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Overview

Globalization—the growing integration of economies and societies around the world—continues to transform the world economy at an ever-increasing rate. This new world economy links distant peoples and places so that what happens in one place shapes what happens in another through networks of interdependence. For example, many US. and European companies have chosen to outsource some of their operations to other countires. The people pictured on the cover provide services to overseas companies from Bangalore, India. While most people recognize the widespread changes brought about by globalization, many disagree on whether the benefits outweigh the costs. Economic geography provides an excellent vehicle toward understanding today's increasingly interdependent world.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131478046
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 11/30/2004
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 720
  • Product dimensions: 8.48 (w) x 10.88 (h) x 1.11 (d)

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Summary, Key Terms, Suggested Readings, and World Wide Web Sites.)

 

1         Introduction  

Geographic Perspectives

Economic Geography of the World Economy

Globalization

World Development Problems

Four Major Questions of the World Economy

Political Economies

Geographical Information Systems

Summary and Plan 

 

2   The Historical Development of Capitalism

The Birth of Capitalism:   Feudalism

The Emergence and Nature of Capitalism

The Industrial Revolution

Colonialism: Capitalism on a World Scale

 

3   Population

Global Population Distribution

Factors Influencing Population Distribution

Population Growth over Time and Space

Malthusian Theory

Demographic Transition Theory

Population Structure

Migration

 

4   Resources and Environment 

Resources and Population

Types of Resources and their Limits

Increasing Food Production

Nonrenewable Mineral Resources

Energy

Energy Options

Environmental Degradation

Environmental Equity and Sustainable Development

 

5   Theoretical Considerations

Factors of Location

The Weberian Model

Technique and Scale Considerations

How and Why Firms Grow

Geographic Organization of Corporations

Forces of Production and Social Relations

Business Cycles and Regional Landscapes

The State and Economic Geography

 

6    Agriculture

The Rise of Agriculture

The Industrialization of Agriculture

Factors Affecting Rural Land Use

Systems of Agricultural Production

Commercial Agriculture

U.S. Agricultural Policy

The Von Thunen Model

 

7    Manufacturing

The Nature of Manufacturing

Concentrations of World Manufacturing

Globalization of Manufacturing

Globalization of Major Manufacturing Sectors

The Changing Geography of U.S. Manufacturing

Flexible Manufacturing

Business Process Engineering

The Product Cycle in Manufacturing

 

8    Services

Defining Services

Forces Driving the Growth of Services

The Externalization Debate

Knowledge Economy or Extended Division of Labor?

The Productivity Debate

Labor Markets in the Service Economy

Financial Services

Sectoral Studies in Producer Services

The Location of Producer Services

International Services Transactions

Technological Change in Services

Electronic Funds Transfer

Offshore Banking

Back Office Relocations

 

9    Transportation and Communications

Transportation Networks in Historical Perspective

Cost Space and Time Space Convergence

Transportation Infrastructure

General Properties of Transport Costs

Transportation Policy

Personal Mobility in the United States

Telecommunications

Geographies of the Internet

Future Impacts of Information Technologies

 

10   Cities and Urban Economies

Cities in Historical Perspective

Central Places and their Hinterlands

Urban Economic Base Analysis

Intraurban Spatial Organization

Sprawling Metropolis: Patterns and Problems

Gentrification

Problems of the American City

Global Cities

 

11    International Trade and Investment

International Trade

Comparative Advantage

Competitive Advantages of Nations

International Money and Capital Markets

Financing International Trade

U.S. Trade Deficits

Capital Flows and Foreign Direct Investment

Barriers to International Trade and Investment

Reductions of Trade Barriers

Regional Economic Integration

Globalization and Business Cycles

 

12   International Trade Patterns

Emerging Markets

World Patterns of Trade

Major Global Trade Flows

 

13 Development and Underdevelopment in the Developing World

What’s in a Word? “Developing”

The Location of Underdevelopment

Characteristic Problems of Less Developed Countries

Major Perspectives on Development

Regional Disparities within Developing Countries

Development Strategies

Industrialization in the Developing World

 

Glossary 

 

References

 

Index
Read More Show Less

Preface

The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade, and Development, now in its fourth edition, offers a overview of the field of economic geography and its linkages to related issues of development and underdevelopment, international business, and the global economy. In an age of increasing globalization, an understanding of these issues is central to both liberal arts and professional educations, for the concerned voter to the engaged business practitioner.

