The World of Psychology, Portable Edition / Edition 1

The World of Psychology, Portable Edition / Edition 1

by Samuel E. Wood, Ellen Green Wood, Denise Boyd

ISBN-10: 0205490093

ISBN-13: 9780205490097

Pub. Date: 03/02/2006

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Introducing The World of Psychology: Portable Edition — the first portable, modular introductory psychology text with fully integrated study materials and built-in connections to MyPsychLab™ – providing instructors and students the ultimate in flexibility and choice!

The World of Psychology has always done more to help students succeed than


Introducing The World of Psychology: Portable Edition — the first portable, modular introductory psychology text with fully integrated study materials and built-in connections to MyPsychLab™ – providing instructors and students the ultimate in flexibility and choice!

The World of Psychology has always done more to help students succeed than any other introductory psychology text. Recognizing that different students have different learning preferences and success strategies, this best-selling text offers a wide variety of field-tested support tools.

Now students have an even better shot at success, and professors have even more flexibility. The Portable Edition offers an innovative format with new study material and media integration.

  • More than modular, the text is portable! This handy slipcase contains six booklets, each reflecting a major unit of the introductory psychology course. The portability gives students the option to read, study, and self-assess anywhere, anytime, and any way they choose!
  • The text’s chapters have been redesigned and organized into numbered modules, giving instructors more flexibility about which material they assign to their students.
  • Each booklet contains two to four chapters, with built-in Study Guides and Practice Tests directly following each chapter, so students have more opportunities for self-assessment and reinforcement of key concepts.
  • Unique to the Portable Edition are integrated MyPsychLab icons throughout the text to help students make full use of this great online learning tool. The icons direct students to the rich media assets and self-assessment tools in MyPsychLab at the point in the text where these assets will help students the most. To learn more about MyPsychLab, visit

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
Product dimensions:
7.68(w) x 9.36(h) x 2.25(d)

Table of Contents


1. Introduction to Psychology.

1.1 Psychology: An Introduction.

The Scientific Method.

The Goals of Psychology.

How to Think Like a Scientist.

1.2 Descriptive Research Methods.

Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation.

The Case Study.

Survey Research.

1.3 The Experimental Method.

Experiments and Hypothesis Testing.

Independent and Dependent Variables.

Experimental and Control Groups.

Sources of Bias in Experimental Research.

Limitations of the Experimental Method.

1.4 The Correlational Method.

The Correlation Coefficient.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Correlational Studies.

1.5 Participants in Psychological Research.

Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research.

Protecting Research Participants’ Rights.

The Use of Animals in Research.

1.6 Exploring Psychology's Roots.

The Founding of Psychology.



Women and Minorities in Psychology.

1.7 Schools of Thought in Psychology.



Humanistic Psychology.

Cognitive Psychology.

1.8 Current Trends in Psychology.

Evolutionary Psychology.

Biological (Physiological) Psychology.

The Sociocultural Approach.

Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism.

1.9 Psychologists at Work.

Specialties in Psychology.

Majoring in Psychology.

Study Guide

Practice Test

2. Biology And Behavior.

2.1 The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters.

The Neurons.


The Variety of Neurotransmitters.

2.2 The Central Nervous System.

The Spinal Cord.

The Brainstem.

The Cerebellum.

The Midbrain.

The Thalamus and Hypothalamus.

The Limbic System.

2.3 The Cerebrum.

Components of the Cerebrum.

The Frontal Lobes.

The Parietal Lobes.

The Occipital Lobes.

The Temporal Lobes.

2.4 The Cerebral Hemispheres.

The Left Hemisphere.

The Right Hemisphere.

The Split Brain.

Handedness, Culture, and Genes.

2.5 Discovering the Brain's Mysteries.

The EEG and the Microelectrode.

The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques.

2.6 The Brain Across The Lifespan.

The Ever-Changing Brain.

Aging and Other Influences on the Brain.

2.7 The Peripheral Nervous System.

2.8 The Endocrine System

2.9 Genes and Behavioral Genetics.

The Mechanisms of Heredity.

Behavioral Genetics.

Study Guide

Practice Test

3. Sensation and Perception.

3.1 The Process of Sensation.

The Absolute and Difference Thresholds.

Transduction and Adaptation.

3.2 Vision.

The Eye.

Vision and the Brain.

Color Vision.

Theories of Color Vision.

