV. I. Lenin, April Theses, The Bolshevik StrategyBenito Mussolini, The Doctrine of FascismGuida Diehl, The German Woman and National Socialism [Nazism] Bruno Bettelheim, The Informed Heart: Nazi Concentration CampsJoseph Stalin, Problems of Agrarian Policy in the U.S.S.R.: Soviet CollectivizationPolitical Constitution of the United States of Mexico, Labor and Social WelfareLazlo Cardenas, Mexico Nationalizes Its Oil IndustryLetters from Workers to the US Government, Slaves of the DepressionR. B. Bennett, Canada and the Great DepressionVisual SourcesWorld War I: The Home Front and WomenRichard Spitz: Nazi MythologyRevolutionary PropagandaK. I. Finogenov, Socialist RealismAuthoritarianism and TotalitarianismSecondary SourcesRoland Stromberg, The Origins of World War I: Militant PatriotismBonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, Women, Work, and World War IAmanda LaBarca Hubertson, Women in Latin AmericaRobert Service, The Russian RevolutionJames Laux, The Great Depression in EuropeF. L. Carsten, The Rise of FascismGerhard L. Weinberg, A World at ArmsDaniel J. Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners24. Asia and Africa between World Wars I and IIPrimary SourcesHashimoto Kingoro, Japanese Nationalism and ExpansionismMao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), The Chinese Communist Party Mobilizes the MassesShan-fei and Agnes Smedley, Women and Chinese CommunismHo Chi Minh, Letter from Abroad: Revolutionary Nationalism in VietnamMohandas K. Gandhi, Hindus, Muslims, and Nationalism in IndiaThe Balfour Declaration and the Churchill White Paper of 1922Jesse Chilula Chipenda, Africans and the Colonial StateObafemi Awolowo, Resentment in Colonial NigeriaVisual SourcesXu Beihong (Hsü Pei-hung), The Foolish Old Man Removes the MountainWestern Technology and Christianity in Colonial AfricaThe Expansion of JapanSecondary SourcesL. M. Panikkar, Asia in World War IVera Schwarcz, Chinese Intellectuals as Agents of EnlightenmentAmal Vinogradov, The Creation of IraqJohn W. Dower, Propaganda and Racism in the Pacific WarShula Marks and Stanley Trapido, The Politics of Race, Class, and Nationalism in 20th-Century South AfricaMartin Chanock, African Women and the Law25. Global Transformations and the Struggles of Superpowers: The Post-World War II Era, 1945-89Primary SourcesThe Truman Doctrine and the Marshall PlanB. N. Ponomaryov, The cold War: A Soviet PerspectiveMao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), Communism in ChinaChina’s Marriage Law: New Rules for the Women of ChinaU.N. Resolution 242 and A Palestinian Memoir: Israel, Palestine, and the Middle EastThe General Assembly of the United Nations, Declaration against ColonialismFrom Independence to Statehood: Ethnic Conflict in NigeriaAssia Djebar, Growing up in AlgeriaCamilo Torres, Christianity, Communism, and Revolution in Latin AmericaMartin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail: The Civil Rights Movement in the United StatesRedstockings, A Feminist ManifestoJames Cameron, The Vietnam War: A Reporter with the VietcongVisual SourcesThe Cold War and European IntegrationDecolonization in Asia and AfricaRent Collection Courtyard: Art and Politics in ChinaSecondary SourcesJames L. Gormly, Origins of the Cold WarHasegawa Nyozekan, The Last JapanD. K. Fieldhouse, Economic Decolonization and Arrested Development in AfricaHernando de Soto, Inequality, Repression, and Rebellion in Latin AmericaThe War in Vietnam26. The Present in Perspective and the Beginnings of the 21st CenturyModernization: The Western and Non-Western Worlds (photo) Communiqué of the Central Committee, December 1978, Communist China, The Four ModernizationsRaymond L. Garthoff, The End of the Cold WarRobert Heilbroner, After Communism, Causes for the CollapseRobert J. Donia, War in Bosnia and Ethnic CleansingThomas B. Gold, Economic Revitalization of East AsiaJohn Lukacs, The Short Century—It’s OverAlan Riding, Revolution and the Intellectual in Latin AmericaAli A. Mazrui and Michael Tidy, Reviving African CultureNelson Mandela, Democracy in South AfricaNoboru Kawasaki, Football Hawk: The Japanese Comic Book (illustration) The Growth of Cities (map) Global Environmental Problems (map) Edward O. Wilson, Ecological ThreatsThe AIDS Epidemic (map and chart) Thomas L. Friedman, GlobalizationNiall Ferguson, The Future After 9-11-01Bahgot Korany, Islam and DemocracyThe Middle East and Iraq, 2003Mark Juergensmeyer, Religious TerrorismMichael Ignatieff, The War in Iraq