This work is designed as a comprehensive introduction to the ways in which economic activity is stretched over the space of the earth's surface. Economists too rarely take the spatial dimension seriously, a perspective that implies all economic activity occurs on the head of a pin. Geographers, in contrast, are interested in the manner in which social relations and activities occur unevenly over space, the ways in which local places and the global economy are intertwined, and the difference that location makes to how economic activity is organized. No social process occurs in exactly the same way in different places; thus, where and when economic activity occurs has a profound influence on how it occurs. Space, then, can no longer be relegated to the sidelines. As globalization has made small differences among places increasingly important, space has become more, not less, important.

This new edition differs from the previous one in several respects. It has updated empirical data found throughout. Some traditional material has been trimmed to avoid making the volume overly long. In keeping with the disciplines growing concern for political and cultural issues, which recognizes that the economy cannot betreated separately from other domains of social activity, this volume offers more emphasis on the historical context and political economy of capitalism, including class and gender relations. Throughout, it synthesizes diverse perspectives—ranging from mainstream location theory to post-structuralism—to reveal capitalism as a profoundly complex, important, and fascinating set of social and spatial relations. Additions to the third edition include a new chapter on the historical development of capitalism from its feudal origins through colonialism and the industrial revolution. Like all social sciences, geography has become increasingly self-conscious about how it interprets and understands the world, that is, theory. Accordingly, this edition also collects the various aspects concerned with conceptual and theoretical matters and unites them. Thus, it explores issues ranging from the locational determinants of firms to the role of the state in shaping market economies. Additionally, it offers much more discussion about services, including the multiple reasons for the growth of the service economy, its labor market impacts, and the fundamental role played by telecommunications in the global services economy. Finally, it approaches international development in an intellectually critical manner, emphasizing multiple theoretical views concerned with the origins and operations of the global economy.

Some students wrongly assume that economic geography is dominated by dry, dusty collections of facts and maps devoid of interpretation. This volume aims to show them wrong. Others are intimidated by economics, equating it with abstract and difficult supply and demand diagrams and mathematical equations. While this book uses both maps and some diagrams to make various points, it does not presume that the Student has an extensive background in economics. There are several forms of economics, including neoclassical views and political economy. The volume at hand uses both of these and other perspectives as well, in an attempt to raise the readers understanding to a level above that of the lay public but not to the degree of sophistication expected of an expert. In doing so, the book hopes to show that economic geography offers insights that make the world more meaningful and interesting; it is simultaneously an academic exercise, in the sense that it sheds light on how and why the world is structured in some ways and not others, and a very practical one, i.e., as a useful narrative for those studying business, trade, finance, planning, and other applied fields.

Pedagogically, the volume employs diverse strategies to divulge how capitalism structures, changes, and shapes peoples lives in complex ways. The new edition has fewer tables than the third, but more photos, trying to forge linkages between abstract concepts and the real world of everyday experience. Each chapter includes a summary, key terms, study questions, suggested readings, and useful websites for those curious enough, brave enough, and energetic enough to explore further.

We are grateful to many people who helped us in this endeavor. Numerous colleagues in the discipline of geography, within our departments and throughout North America and Europe, have inspired us in many ways, often without knowing it! Dan Kaveney of Prentice Hall brought the authors together, cajoled and guided them, and oversaw the review process. Patty Donovan meticulously edited every chapter, clarifying points and polishing the writing. The photo researcher, Diane Austin, did a wonderful job selecting pictures. James Rubenstein, author of The Cultural Landscape An Introduction to Cultural Geography, graciously allowed us to purloin much of his wonderful artwork, and we owe him a real debt of gratitude. Finally, we thank our friends and families, who put up with us in our grouchier moments as we struggled with the text.

For Santa and Derek.