Color Blindness.

3.3 Hearing.


The Ear.

Theories of Hearing.

Hearing Loss.

3.4 Smell and Taste.



3.5 The Skin Senses.



3.6 The Spatial Orientation Senses.

3.7 Perception.

Principles of Perceptual Organization.

Depth Perception.

Perception of Motion.

Puzzling Perceptions.

3.8 Influences on Perception.

Prior Knowledge.


Social Perception.

Study Guide

Practice Test

4. States of Consciousness.

4.1 What is Consciousness?

4.2 Circadian Rhythms.

The Influence of Circadian Rhythms.

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

Jet Lag.

Shift Work.

Circadian Timing and Neurological Disorders.

4.3 Sleep.

NREM and REM Sleep.

Sleep Cycles.

Variations in Sleep.

Explaining the Function of Sleep.

Sleep Deprivation.


Interpreting Dreams.

Sleep Disorders.

4.4 Meditation and Hypnosis.



Culture and Altered States of Consciousness.

4.5 Psychoactive Drugs.

How Drugs Affect the Brain.

Reasons for Substance Abuse.

Drug Addiction.

The Behavioral Effects of Psychoactive Drugs.

Herbal Remedies and Supplements.

Study Guide

Practice Test

Appendix: Statistical Methods.

Answers to the Study Guide Questions

Answers to the Practice Test

Key for MyPsychLab Assets


5. Learning.

5.1 Classical Conditioning: The Original View.

Pavlov and Classical Conditioning.

The Process of Classical Conditioning.

Changing Conditioned Responses.

John Watson and Emotional Conditioning.

5.2 Classical Conditioning: The Contemporary View.

The Cognitive Perspective.

Biological Predispositions.

Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life.

Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning.

5.3 Operant Conditioning.

Thorndike and the Law of Effect

B.F.Skinner: A Pioneer in Operant Conditioning.

The Process of Operant Conditioning.


Schedules of Reinforcement.

Factors Influencing Operant Conditioning.


Escape and Avoidance Learning.

Applications of Operant Conditioning.

5.4 Cognitive Learning.

Learning by Insight.

Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps.

Observational Learning.

Study Guide

Practice Test

6. Memory.

6.1 Remembering.

The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model.

The Levels-of-Processing Model.

Three Kinds of Memory Tasks.

6.2 The Nature of Remembering.

Memory as a Reconstruction.

Eyewitness Testimony.

Recovering Repressed Memories.

Unusual Memory Phenomena.

Memory and Culture.

6.3 Factors Influencing Retrieval.

The Serial Position Effect.

Environmental Context and Memory.

The State-Dependent Memory Effect.

6.4 Biology and Memory.

The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region.

Neuronal Changes and Memory.

Hormones and Memory.

6.5 Forgetting.

Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting.

The Causes of Forgetting.

6.6 Improving Memory.

Study Guide

Practice Test

7. Cognition and Language.

7.1 Imagery, Concepts, and Reasoning.




7.2 Decision Making.

The Additive and Elimination by Aspects Strategies.



7.3 Problem Solving.

Approaches to Problem Solving.

Impediments to Problem Solving.

7.4 High-Tech Applications of Cognition.

Artificial Intelligence.

Artificial Neural Networks.


7.5 Language.

The Structure of Language.

Language and the Brain.

Animal Language.

Language and Thinking.


Study Guide

Practice Test

8. Intelligence and Creativity.

8.1 The Nature of Intelligence.

The Search for Factors Underlying Intelligence.

Intelligence: More than One Type?

8.2 Measuring Intelligence.

Binet and the First Successful Intelligence Test.

Intelligence Testing in the United States.

Reliability, Validity, and Standardization.

8.3 The Range of Intelligence.

The Bell Curve.


Mental Retardation.

Intelligence and Neural Processing.

8.4 The IQ Controversy.

The Uses of Intelligence Tests.

The Abuses of Intelligence Tests.

The Heritability of Intelligence.

Race and IQ.

Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?

Expectations, Effort, and Standardized Test Scores.

8.5 Emotional Intelligence.

Personal Components of Emotional Intelligence.

Interpersonal Components of Emotional Intelligence.

8.6 Creativity.

The Creative Process.

The Nature of Creative Thinking.

Measuring Creativity.

Characteristics of Creative People.

Savant Syndrome.

Study Guide

Practice Test

Appendix: Statistical Methods.

