The World in the Twentieth Century: From Empires to Nations / Edition 6

Paperback (Print)
Rent
Rent from BN.com
$30.27
(Save 75%)
Est. Return Date: 12/20/2014
Buy Used
Buy Used from BN.com
$81.16
(Save 33%)
Item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging.
Condition: Used – Good details
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $1.99
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 98%)
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (12) from $1.99   
  • Used (12) from $1.99   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 2
Showing 1 – 10 of 12 (2 pages)
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$1.99
Seller since 2009

Feedback rating:

(23503)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

Good
Our feedback rating says it all: Five star service and fast delivery! We have shipped four million items to happy customers, and have one MILLION unique items ready to ship today!

Ships from: Toledo, OH

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$1.99
Seller since 2009

Feedback rating:

(3448)

Condition: Good
Ships same day or next business day! UPS expedited shipping available (Priority Mail for AK/HI/APO/PO Boxes). Used sticker & some writing and/or highlighting. Used books may not ... include working access code or dust jacket Read more Show Less

Ships from: Columbia, MO

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$2.00
Seller since 2002

Feedback rating:

(11844)

Condition: Acceptable
All text is legible, may contain markings, cover wear, loose/torn pages or staining and much writing. SKU:9780131930421-5-0

Ships from: Salem, OR

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$2.00
Seller since 2002

Feedback rating:

(11844)

Condition: Good
May include moderately worn cover, writing, markings or slight discoloration. SKU:9780131930421-4-0

Ships from: Salem, OR

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$4.40
Seller since 2008

Feedback rating:

(2313)

Condition: Good
0131930427 Item in good condition. Textbooks may not include supplemental items i.e. CDs, access codes etc... All day low prices, buy from us sell to us we do it all!!

Ships from: Aurora, IL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Express, 48 States
$14.95
Seller since 2006

Feedback rating:

(60404)

Condition: Acceptable
Shows definite wear, and perhaps considerable marking on inside. 100% Money Back Guarantee. Shipped to over one million happy customers. Your purchase benefits world literacy!

Ships from: Mishawaka, IN

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$14.99
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(0)

Condition: Good
2005 Paperback Good Connecting readers with great books since 1972. Used books may not include companion materials, some shelf wear, may contain highlighting/notes, and may not ... include cd-rom or access codes. Customer service is our top priority! Read more Show Less

Ships from: Bethel Park, PA

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$36.99
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(56)

Condition: Good
Buy with Confidence. Excellent Customer Support. We ship from multiple US locations. No CD, DVD or Access Code Included.

Ships from: Fort Mill, SC

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Standard, 48 States
$39.95
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(18)

Condition: Good
Upper Saddle River, NJ 2005 Trade paperback 6th ed. Good. Trade paperback (US). Glued binding. 460 p.

Ships from: Pueblo West, CO

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$62.00
Seller since 2005

Feedback rating:

(20)

Condition: Good
Lebanon, Indiana, U.S.A. 2005 Soft Cover Good 2006, 6th Ed., Large Soft cover, few creases to cover, Few HIGHLIGHTED Pages, rest tight and clean.

Ships from: richmond, Canada

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 2
Showing 1 – 10 of 12 (2 pages)
Close
Sort by

Overview

Designed as an introductory survey of world history in the 20th century, this book discusses the major political and economic changes that have reshaped global relations, and focuses on the forces leading to the collapse of empires and the resulting rise of nationalism throughout the world. It develops the thematic argument that the single most profound global transformation in human relations during the 20th century has been the demise of all remaining empires and the emergence–in their place–of nation-states. Presents a heavy focus on the First World War and its revolutionary aftermath and the revolutionary conflicts that erupted in East Asia in the years following the Second World War. Contains material on the Middle East, including a Spotlight essay on Osama bin Laden, a Highlight section on the growing importance of petroleum in modern international relations and politics, and the impact of the Islamic religion. There is some emphasis on the non-Western and colonial history of the early twentieth century. For historians and those interested in the study of the twentieth century.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131930421
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 6/1/2005
  • Series: MySearchLab Series 15% off Series
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 7.01 (w) x 9.13 (h) x 0.96 (d)

Table of Contents

Maps.

Preface.

