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The World: A Brief History: Combined Volume / Edition 1

The World: A Brief History: Combined Volume / Edition 1

by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto

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ISBN-10: 0136009212

ISBN-13: 9780136009214

Pub. Date: 11/28/2007

Publisher: Pearson

The World: A Brief History gives students the whole story. Prentice Hall is proud to offer The World: A Brief History–the new brief version of The World: A History adapted by author Felipe Fernández-Armesto himself. The use of The World: A Brief History offers added flexibility in teaching World History,


The World: A Brief History gives students the whole story. Prentice Hall is proud to offer The World: A Brief History–the new brief version of The World: A History adapted by author Felipe Fernández-Armesto himself. The use of The World: A Brief History offers added flexibility in teaching World History, allowing instructors to supplement the text with additional readers or other material of their choice. And because the brief text was written by Fernández-Armesto himself, it continues to offer the holistic, narrative approach to history that has made the comprehensive text successful at schools across the nation.

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Table of Contents

PART I: Foragers and Farmers, to 5000 B.C.E.

CHAPTER ONE: Out of the Ice: Peopling the Earth

So You Think You’re Human

Human Evolution

Out of Africa

Peopling the Old World

Migration, Population, and Social Change

The Last Great Ice Age

Ice-Age Hunters

Ice-Age Art

Ice-Age Culture and Society

Peopling the New World

Survival of the Foragers

In Perspective: After the Ice Age

CHAPTER TWO: Out of the Mud: Farming and Herding After the Ice Age

The Problem of Agriculture

A Case in Point: Aboriginal Australians

Preagricultural Settlements

The Disadvantages of Farming

Husbandry in Different Environments

Herders’ Environments

Tillers’ Environments

The Spread of Agriculture



The Americas


The Pacific Islands

So Why Did Farming Start?

Population Pressure

The Outcome of Abundance

The Power of Politics

Cult Agriculture

Climatic Instability

Agriculture by Accident

Production as an Outgrowth of Procurement

In Perspective: Seeking Stability

PART TWO: Farmers and Builders, 5000 to 500 B.C.E.

CHAPTER THREE: The Great River Valleys: Accelerating Change and Developing States

Growing Communities, Divergent Cultures

Intensified Settlement and Its Effects

The Ecology of Civilization

The Great Floodplains

The Ecology of Egypt

Shifting Rivers of the Indus Valley

Fierce Nature in Early Mesopotamia

The Good Earth of Early China

Configurations of Society

Patterns of Settlement and Labor


The Egyptian State

Statecraft in Mesopotamia

The First Documented Chinese State

Ruling the Harappan World

The Politics of Expansion

Literate Culture

In Perspective: What made the Great River Valleys Different?

CHAPTER FOUR: A Succession of Civilizations: Ambition and Instability

The Case of the Hittite Kingdom

The Importance of Trade

Hittite Society and Politics

Fragility and Fall: The End of Hatti

Instability and Collapse in the Aegean

Cretan Civilization

Mycenaean Civilization

A General Crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean?

The Egyptian Experience

The Roots of Instability

The Extinction of Harappan Civilization

The Evidence of the Rig Veda

The Environment of Stress

Conflict on the Yellow River

The Rise of Zhou

The Zhou Political System

State-Building in the Americas

Andean Examples

Developments in Mesoamerica

Assessing the Damage

The Survival of Egypt

In Perspective: Fatal Flaws

CHAPTER FIVE: Rebuilding the World: Recoveries, New Initiatives, and Their Limits

Trade and Recovery in the Middle East

The Phoenician Experience

The Assyrian Empire

The Babylonian Revival

Greece and Beyond

The Greek Environment

Greek Colonialism

Early Greek Society

The Spread of State-Building and City-Building

Empires and Recovery in China and South Asia

The Zhou Decline

South Asia: Relocated Centers of Culture

The Ganges Valley

Building Anew in Sri Lanka

The Frustrations of Isolation

Developments in North America

New Initiatives in Africa

In Perspective: The Framework of Recovery

PART III: The Axial Age, from 500 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.

