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The World: A History, Volume 2 / Edition 2

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Overview

The World interweaves two stories—of our interactions with nature and with each other. The environment-centered story is about humans distancing themselves from the rest of nature and searching for a relationship that strikes a balance between constructive and destructive exploitation. The culture-centered story is of how human cultures have become mutually influential and yet mutually differentiating. Both stories have been going on for thousands of years. We do not know whether they will end in triumph or disaster.

There is no prospect of covering all of world history in one book. Rather, the fabric of this book is woven from selected strands. Readers will see these at every turn, twisted together into yarn, stretched into stories. Human-focused historical ecology—the environmental theme—will drive readers back, again and again, to the same concepts: sustenance, shelter, disease, energy, technology, art. (The last is a vital category for historians, not only because it is part of our interface with the rest of the world, but also because it forms a record of how we see reality and of how the way we see it changes.) In the global story of human interactions—the cultural theme—we return constantly to the ways people make contact with each another: migration, trade, war, imperialism, pilgrimage, gift exchange, diplomacy, travel—and to their social frameworks: the economic and political arenas, the human groups and groupings, the states and civilizations, the sexes and generations, the classes and clusters of identity.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136061496
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 2/16/2009
  • Series: Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, The World, 2/e Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 696
  • Sales rank: 267,788
  • Product dimensions: 8.90 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Felipe Fernández-Armesto holds the William P. Reynolds Chair of History at the University of Notre Dame. He has master’s and doctoral degrees from the University of Oxford, where he spent most of his teaching career, before taking up the Chair of Global Environmental History at Queen Mary College, University of London in 2000, and the Prince of Asturias Chair at Tufts University (2005-9). He is on editorial boards for the History of Cartography for the University of Chicago Press, Studies in Overseas History (Leiden University), Comparative Studies in Society and History, Journeys, and Journal of Global History. Recent awards include the World History Association Book Prize (2007), Spain’s Premio Nacional de GastronomIa (2005, for his work on the history of food), the Premio Nacional de Investigación (Sociedad Geográfica Española, 2004). He has had many distinguished visiting appointments, including a Fellowship of the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and a Union Pacific Visiting Professorship at the University of Minnesota. He won the Caird Medal of the National Maritime Museum in 1995 and the John Carter Brown Medal in 1999 and has honorary doctorates from La Trobe University and the Universidad de los Andes. He has served on the Council of the Hakluyt Society, on the Committee of English PEN, and as Chairman of the PEN Literary Foundation. His work in journalism includes regular columns in the British and Spanish press, and, among many contributions to broadcasting, he is the longest-serving presenter of BBC radio’s flagship current affairs program, Analysis. He has been short-listed for the most valuable literary prize in the U.K.
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Table of Contents

Volume 1: Chapters 1-15
Volume 2: Chapters 13-30
Volume A: Chapters 1-10
Volume B: Chapters 11-20
Volume C: Chapters 20-30

In Perspective: Cains and Abels

PART 6: the crucible: the eurasian crises of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries

Chapter 13

The World the Mongols Made

The Mongols: Reshaping Eurasia

  • Genghis Khan
  • The Mongol Steppe

The Mongol World Beyond the Steppes: The Silk Roads, China, Persia, and Russia

  • China
  • Persia
  • Russia

The Limits of Conquest: Mamluk Egypt and Muslim India

  • Mamluk Egypt
  • Muslim India: The Delhi Sultanate

Europe

In Perspective: The Uniqueness of the Mongols

Chapter 14

The Revenge of Nature: Plague, Cold, and the Limits of Disaster in the Fourteenth Century

Climate Change

The Coming of the Age of Plague

  • The Course and Impact of Plague
  • Medicine and Morals
  • The Jews
  • Distribution of Wealth
  • Peasant Millenarianism

The Limits of Disaster: Beyond the Plague Zone

  • India
  • Southeast Asia
  • Japan
  • Mali

The Pacific: Societies of Isolation

  • Easter Island
  • New Zealand
  • Ozette
  • Chan Chan

In Perspective: The Aftershock

Chapter 15

Expanding Worlds: Recovery in the Late Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries

Fragile Empires in Africa

  • East Africa
  • West Africa

Ecological Imperialism in the Americas

  • The Inca Empire
  • The Aztec Empire

New Eurasian Empires

  • The Russia Empire
  • Timurids and the Ottoman Empire

The Limitations of Chinese Imperialism

The Beginnings of Oceanic Imperialism

The European Outlook: Problems and Promise

In Perspective: Beyond Empires

Part 7: Convergence and Divergence to ca. 1700

Chapter 16

Imperial Arenas: New Empires in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Maritime Empires: Portugal, Japan, and the Dutch

  • The Portuguese Example
  • Asian Examples
  • The Dutch Connection

Land Empires: Russia, China, Mughal India, and the Ottomans

  • China
  • The Mughal Example in India
  • The Ottomans

New Land Empires in the Americas

  • Making the New Empires Work

In Perspective: The Global Balance of Trade

Chapter 17

The Ecological Revolution of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Ecological Exchange: Plants and Animals

  • Maize, Sweet Potatoes, and Potatoes
  • Weeds, Grasses, and Livestock
  • Cane Sugar
  • Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate
  • Patterns of Ecological Exchange

The Microbial Exchange

  • Demographic Collapse in the New World
  • Plague and New Diseases in Eurasia

Labor: Human Transplantations

Wild Frontiers: Encroaching Settlement

  • Northern and Central Asia: The Waning of Steppeland Imperialism
  • Pastoral Imperialism in Africa and the Americas

Imperialism and Settlement in Europe and Asia

  • China
  • India

New Exploitation in the Americas

  • The Spanish Empire
  • Brazil
  • British North America

Home Fronts in Europe and Asia

  • New Energy Sources
  • Land Reclamation

Frontiers of the Hunt

In Perspective: Evolution Redirected

Chapter 18

Mental Revolutions: Religion and Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Christianity in Christendom

Christianity Beyond Christendom: The Limits of Success

The Missionary Worlds of Buddhism and Islam

  • China and Japan
  • The Mongols
  • Islam

The Resulting Mix: Global Religious Diversity—American and Indian Examples

  • Black America
  • White America
  • India

The Renaissance “Discovery of the World”

The Rise of Western Science

Western Science in the East

In Perspective: The Scales of Thought

Chapter 19

States and Societies: Political and Social Change in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Political Change in Europe

Western Political Thought

Western Society

The Ottomans

Mughal India and Safavid Persia

China

  • Chinese Politics
  • Chinese Society

Tokugawa Japan

The New World of the Americas

Africa

In Perspective: Centuries of Upheaval

Part 8: Global Enlightenments, 1700-1800

Chapter 20

Driven by Growth: The Global Economy in the Eighteenth Century

Population Trends

  • Urbanization
  • Explanations
  • Medicine
  • The Ecology of Disease

Economic Trends: China, India, and the Ottoman Empire

  • China
  • India
  • The Ottoman Empire and Its Environs

The West’s Productivity Leap

  • The Scientific Background
  • The British Example

The Expansion of Resources

  • The Global Gardening

In Perspective: New Europes, New Departures

Chapter 21

The Age of Global Interaction: Expansion and Intersection of Eighteenth-Century Empires

Asian Imperialism in Arrest or Decline: China, Persia, and the Ottomans

  • China
  • The Asian Context
  • Persia and the Ottoman Empire

Imperial Reversal in India: Mughal Eclipse and British Rise to Power

The Dutch East Indies

The Black Atlantic: Africa, the Americas, and the Slave Trade

Land Empires of the New World

  • The Araucanos and the Sioux
  • Portugal in Brazil
  • Spanish America
  • Creole Mentalities
  • Toward Independence

In Perspective: The Rims of Empires

Chapter 22

The Exchange of Enlightenments: Eighteenth-Century Thought

The Character of the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment in Global Context