I. THE AGE OF EMPIRES.

1. Empires In Flux: The World In The Early Twentieth Century.

Western Colonial Empires.

Western Empires and Industrialism.

The New Colonial Empires.

Russia, Japan, and War for Empire.

An Empire for the United States.

HIGHLIGHT : The New Imperialism.

Ancient Empires.

The Fall of the Chinese Empire.

SPOTLIGHT : The Empress Dowager of China.

The Decline of the Ottoman Empire.

Western Liberalism and Nationalism.

The Liberal State.

Industrial Society.

European Nationalism.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

2. War and Revolutions, 1914-1930.

War and Peace in Europe.

The Origins of the First World War.

The European War.

Allied Victory.

HIGHLIGHT : War and Society.

Peacemaking and the League of Nations.

The Birth of Fascism.

Mussolini and Italian Fascism.

The Fascist State.

Communist Dictatorship in the Soviet Union.

Lenin and the Communist Revolution.

The Soviet Union and Its Peoples.

The Challenge of Building Socialism.

SPOTLIGHT : John Reed.

Revolution in Mexico.

The “Revolucion.”

Mexico’s Social Revolution.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

3. Postwar Europe and Its Empires.

Europe’s Postwar Revival.

Peacemaking in Europe.

The International Economy in Prosperity.

The Global Depression.

The Decline of Western Democracies.

Western Empires in the Middle East and Africa.

SPOTLIGHT : Hussein Ibn Ali.

The Allies in the Middle East.

The Problem of Palestine.

Independence for Egypt.

HIGHLIGHT : Petroleum and the International Economy.

Postwar Colonial Empires in Africa.

New Empires in East Asia.

The New Japanese Empire.

The Washington Conference.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

4. Nations Versus Empires In Asia : Turkey , India , China , 1918-1941.

The Forging of the Turkish Nation.

The Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

The Nation-State of Turkey.

British India and Indian Nationalism.

Hinduism and Islam in India.

British India.

India’s First Steps toward Freedom.

SPOTLIGHT : Mohandas Gandhi.

Nehru and Indian Independence.

The Muslim League and the Idea of Pakistan.

HIGHLIGHT : Colonialism and Nationalism.

Civil War and Foreign War in China.

The Rise of the Chinese Nationalist Party.

Mao Zedong and Chinese Communism.

China between Nationalists and Communists.

War against Japan.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

5. Despotic Empires Of The 1930s: Nazi Germany , Soviet Union , Japanese Empire, 1930-1941.

Nazism and Adolf Hitler.

The Nazi Party and Hitler.

The Nazi Dictatorship.

The Expansion of the Nazi Empire.

Stalin's Soviet Union.

The Stalin Revolution.

Stalinist Terror and Soviet Despotism.

The Soviet Empire.

HIGHLIGHT : Communism and Joseph Stalin.

The Japanese Empire.

Prosperity and Japanese Democracy.

Depression and Japanese Militarism.

Japanese Imperialism.

SPOTLIGHT : Admiral Yamamoto.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

6. The Last World War, 1939-1945.

The Empires of Germany and Japan.

The Conquest of Europe.

The United States: Between Neutrality and War.

The German-Soviet War.

The German Empire.

The Japanese Empire.

The Formation of the Grand Alliance.

HIGHLIGHT : Internationalism.

The United States in the Grand Alliance.

The Soviet Union at War.

Allied Cooperation.

The Defeat of the Axis Empires.

The United States and the Liberation of Western Europe.

SPOTLIGHT : John Maynard Keynes.

Soviet Triumph in Eastern Europe.

Victory in East Asia.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Readings.

II. THE ERA OF NATIONS.

7. The Cold War and The West.

The Cold War in the West.

The Making of the New Soviet Empire.

Partition of Germany.

Iron Curtain and Containment.

Soviet Satellites and the Berlin Blockade.

Containment and Military Alliances.

SPOTLIGHT : Eleni Gatzoyiannis.

The New Soviet Empire.

The “Outer” Empire.

Post-Stalinist Soviet Union.

The Arms Race and Cuban Missile Crisis.

HIGHLIGHT : The Cold War in Outer Space.

The New Europe.

The End of Western Empires.

Western European Recovery.