CHAPTER SIX: The Great Schools

The Thinkers of the Axial Age

The Thoughts of the Axial Age

Religious Thinking

New Political Thinking

Challenging Illusion






Axial Age-Axial Area: The Structures of the Axial Age

In Perspective: The Reach of the Sages

CHAPTER SEVEN: The Great Empires

Routes That Drew the World Together

The Sea Routes of the Indian Ocean

Land Routes: The Silk Roads

The First Eurasian Empire: Persia

The Persian Heartland

Persian Government

The Persian—Greek Wars

The Empire of Alexander the Great

The Rise of Rome

The Roman Frontiers

Imperial Culture and Commerce

The Celts

The Beginnings of Imperialism in India


Asoka and His Mental World

Chinese Unity and Imperialism

Unity Endangered and Saved

The Menace from the Steppes

Beyond the Empires

Japan and Korea

The Western Eurasian Steppe


In Perspective: The Aftermath of the Axial Age

PART IV: Fitful Transitions, from about the Third Century to the Tenth Century

CHAPTER EIGHT: Postimperial Worlds: Problems of Empires in Eurasia and Africa, ca. 200 c.e. to ca. 700 c.e.

The Western Roman Empire and Its Invaders

Changes within the Roman Empire

The “Barbarian” West

Steppelanders and Their Victims



New Frontiers in Asia



The Rise of Ethiopia

The Crises of the Sixth and Seventh Centuries

Justinian and the Eastern Roman Empire

The New Barbarians

The Arabs


Arabs against Persia and Rome

The Muslim World

Recovery and Its Limits in China

Rise of the Tang

Empress Wu

Tang Decline

In The Shadow of the Tang: Tibet and Japan



In Perspective: The Triumph Of Barbarism?

CHAPTER NINE: The Rise of World Religions: Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism

Commerce and Conflict: Carriers of Creeds

In the Islamic World

In Christendom

In the Buddhist World


Manichaeanism and the Uighurs

Christianity on the Silk Roads

Islam on Trade Routes

Monarchs and Missionaries




Diplomatic Conversions

Buddhist Politics





The Margins of Christendom

Vladimir and the Rus

Islam and the Turks

Trickle Down: Christianization and Islamization

Religious Lives: The World of Monks and Nuns

Christian Monasticism

Buddhist Monks


Religious Women

In Perspective: The Triumphs of the Potential World Religions

CHAPTER TEN: Remaking the World: Innovation and Renewal on Environmental Frontiers in the Late First Millennium

Isolation and Initiative: Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas

African Geography

American Geography

The Maize Frontiers

The Islamic World and the Environment

Frontier Growth in Japan

China and South Asia

The Pacific

The Expansion of Christendom

In Perspective: The Limits of Divergence

PART V: Contacts and Conflicts, 1000 C.E. to 1200 C.E.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Contending with Isolation: ca. 1000—1200

American Developments: From the Arctic to Mesoamerica

Greenland and the North

The North American Southwest and the Mississippi Region


Around The Indian Ocean: Ethiopia, the Khmer, and India

East Africa: The Ethiopian Empire

Southeast Asia: The Khmer Kingdom

India: Economy and Culture

India: The Chola Kingdom

Eurasian Extremities: Japan and Western Europe


Western Europe: Economics and Politics

Western Europe: Religion and Culture

In Perspective: The Patchwork of Effects

CHAPTER TWELEVE: The Nomadic Frontiers: the Islamic World, Byzantium, and China ca. 1000—1200

The Islamic World and Its Neighbors

The Coming of the Steppelanders

The Crusades

The Invaders from the Sahara

The Progress of Sufism

The Byzantine Empire and Its Neighbors

Byzantium and the Barbarians

Basil II

The Era of Difficulties

Byzantium and the Crusaders

Byzantine Art and Learning

China and the Northern Barbarians

The End of the Tang Dynasty

The Rise of the Song and the Barbarian Conquests

Economy and Society under the Song

Song Art and Learning

In Perspective: Cains and Abels

PART VI: The Crucible: The Eurasian Crises of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: The World the Mongols Made