Dept. of Geography
San Diego State University

Barney Warf
Dept. of Geography
Florida State University – Tallahassee

Read More Show Less

Introduction

The World Economy: Resources, Location, Trade, and Development, now in its fourth edition, offers a overview of the field of economic geography and its linkages to related issues of development and underdevelopment, international business, and the global economy. In an age of increasing globalization, an understanding of these issues is central to both liberal arts and professional educations, for the concerned voter to the engaged business practitioner.

This work is designed as a comprehensive introduction to the ways in which economic activity is stretched over the space of the earth's surface. Economists too rarely take the spatial dimension seriously, a perspective that implies all economic activity occurs on the head of a pin. Geographers, in contrast, are interested in the manner in which social relations and activities occur unevenly over space, the ways in which local places and the global economy are intertwined, and the difference that location makes to how economic activity is organized. No social process occurs in exactly the same way in different places; thus, where and when economic activity occurs has a profound influence on how it occurs. Space, then, can no longer be relegated to the sidelines. As globalization has made small differences among places increasingly important, space has become more, not less, important.

This new edition differs from the previous one in several respects. It has updated empirical data found throughout. Some traditional material has been trimmed to avoid making the volume overly long. In keeping with the disciplines growing concern for political and cultural issues, which recognizes that the economy cannot betreated separately from other domains of social activity, this volume offers more emphasis on the historical context and political economy of capitalism, including class and gender relations. Throughout, it synthesizes diverse perspectives--ranging from mainstream location theory to post-structuralism--to reveal capitalism as a profoundly complex, important, and fascinating set of social and spatial relations. Additions to the third edition include a new chapter on the historical development of capitalism from its feudal origins through colonialism and the industrial revolution. Like all social sciences, geography has become increasingly self-conscious about how it interprets and understands the world, that is, theory. Accordingly, this edition also collects the various aspects concerned with conceptual and theoretical matters and unites them. Thus, it explores issues ranging from the locational determinants of firms to the role of the state in shaping market economies. Additionally, it offers much more discussion about services, including the multiple reasons for the growth of the service economy, its labor market impacts, and the fundamental role played by telecommunications in the global services economy. Finally, it approaches international development in an intellectually critical manner, emphasizing multiple theoretical views concerned with the origins and operations of the global economy.

Some students wrongly assume that economic geography is dominated by dry, dusty collections of facts and maps devoid of interpretation. This volume aims to show them wrong. Others are intimidated by economics, equating it with abstract and difficult supply and demand diagrams and mathematical equations. While this book uses both maps and some diagrams to make various points, it does not presume that the Student has an extensive background in economics. There are several forms of economics, including neoclassical views and political economy. The volume at hand uses both of these and other perspectives as well, in an attempt to raise the readers understanding to a level above that of the lay public but not to the degree of sophistication expected of an expert. In doing so, the book hopes to show that economic geography offers insights that make the world more meaningful and interesting; it is simultaneously an academic exercise, in the sense that it sheds light on how and why the world is structured in some ways and not others, and a very practical one, i.e., as a useful narrative for those studying business, trade, finance, planning, and other applied fields.

Pedagogically, the volume employs diverse strategies to divulge how capitalism structures, changes, and shapes peoples lives in complex ways. The new edition has fewer tables than the third, but more photos, trying to forge linkages between abstract concepts and the real world of everyday experience. Each chapter includes a summary, key terms, study questions, suggested readings, and useful websites for those curious enough, brave enough, and energetic enough to explore further.

We are grateful to many people who helped us in this endeavor. Numerous colleagues in the discipline of geography, within our departments and throughout North America and Europe, have inspired us in many ways, often without knowing it! Dan Kaveney of Prentice Hall brought the authors together, cajoled and guided them, and oversaw the review process. Patty Donovan meticulously edited every chapter, clarifying points and polishing the writing. The photo researcher, Diane Austin, did a wonderful job selecting pictures. James Rubenstein, author of The Cultural Landscape An Introduction to Cultural Geography, graciously allowed us to purloin much of his wonderful artwork, and we owe him a real debt of gratitude. Finally, we thank our friends and families, who put up with us in our grouchier moments as we struggled with the text.

For Santa and Derek.

Dept. of Geography
San Diego State University

Barney Warf
Dept. of Geography
Florida State University – Tallahassee

Read More Show Less

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