Western European Unification.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

8. Cold War and Revolutions in East Asia .

The Victory of the Chinese Communists.

The Decline of Nationalist China.

Communist Victory in China.

The Chinese People’s Republic.

The Korean War.

Partitioned Korea.

China, Stalin, and the Korean War.

North and South Korea.

HIGHLIGHT : Containment and Anti-Communism.

Wars and Revolution in Indochina.

The French Colonial War.

North and South Vietnam.

SPOTLIGHT : Ho Chi Minh.

U.S. War in Vietnam.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

Summary.

Recommended Reading.

9. The Resurgence of China and Japan , 1945-2000.

Revolution to Riches in Communist China.

Mao Zedong and Communist Dictatorship.

Revolutionary China.

The Great Leap Forward.

SPOTLIGHT : The Fourteenth Dalai Lama.

The Cultural Revolution.

“To Get Rich Is Glorious.”

After Communism: China in the Global Economy.

HIGHLIGHT : Revolution and Command Economies.

Japan’s Recovery from Defeat.

U.S. Occupation of Japan.

Japan in the Cold War.

The “Economic Miracle.”

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Readings.

10. New Nations in South Asia .

The New Island Republics.

Independence for the Philippines.

Sukarno and Indonesia.

SPOTLIGHT : Sukarno.

Singapore and the Global Economy.

Independence for India and Pakistan.

The End of British Rule.

The Partition of the Indian Colony.

Independence and War.

HIGHLIGHT : New Nations and Ethnic Conflict.

The Nation-States of India and Pakistan.

Nehru and the New India.

Democratic Socialism in India.

Ethnic Diversity and Secular Democracy.

War and Peace in South Asia.

Nation and Islam in Pakistan.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

11. Africa and Latin America in the Third World .

Africa's Liberation from Colonialism.

Nationalism in Africa.

Independence for African Colonies.

The Triumph of Democracy in South Africa.

SPOTLIGHT : Nelson Mandela.

African State-Building and Failed States.

The Failure of Economic Development.

Latin America in the Cold War.

The Lure of Economic Independence.

Populism in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.

Central America under U.S. Domination.

Castro’s Revolution.

HIGHLIGHT : The Third World.

Democracy in Latin America.

From Dictatorship to Democracy in South America.

Mexico’s New Democracy.

Cuba, Central America, and the Yankees.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

12. Nations at War in the Middle East .

Israel and the Middle East.

The Struggle for Palestine.

SPOTLIGHT: GOLDA MEIR.

Revolution in Egypt.

Nation-Building and Petroleum.

Nasser and the Egyptian Nation.

The Suez Canal and the 1956 War.

Nasser’s Socialist Reforms.

Petroleum and the Middle East.

War, Peace, and Islam.

HIGHLIGHT: Islam and the Nation-State.

The Six-Day War.

Egypt, Palestine and Peace with Israel.

Iran’s Islamic Republic.

The Oil Wars of Iraq.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Readings.

13. The West from Cold War to European Union.

The New Industrial Revolution.

The Electronic Age.

Western Economic Bonds.

European Nations and European Union.

Tinkering with the Welfare State.

European Union.

HIGHLIGHT: Social Change and Women’s Rights.

The Fall of the Soviet Empire.

The Decline of the Soviet Union.

The End of Communism.

SPOTLIGHT: Andrei Sakharov.

The End of the Cold War.

The New Russia.

Russia and Inner Asian Wars.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

14. Local Wars, Global Economy: The World in the Late Twentieth Century.

The Emergence of the Global Economy.

Global Energy.

HIGHLIGHT: The Global Environment.

The Global Market.

Local Wars and Peacekeeping.

Ethnic Conflict and War in Central Africa.

The Warring Peoples of the Balkans.

Internationalism and the United Nations.

Terrorism and Local Wars.

Islam in Afghanistan.

SPOTLIGHT: Osama bin Laden.

The Local Wars of the United States.

Summary.

Dates Worth Remembering.

Recommended Reading.

Index.

MAPS.

Partition of Africa, 1800-1914.

Empires in Asia,1914.

Europe at War, 1914-1918.

Europe and the Middle East after the First World War.

China at War, 1911-1949.

The Formation of the Japanese Empire.

The Second World War in Europe and Asia.