The Mongols: Reshaping Eurasia

The Mongol Steppe

The Mongol World beyond the Steppes: The Silk Roads, China, Persia and Russia




The Limits of Conquest: Mamluk Egypt and Muslim India

Muslim India: The Dehli Sultanate


IN PERSPECTIVE: The Uniqueness of the Mongols

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: The Revenge of Nature: Plague, Cold, and the Limits of Disaster in the Fourteenth Century

Climate Change

The Coming of the Age of Plague

The Course and Impact of Plague

Moral and Social Effects

The Limits of Disaster: Beyond the Plague Zone


Southeast Asia



The Pacific: Societies of Isolation

In Perspective: The Aftershock

CHAPTER FIFTHTEEN: Expanding Worlds: Recovery in the Late Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries

Fragile Empires in Africa

East Africa

West Africa

Ecological Imperialism in the Americas

The Inca Empire

The Aztec Empire

New Eurasian Empires

The Russian Empire

The Ottoman Empire

The Limitations of Chinese Imperialism

The Beginnings of Oceanic Imperialism

The European Outlook: Problems and Promise

In Perspective: Beyond Empires

PART VII: Convergence and Divergence to ca. 1700

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Imperial Arenas: New Empires in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Maritime Empires: Portugal, Japan, and the Dutch

The Portuguese Example

Asian Examples

The Dutch Connection

Land Empires: Russia, China, Mughal India, and the Ottomans


The Mughal Example in India

The Ottomans

New Land Empires in the Americas

Making the New Empires Work

The Global Balance of Trade

In Perspective: The Impact of the Americas

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: The Ecological Revolution of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

The Ecological Exchange: Plants and Animals

Maize, Sweet Potatoes, and Potatoes

Weeds, Grasses, and Livestock

Cane Sugar

Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate

Patterns of Ecological Exchange

The Microbial Exchange

Demographic Collapse in the New World

Plague and New Diseases in Eurasia

Labor: Human Transplantations

Wild Frontiers: Encroaching Settlement

Northern and Central Asia: The Waning of Steppeland Imperialism

Pastoral Imperialism in Africa and the Americas

Imperialism and Settlement in Europe and Asia



New Exploitation in the Americas

The Spanish Empire


British North America

Home Fronts in Europe and Asia

New Energy Sources

Land Reclamation

Frontiers of the Hunt

In Perspective: Evolution Redirected

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: Mental Revolutions: Religion and Science in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Christianity in Christendom

Christianity beyond Christendom: The Limits of Success

The Missionary Worlds of Islam and Buddhism

China and Japan


The Resulting Mix: Global Religious Diversity–American and Indian Examples

Black America

White America


The Renaissance “Discovery of the World”

The Rise of Western Science

Western Science in the East

In Perspective: The Scales of Thought

CHAPTER NINETEEN: States and Societies: Political and Social Change in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Political Change in Europe

Western Political Thought

Western Society

The Ottomans

Mughal India and Safavid Persia

Chinese Politics and Society

Chinese Politics

Chinese Society

Tokugawa Japan

The New World of the Americas


In Perspective: Centuries of Upheaval

PART VIII: Global Enlightenments, 1700-1800

CHAPTER TWENTY: Driven by Growth: The Global Economy in the Eighteenth Century

Population Trends




The Ecology of Disease

Economic Trends: China, India, and the Ottoman Empire



The Ottoman Empire and Its Environs

The West’s Productive Leap

The Scientific Background

The British Example

The Expansion of Resources

Global Gardening

In Perspective: New Europes, New Departures

CHAPTER TWENTYONE: The Age of Global Interaction: Expansion and Intersection of Eighteenth-Century Empires

Asian Imperialism in Arrest or Decline: China, Persia, and the Ottomans


The Asian Context

Persia and the Ottoman Empire

Imperial Reversal in India: Mughal Eclipse and British Rise To Power

The Dutch East Indies

The Black Atlantic: Africa, the Americas, and the Slave Trade

Land Empires of the New World

The Araucanos and the Sioux

Portugal in Brazil

Spanish America

Creole Mentalities

Toward Independence

IN PERSPECTIVE: The Rims of Empires

CHAPTER TWENTYTWO: The Exchange of Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Thought

