The World: A History, Volume A / Edition 2

The World: A History, Volume A / Edition 2

by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto
     
 

The World interweaves two stories–of our interactions with nature and with each other. The environment-centered story is about humans distancing themselves from the rest of nature and searching for a relationship that strikes a balance between constructive and destructive exploitation. The culture-centered story is of how human cultures have become mutually

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Overview

The World interweaves two stories–of our interactions with nature and with each other. The environment-centered story is about humans distancing themselves from the rest of nature and searching for a relationship that strikes a balance between constructive and destructive exploitation. The culture-centered story is of how human cultures have become mutually influential and yet mutually differentiating. Both stories have been going on for thousands of years. We do not know whether they will end in triumph or disaster.

There is no prospect of covering all of world history in one book. Rather, the fabric of this book is woven from selected strands. Readers will see these at every turn, twisted together into yarn, stretched into stories. Human-focused historical ecology–the environmental theme–will drive readers back, again and again, to the same concepts: sustenance, shelter, disease, energy, technology, art. (The last is a vital category for historians, not only because it is part of our interface with the rest of the world, but also because it forms a record of how we see reality and of how the way we see it changes.) In the global story of human interactions–the cultural theme–we return constantly to the ways people make contact with each another: migration, trade, war, imperialism, pilgrimage, gift exchange, diplomacy, travel–and to their social frameworks: the economic and political arenas, the human groups and groupings, the states and civilizations, the sexes and generations, the classes and clusters of identity.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205683475
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
02/16/2009
Series:
Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, The World, 2/e Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
384
Product dimensions:
8.90(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Volume 1: Chapters 1-15
Volume 2: Chapters 13-30
Volume A: Chapters 1-10
Volume B: Chapters 11-20
Volume C: Chapters 20-30

Part 1: Foragers and Farmers, to 5,000 BCE

Chapter 1

Out of the ice: Peopling the Earth

So you think you’re Human?

  • Human Evolution

Out of Africa

  • Peopling the Old World
  • Migration, Population, and Social Change

The Last Great Ice Age

  • Ice-Age Hunters
  • Ice-Age Art
  • Ice-Age Culture and Society
  • Peopling the New World

Survival of the Foragers

In Perspective: After the Ice

Chapter 2

Out of the Mud: Farming and Herding After the Ice Age

The Problem of Agriculture

  • A Case in Point: Aboriginal Australians
  • Preagriculural Settlements
  • The Disadvantages of Farming

Husbandry in Different Environments

  • Herders’ Environments
  • Tillers’ Environments

The Spread of Agriculture

  • Europe
  • Asia
  • The Americas
  • Africa
  • The Pacific Islands

So Why did Farming Start?

  • Population Pressure
  • The Outcome of Abundance
  • The Power of Politics
  • Cult Agriculture
  • Climatic Instability
  • Agriculture by Accident
  • Production As an Outgrowth of Procurement

In Perspective: Seeking Stability

Part 2: Farmers and Builders, 5000 to 500 BCE

Chapter 3

The Great River Valleys: Accelerating Change and Developing States

Growing Communities, Divergent Cultures

  • Intensified Settlement and Its Effects

The Ecology of Civilization

The Great Floodplains

  • The Ecology of Egypt
  • Shifting Rivers of the Indus Valley
  • Fierce Nature in Early Mesopotamia
  • The Good Earth of Early China

Configurations of Society

  • Patterns of Settlement and Labor
  • Politics
  • Statecraft in Mesopotamia
  • The First Documented Chinese State
  • Ruling Harappan World
  • The Politics of Expansion
  • Literate Culture

In Perspective: What Made the Great River Valleys Different?

Chapter 4

A Succession of Civilizations: Ambition and Instability

The Case of the Hittite Kingdom

  • The Importance of Trade
  • Hittite Society and Politics
  • Fragility and Fall: The End of the Hatti

Instability and Collapse in the Aegean

  • Cretan Civilization
  • Mycenean Civilization

A General Crisis in the Eastern Mediterranean World?