Decolonization of Western Empires since 1945.

Korean War 1950-53.

War in Vietnam.

Post-Colonial South Asia.

Contemporary Africa.

Contemporary Central and South America.

Israel and Its Neighbors.

The Middle East and Inner Asia in 1990.

Europe 1992.

United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, 2000 (U.N. Map #4000 Rev. 16, U.N. Cartographic Section).

Read More Show Less

Preface

Priding ourselves on shaping history, we function day to day as slaves of the events that inexorably unroll themselves before our eyes, and fear possesses us and hatred follows in its train.
Jawaharlal Nehru, 1949

When India gained its independence from the British Empire in August 1947, it was a time of triumph and celebration for Nehru. He had led the struggle for freedom, and became India's first prime minister. In India, as in other colonies that achieved independence in the postwar years, liberation appeared to open an era of freedom and hope for the former subject peoples. But independence brought human tragedy as well as triumph. Nehru's confession recalls the anguish, helplessness, and despair that he felt at the ethnic violence and war that followed the departure of the British. It is a timely warning not to exaggerate the achievements or minimize the destruction brought by the post-imperial age.

When mighty empires fall, peoples and their leaders have to undertake extraordinary efforts to create new political foundations for public life, and to forge new bonds of trust to hold together that new political order. These daunting tasks suggest in broadest terms the great scope of renewal that has been attempted in many regions of the world. But they hide a darker side of this transformation, for hostility and fear among peoples produce bitter conflict within new states. Ethnic antagonism has undermined new governments and at times created social chaos; freedom and bloodshed have come hand in hand.

The twentieth century witnessed the collapse of empires and the rise of nation-states throughout the world. That story is themajor theme of this textbook. No previous era experienced such dramatic, tumultuous, and tragic changes in the lives of countless millions of people. We no longer share the easy optimism of Westerners before the First World War, who too readily assumed material and spiritual progress to be a logical and inevitable force, almost a natural law. Nehru imagined a far happier time for his country than that brought about by liberation from the British Empire. Those shattered dreams are as much a part of the story of the twentieth century as the achievements of countries such as India. Knowledge of these events can help us to reach a balanced, sober understanding of human relations in our complex world.

Destruction and creation are inseparable parts of the history of the twentieth century. The struggles generated by antagonistic ideals and interests made the world an uneasy, violent place. Perhaps the most appropriate—certainly the most optimistic—image of the century's history is provided by the Greek myth of the phoenix, the bird reborn from the ashes of its own destruction. To discern essential signs of the emerging new era represents the most challenging historical task of any survey of tumultuous eras, particularly a period so close to us. Uncovering the century's defining trends has shaped my choice of thematic focus of the fifth edition of The World in the Twentieth Century.

The most visible, and arguably the most profound transformation that the twentieth century brought was the disappearance of empires from the face of the earth, and their replacement everywhere by nation-states (or states seeking a national identity). The textbook's chronological coverage extends back to the late nineteenth century, when old Asian empires and new Western empires dominated vast areas of the world and ruled most of its peoples. It reaches forward beyond the collapse of the Soviet Union, whose domination over peoples and countries in Europe and Asia earned it the title of "last empire." In the final decade of the century, the boundaries of nation-states gave shape to the political map of the entire world. In the same period, the process of increasing global economic integration largely ignored these political boundaries. At the dawn of the twenty-first century, the world appears more complex and dynamic than ever before.

Individual stories and global visions are helpful in understanding the historic events that make up the century's story. Placing these events in their historical context requires identifying the most important issues useful in their interpretation. At the same time, the human dimensions to that story are best grasped by situating it within the lived experience of the people of the time. Individuals found themselves thrust into unexpected, at times tragic prominence as a result of the tumultuous events into which they were drawn. In distinct Highlight and Spotlight sections, the textbook draws the readers' attention in each chapter to a major topical subject, and focuses attention on the life of a single person. Highlight readings discuss topics essential to the broad narrative; Spotlight segments provide biographical sketches of powerless victims as well as powerful actors who participated in historic events.

The single most important characteristic of the twentieth century was the increasing interaction among states and peoples on a global scale. The principal questions I seek to answer follow directly from this premise: What were the significant trends shaping this interaction? How can we explain the emergence of these global trends? What was their impact on the peoples in various parts of the world?