The Character of the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment in Global Context

The Chinese Example



The Islamic World

The Enlightenment’s Effects in Asia

The Enlightenment and China

Western Science in Japan

Korea and Southeast Asia

The Ottomans

The Enlightenment in Europe

The Belief in Progress

New Economic Thought

Social Equality


The Crisis of the Enlightenment: Religion and Romanticism

Religious Revival

The Cult of Nature and Romanticism

Rousseau and te General Will

Pacific Discoveries

Wild Children

The Huron as Noble Savage

The French Revolution and Napoleon

Background to the Revolution


Revolutionary Radicalism

In Perspective: The Afterglow of Enlightenment

PART IX: The Frustrations of Progress, 1800-1900

CHAPTER TWENTYTHREE: Replacing Muscle: the Energy Revolutions

Global Demographics: the Word’s Population Rises

Food: Transition to Abundance

Energy for Power: Militarization and Industrialization



Industrializing Europe

Industry in the Americas

Japan Industrializes

China and Industrialization

India and Egypt

In Perspective: Why the West?

CHAPTER TWENTYFOUR: The Social Mold: Work and Society in the Nineteenth Century

The Industrialized Environment

Palaces of Work: The Rise of Factories

Critics of Industrialization: Gold from the Sewers


Beyond Industry: Agriculture And Mining

Changing Labor Regimes

Free Migrants

Hunters and Pastoralists

Elites Transformed

In Perspective: Cultural Exchange-- Enhanced Pace, New Direction

CHAPTER TWENTYFIVE: Western Dominance in the Nineteenth Century World: The Westward Shift of Power and the Rise of Global Empires

The Opium Wars

The White Empires: Rise and Resistance

Methods of Imperial Rule

Business Imperialism

Imperialism in the “New Europes”

Empires Elsewhere: Japan, Russia, and the United States

Rationales of Empire

Doctrines of Superiority

The Civilizing Missions

In Perspective: The Reach of Empires

CHAPTER TWENTYSIX: The Changing State: Political Developments in the Nineteenth Century


Nationalism in Europe

The Case of the Jews

Nationalism beyond Europe


Centralization, Militarization, and Bureaucratization

In and Around the Industrializing World

Beyond the Industrializing World

Religion and Politics

New Forms of Political Radicalism

Steps toward Democracy

The Expansion of the Public Sphere

Western Social Thought

In Perspective: Global State-Building

PART X: Chaos and Complexity: The World in the Twentieth Century

CHAPTER TWENTYSEVEN: The Twentieth-Century Mind: Western Science and the World

Western Science Ascendant



The Wider World

The Transformation of Western Science


Human Sciences

Anthropology and Psychology

Philosophy and Linguistics

The Mirror of Science: Art

The Turn of the World

In Perspective: Science Challenging and Challenged

CHAPTER TWENTYEIGHT: World Order and Disorder: Global Politics in the Twentieth Century

THE WORLD WAR ERA, 1914—1945

The First World War

Postwar Disillusionment

The Shift to Ideological Conflicts

The Second World War

The Cold War Era, 1945—1991

Super-Power Confrontation


The New World Order

The European Union

In Perspective: The Anvil of War

CHAPTER TWENTYNINE: The Pursuit of Utopia: Civil Society in the Twentieth Century

The Context of Atrocities

The Encroaching State

Unplanning Utopia: the Turn toward Individualism

Counter-Colonization and Social Change

Globalization and the World Economy

Culture and Globalization

Secularism and Religious Revival

In Perspective: The Century of Paradox

CHAPTER THIRTY: The Embattled Biosphere: The Twentieth-Century Environment

Fuel Resources

Food Output


The Crisis of Conservation

The Unmanageable Environment: Climate and Disease

In Perspective: The Environmental Dilemma

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