  • The Egyptian Experience
  • The Roots of Instability

The Extinction of Harappan Civilization

  • The Evidence of the Rig Veda
  • The Environment of Stress

Conflict on the Yellow River

  • The Rise of the Zhou
  • The Zhou Political System

State-Building in the Americas

  • Andean Examples
  • Developments in Mesoamerica

Assessing the Damage

  • The Survival of Egypt

In Perspective: The Fatal Flaws

Chapter 5

Rebuilding the World: Recoveries, New Initiatives, and Their Limits

Trade and Recovery in the Middle East

  • The Phoenician Experience
  • The Assyrian Empire
  • The Babylonian Revival

Greece and Beyond

  • The Greek Environment
  • Greek Colonialism
  • Early Greek Society
  • The Spread of State-Building and City-Building

Empire and Recovery in China and South Asia

  • The Zhou Decline
  • South Asia: Relocated Centers of Culture
  • The Ganges Valley
  • Building Anew in Sri Lanka

The Frustrations of Isolation

  • Developments in North Ameica
  • New Initiatives in Africa

In Perspective: The Framework of Recovery

Part 3: The Axial Age, from 500 BCE to 100 CE

Chapter 6

The Great Schools

The Thinkers of the Axial Age

The Thoughts of the Axial Age

  • Religious Thinking
  • New Political Thinking
  • Challenging Illusion
  • Mathematics
  • Reason
  • Science
  • Medicine
  • Skepticism

Axial Age-Axial Area: The Structures of the Axial Age

In Perspective: The Reach of the Sages

Chapter 7

The Great Empires

Routes that Drew the Old World Together

  • The Sea Routes of the Indian Ocean
  • Land Routes: The Silk Roads

The First Eurasian Empire: Persia

  • The Persian Heartland
  • Persian Government
  • The Persian-Greek Wars
  • The Empire of Alexander the Great

The Rise of Rome

  • The Roman Frontiers
  • Imperial Culture and Commerce
  • The Celts

The Beginnings of Imperialism in India

  • Government
  • Asoka and His Mental World

Chinese Unity and Imperialism

  • Unity Endangered and Saved
  • The Menace from the Steppes

Beyond the Empires

  • Japan and Korea
  • The Western Eurasian Steppe
  • Mesoamerica

In Perspective: The Aftermath of Axial Age

Part 4: Fitful Transitions, from the Third Century to the Tenth Century

Chapter 8

Postimperial Worlds: Problems of Empires in Eurasia and Africa, ca. 200 to 700 CE

The Western Roman Empire and Its Invaders

  • Changes Within the Roman Empire
  • The “Barbarian” West

Steppeelanders and Their Victims

  • China
  • India

New Frontiers in Asia

  • Korea
  • Funan

The Rise of Ethiopia

The Crises of the Sixth and Seventh Centuries

Justinian and the Eastern Roman Empire

The New Barbarians

The Arabs

  • Islam
  • The Arabs Against Persia and Rome

The Muslim World

Recovery and Its Limits in China

  • Rise of the Tang
  • Empress Wu
  • Tang Decline

In the Shadow of the Tang: Tibet and Japan

  • Tibet
  • Japan

In Perspective: The Triumph of Barbarism?

Chapter 9

The Rise of World Religions: Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism

Commerce and Conflict: Carriers of Creeds

  • In The Islamic World
  • In Christendom
  • In the Buddhist World
  • Trade
  • Manichaeanism and the Uighurs
  • Christianity on the Silk Roads
  • Islam on Trade Routes

Monarchs and Missionaries

  • Constantine
  • Ezana
  • Trdat
  • Diplomatic Conversions
  • Buddhist Politics
  • Korea
  • Japan
  • Tibet
  • India
  • The Margins of Christendom
  • Vladimir and the Rus
  • Islam and the Turks

Trickle Down: Christianization and Islamization

Religious Lives: The World of Monks and Nuns

  • Christian Monasticism
  • Buddhist Monks
  • Sufism
  • Religious Women

In Perspective: The Triumph of the Potential World Religions

Chapter 10

Remaking the World: Innovation and Renewal on Environmental Frontiers in the Late First Millenium

Isolation and Initiative: Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas

  • African Geography
  • American Geography
  • The Maize Frontiers

The Islamic World and the Environment

Frontier Growth in Japan

China and Southeast Asia

The Pacific

The Expansion of Christendom

In Perspective: The Limits of Divergence

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