This brief survey cannot possibly explore in detail all the dimensions of this vast and complex set of issues. Three topics have guided my selection of the major trends and events to be addressed, namely, the international history of states, the role of ideology in shaping human aspirations, and the evolution of world economic relations. All three direct attention to related aspects of global interaction.

International history examines the essential factors that have shaped the foreign policies of governments and the relations among sovereign states. These include, first, the political ideals and national interests of states, second, the economic and political influence of states in global affairs, and third, the balance of power among countries. These three factors taken together explain in large measure the evolution of global conflict and cooperation in the twentieth century from the alliance system prior to the First World War to the Cold War conflict between superpowers following the Second World War, and finally to regional peacekeeping after the Cold War. International history offers crucial insight into the reasons for the collapse of empires and the global forces that shaped the new nation-states.

The potent force of political ideology emerges from deeply felt convictions of right and wrong, justice and injustice, giving rise to powerful mass movements and guiding the policies of governments. The importance of these aspirations in our time is such that some scholars have suggested calling the twentieth century the age of ideology. Liberalism was the dominant political faith among Western countries in the early century, and it appears in the late century to have won greater support around the world than ever before. Marxism provided for much of the century the broad guidelines for state policy-making and cultural controls in the countries of the communist bloc and in the Third World. Nationalism, of Western origin but without any single intellectual source or text, places the emergence of national communities and the formation of the nation-state at the center of human endeavor. It is undoubtedly the single strongest political bond among peoples in the world today. In studying these ideologies we can appreciate better the motives of important political leaders and the manner in which social discontent has been articulated and expressed in political movements.

Finally, economic history stresses the significance of productive resources, of new technology, and of ownership of the means of production. These factors have determined the profound differences separating developed and developing nations and the shifting dispersion across the globe of wealth and poverty. They shaped the economic conditions in which some countries became dependent on others for their very livelihood.

These three realms of inquiry—international, ideological, and economic history—offer points of reference useful in interpreting the forces behind the interaction among peoples. They suggest where and how powerful new historical trends have emerged. In simplest terms, they illuminate the process by which human power in various forms has, for good and ill, reshaped the twentieth-century world.

The story told here adheres to the simple principle that history is a tale of the past revealed over the passage of time. Emphasis upon international, political, and economic trends focuses that tale on the formative influences that shaped the world as we know it. Contemporary opinions and images, in the form of quotes from political leaders and observers, or reproductions of political posters and photographs, point to another important concept, namely, that the proper subject-matter of history is the lived experience of the past. The meaning and purpose that people attributed to those events are as much a part of our history as the events themselves. The tale retold here is one that they first wrote. We may praise or condemn what they did, but first we need to understand what they sought to do.

The judgments that we bring to a past as close as the twentieth century are inescapably influenced by our immediate perception of the world about us. To those who might object that such interpretations commit the sin of "presentism," that is, of distorting the past to make it fit the needs of the present, I would respond that history as we teach and write it is necessarily a dialogue between the present and the past. The voices from the past must answer in their own terms the questions and concerns that appear, from our perspective, historically meaningful.

The writing of the fifth edition of this text has come through years of teaching and innumerable discussions with colleagues who have proven generous with their time and indulgent of my endeavor. The sober understanding of the past that we acquire with the passing of time is a privilege largely denied this text, whose last chapters touch on events that occurred only yesterday on a historical scale. Students in my twentieth-century world history course at the University of California-Davis have lived through the many stages of this work. The yearly renewal of this student audience has constantly challenged my conclusions and incited me to rethink the meaning of the century's events, for they will create the history of the twenty-first century.

The text has in its various editions passed through the hands of specialists and experienced users, whose contributions to my work are substantial. In particular, I would like to thank the following scholars for their assistance: Krystyna von Henneberg, Barbara Metcalf, William Hagen, Donald Price, Kay Flavell, Ruth Rosen, and Arnold Bauer. The comments solicited by the publisher from readers have also proved of appreciable help in rethinking my revisions to the text. All are absolved of the sins of omission and commission in the completed text, for which I bear full responsibility. Special thanks in the preparation of the fifth edition go to Julia Kehew for her care and attention to textual matters. This edition is dedicated to Matthew and Michael, with the wish that they, like their parents, may find the world in the twenty-first century a place to say "Fanfare for the Makers!"