  • The Chinese Example
  • Japan
  • India
  • The Islamic World

The Enlightenment’s Effects in Asia

  • The Enlightenment and China
  • Western Science in Japan
  • Korea and Southeast Asia
  • The Ottomans
  • The Enlightenment in Europe
  • The Belief in Progress
  • New Economic Thought
  • Social Equality
  • Anticlericalism

The Crisis of the Enlightenment: Religion and Romanticism

  • Religious Revival
  • The Cult of Nature and Romanticism
  • Rousseau and the General Will
  • Pacific Discoveries
  • Wild Children
  • The Huron and Noble Savage

The French Revolution and Napoleon

  • Background to the Revolution
  • Revolutionary Radicalism
  • Napoleon

In Perspective: The Afterglow of Enlightenment

Part 9: The Frustrations to Progress to ca. 1900

Chapter 23

Replacing Muscle: The Energy Revolutions

Global Demographics: The World’s Population Rises

Food: Transition to Abundance

Energy for Power: Militarization and Industrialization

  • Militarization
  • Industrialization

Industrializing Europe

Industry in the Americas

Japan Industrializes

China and Industrialization

India and Egypt

In Perspective: Why the West?

Chapter 24

The Social Mold: Work and Society in the Nineteenth Century

The Industrialized Environment

  • Palaces of Work: The Rise of Factories
  • Critics of Industrialization: Gold from the Sewers

Urbanization

Beyond Industry: Agriculture and Mining

Changing Labor Regimes

  • Slavery and the Slave Trade
  • Female and Child Labor
  • Free Migrants

Hunters and Pastoralists

Elites Transformed

In Perspective: Cultural Exchange—Enhanced Pace, New Directions

Chapter 25

Western Dominance in the Nineteenth Century: The Westward Shift of Power and the Rise of Global Empires

The Opium Wars

The White Empires: Rise and Resistance

Methods of Imperial Rule


Business Imperialism

Imperialism in “New Europes”

Empires Elsewhere: Japan, Russia, and the United States

  • Japan
  • Russia
  • The United States

Rationales of Empire

  • Doctrines of Superiority
  • The Civilizing Mission

In Perspective: The Reach of Empires

Chapter 26

The Changing State: Political Developments in the Nineteenth Century

Nationalism

  • Nationalism in Europe
  • The Case of the Jews
  • Nationalism Beyond Europe

Constitutionalism

Centralization, Militarization, and Bureaucratization

  • In and Around the Industrializing World
  • Beyond the Industrializing World

Religion and Politics

New Forms of Political Radicalism

  • Steps Toward Democracy
  • The Expansion of the Public Sphere

Western Social Thought

In Perspective: Global State-Building

Part 10: Chaos and Complexity: The World in the Twentieth Century

Chapter 27

The Twentieth Century Mind: Western Science and the World

Western Science Ascendant

  • China
  • India
  • The Wider World

Transformation of Western Science

  • Physics
  • Human Sciences
  • Anthropology and Psychology
  • Philosophy and Linguistics

The Mirror of Science: Art

The Turn of the World

In Perspective: Science, Challenging and Challenged

Chapter 28

World Order and Disorder: Global Politics in the Twentieth Century

The World War Era, 1914-1945

  • The First World War
  • Postwar Disillusionment
  • The Shift to Ideological Conflicts
  • The Second World War

The Cold War Era, 1945-1991

  • Super-Power Confrontation

Decolonization

The New World Order

  • The European Union

In Perspective: The Anvil of War

Chapter 29

The Persuit of Utopia: Civil Society in the Twentieth Century

The Context of Atrocities

The Encroaching State

Unplanning Utopia: The Turn Toward Individualism

Counter-Colonization and Social Change

Globalization and the World Economy

Culture and Globalization

Secularism and Religious Revival

In Perspective: The Century of Paradox

Chapter 30

The Embattled Biosphere: The Twentieth-Century Environment

Fuel Resources

Food Output

Urbanization

The Crisis of Conservation

The Unmanageable Environment: Climate and Disease

In Perspective: The Environmental Dilemma

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