Daniel Brower

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Priding ourselves on shaping history, we function day to day as slaves of the events that inexorably unroll themselves before our eyes, and fear possesses us and hatred follows in its train.
Jawaharlal Nehru, 1949

When India gained its independence from the British Empire in August 1947, it was a time of triumph and celebration for Nehru. He had led the struggle for freedom, and became India's first prime minister. In India, as in other colonies that achieved independence in the postwar years, liberation appeared to open an era of freedom and hope for the former subject peoples. But independence brought human tragedy as well as triumph. Nehru's confession recalls the anguish, helplessness, and despair that he felt at the ethnic violence and war that followed the departure of the British. It is a timely warning not to exaggerate the achievements or minimize the destruction brought by the post-imperial age.

When mighty empires fall, peoples and their leaders have to undertake extraordinary efforts to create new political foundations for public life, and to forge new bonds of trust to hold together that new political order. These daunting tasks suggest in broadest terms the great scope of renewal that has been attempted in many regions of the world. But they hide a darker side of this transformation, for hostility and fear among peoples produce bitter conflict within new states. Ethnic antagonism has undermined new governments and at times created social chaos; freedom and bloodshed have come hand in hand.

The twentieth century witnessed the collapse of empires and the rise of nation-states throughout the world. That story is themajor theme of this textbook. No previous era experienced such dramatic, tumultuous, and tragic changes in the lives of countless millions of people. We no longer share the easy optimism of Westerners before the First World War, who too readily assumed material and spiritual progress to be a logical and inevitable force, almost a natural law. Nehru imagined a far happier time for his country than that brought about by liberation from the British Empire. Those shattered dreams are as much a part of the story of the twentieth century as the achievements of countries such as India. Knowledge of these events can help us to reach a balanced, sober understanding of human relations in our complex world.

Destruction and creation are inseparable parts of the history of the twentieth century. The struggles generated by antagonistic ideals and interests made the world an uneasy, violent place. Perhaps the most appropriate—certainly the most optimistic—image of the century's history is provided by the Greek myth of the phoenix, the bird reborn from the ashes of its own destruction. To discern essential signs of the emerging new era represents the most challenging historical task of any survey of tumultuous eras, particularly a period so close to us. Uncovering the century's defining trends has shaped my choice of thematic focus of the fifth edition of The World in the Twentieth Century.

The most visible, and arguably the most profound transformation that the twentieth century brought was the disappearance of empires from the face of the earth, and their replacement everywhere by nation-states (or states seeking a national identity). The textbook's chronological coverage extends back to the late nineteenth century, when old Asian empires and new Western empires dominated vast areas of the world and ruled most of its peoples. It reaches forward beyond the collapse of the Soviet Union, whose domination over peoples and countries in Europe and Asia earned it the title of "last empire." In the final decade of the century, the boundaries of nation-states gave shape to the political map of the entire world. In the same period, the process of increasing global economic integration largely ignored these political boundaries. At the dawn of the twenty-first century, the world appears more complex and dynamic than ever before.

Individual stories and global visions are helpful in understanding the historic events that make up the century's story. Placing these events in their historical context requires identifying the most important issues useful in their interpretation. At the same time, the human dimensions to that story are best grasped by situating it within the lived experience of the people of the time. Individuals found themselves thrust into unexpected, at times tragic prominence as a result of the tumultuous events into which they were drawn. In distinct Highlight and Spotlight sections, the textbook draws the readers' attention in each chapter to a major topical subject, and focuses attention on the life of a single person. Highlight readings discuss topics essential to the broad narrative; Spotlight segments provide biographical sketches of powerless victims as well as powerful actors who participated in historic events.

The single most important characteristic of the twentieth century was the increasing interaction among states and peoples on a global scale. The principal questions I seek to answer follow directly from this premise: What were the significant trends shaping this interaction? How can we explain the emergence of these global trends? What was their impact on the peoples in various parts of the world?

This brief survey cannot possibly explore in detail all the dimensions of this vast and complex set of issues. Three topics have guided my selection of the major trends and events to be addressed, namely, the international history of states, the role of ideology in shaping human aspirations, and the evolution of world economic relations. All three direct attention to related aspects of global interaction.

International history examines the essential factors that have shaped the foreign policies of governments and the relations among sovereign states. These include, first, the political ideals and national interests of states, second, the economic and political influence of states in global affairs, and third, the balance of power among countries. These three factors taken together explain in large measure the evolution of global conflict and cooperation in the twentieth century from the alliance system prior to the First World War to the Cold War conflict between superpowers following the Second World War, and finally to regional peacekeeping after the Cold War. International history offers crucial insight into the reasons for the collapse of empires and the global forces that shaped the new nation-states.

The potent force of political ideology emerges from deeply felt convictions of right and wrong, justice and injustice, giving rise to powerful mass movements and guiding the policies of governments. The importance of these aspirations in our time is such that some scholars have suggested calling the twentieth century the age of ideology. Liberalism was the dominant political faith among Western countries in the early century, and it appears in the late century to have won greater support around the world than ever before. Marxism provided for much of the century the broad guidelines for state policy-making and cultural controls in the countries of the communist bloc and in the Third World. Nationalism, of Western origin but without any single intellectual source or text, places the emergence of national communities and the formation of the nation-state at the center of human endeavor. It is undoubtedly the single strongest political bond among peoples in the world today. In studying these ideologies we can appreciate better the motives of important political leaders and the manner in which social discontent has been articulated and expressed in political movements.

Finally, economic history stresses the significance of productive resources, of new technology, and of ownership of the means of production. These factors have determined the profound differences separating developed and developing nations and the shifting dispersion across the globe of wealth and poverty. They shaped the economic conditions in which some countries became dependent on others for their very livelihood.

These three realms of inquiry—international, ideological, and economic history—offer points of reference useful in interpreting the forces behind the interaction among peoples. They suggest where and how powerful new historical trends have emerged. In simplest terms, they illuminate the process by which human power in various forms has, for good and ill, reshaped the twentieth-century world.

The story told here adheres to the simple principle that history is a tale of the past revealed over the passage of time. Emphasis upon international, political, and economic trends focuses that tale on the formative influences that shaped the world as we know it. Contemporary opinions and images, in the form of quotes from political leaders and observers, or reproductions of political posters and photographs, point to another important concept, namely, that the proper subject-matter of history is the lived experience of the past. The meaning and purpose that people attributed to those events are as much a part of our history as the events themselves. The tale retold here is one that they first wrote. We may praise or condemn what they did, but first we need to understand what they sought to do.

The judgments that we bring to a past as close as the twentieth century are inescapably influenced by our immediate perception of the world about us. To those who might object that such interpretations commit the sin of "presentism," that is, of distorting the past to make it fit the needs of the present, I would respond that history as we teach and write it is necessarily a dialogue between the present and the past. The voices from the past must answer in their own terms the questions and concerns that appear, from our perspective, historically meaningful.

The writing of the fifth edition of this text has come through years of teaching and innumerable discussions with colleagues who have proven generous with their time and indulgent of my endeavor. The sober understanding of the past that we acquire with the passing of time is a privilege largely denied this text, whose last chapters touch on events that occurred only yesterday on a historical scale. Students in my twentieth-century world history course at the University of California-Davis have lived through the many stages of this work. The yearly renewal of this student audience has constantly challenged my conclusions and incited me to rethink the meaning of the century's events, for they will create the history of the twenty-first century.

The text has in its various editions passed through the hands of specialists and experienced users, whose contributions to my work are substantial. In particular, I would like to thank the following scholars for their assistance: Krystyna von Henneberg, Barbara Metcalf, William Hagen, Donald Price, Kay Flavell, Ruth Rosen, and Arnold Bauer. The comments solicited by the publisher from readers have also proved of appreciable help in rethinking my revisions to the text. All are absolved of the sins of omission and commission in the completed text, for which I bear full responsibility. Special thanks in the preparation of the fifth edition go to Julia Kehew for her care and attention to textual matters. This edition is dedicated to Matthew and Michael, with the wish that they, like their parents, may find the world in the twenty-first century a place to say "Fanfare for the Makers!"

Daniel Brower

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)