Answers to the Study Guide Questions

Answers to the Practice Test

Key for MyPsychLab Assets


9. Child Development.

9.1 Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodology.

Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychology.

Approaches to Studying Developmental Change.

9.2 Prenatal Development.

Stages of Prenatal Development.

Fetal Behavior.

Negative Influences on Prenatal Development.

9.3 Infancy.

Reflexes and Motor Development.

Sensory and Perceptual Development.




The Father-Child Relationship.

9.4 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development.

Schemes: The Foundation of Cognitive Development.

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development.

An Evaluation of Piaget’s Contribution.

9.5 Other Approaches to Cognitive Development.

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural View.

The Information-Processing Approach.

9.6 Language Development.

The Sequence of Language Development.

Theories of Language Development.

Learning to Read.

9.7 Socialization of the Child.

The Parent’s Role in the Socialization Process.

Peer Relationships.

Television as a Socializing Agent.

Culture and Child Development.

Study Guide

Practice Test

10. Adolescence and Adulthood.

10.1 The Lifespan Perspective.

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory.

Research Support for Erikson’s Theory.

10.2 Adolescence.


Cognitive Development.

Moral Development.

Parental Relationships.

The Peer Group.

Teen Pregnancy.

10.3 Early and Middle Adulthood.

Physical Changes.

Intellectual Abilities.

The Impact of college Attendance.

Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood.

10.4 Later Adulthood.

Physical Changes in Later Adulthood.

Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood.

Alzheimer’s Disease- the Most Common Dementia.

Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood.

Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly.

Death and Dying.

Study Guide

Practice Test

Appendix: Statistical Methods.

Answers to the Study Guide Questions

Answers to the Practice Test

Key for MyPsychLab Assets


11. Motivation and Emotion.

11.1 What is Motivation?

Instinct Theories.

Drive-Reduction Theory.

Arousal Theory.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

11.2 The Primary Drives.


Internal and External Hunger Cues.

Variations in Body Weight.


Eating Disorders.

11.3 Social Motives.

The Need for Achievement

Work Motivation.

11.4 The What and Why of Emotions.

Explaining the Components of Emotions.

Theories of Emotion.

Emotion and the Brain.

The Polygraph Test.

11.5 The Expression of Emotion.

The Range of Emotion.

The Development of Facial Expressions.

The Universality of Facial Expressions.

Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotion.

Emotion as a Form of Communication.

11.6 Experiencing Emotion.

The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis.

Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion.

Emotion and Cognition.


Study Guide

Practice Test

12. Human Sexuality and Gender.

12.1 Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles.

Sex and Gender.

Theories of Gender Role Development.

12.2 Gender Differences.

The Evolutionary and Sociocultural Perspectives on Gender Differences.

Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities.

Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personality.

Adjustment and Gender Typing.

12.3 Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

Gender and Cultural Differences.

Sexual Desire and Arousal.

Sexual Violence.

12.4 Sexual Orientation.

Determinants of Sexual Orientation.

Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians.

12.5 Sexual Dysfunctions.

Sexual Desire Disorders.

Sexual Arousal Disorders.

Orgasmic and Sexual Pain Disorders.

12.6 Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Bacterial STDs.

Viral STDs.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Protection against Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Study Guide

Practice Test

13. Health and Stress.

13.1 Sources of Stress.

Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale.

Daily Hassles and Uplifts.

Making Choices.

Unpredictability and Lack of Control.

Stress in the Workplace.

Catastrophic Events.

Racism and Stress.

13.2 Responding to Stress.

Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome.

Lazarus’s Cognitive Theory of Stress.

Coping Strategies.

13.3 Health and Illness.

Two Approaches to Health and Illness.

Coronary Heart Diseases.


The Immune System and Stress.

Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness.

Gender, Ethnicity, and Health.

13.4 Lifestyle and Health.

Smoking and Health.

Alcohol Abuse.


Alternative Medicine.

Study Guide

Practice Test

Appendix: Statistical Methods.

Answers to the Study Guide Questions

Answers to the Practice Test

Key for MyPsychLab Assets


14. Personality Theory and Assessment.

14.1 Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis.

The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious.

The Id, the Ego, and the Superego.

Defense Mechanisms.

The Psychosexual Stages of Development.

Evaluating Freud’s Contribution.

14.2 The Neo-Freudians.

Carl Jung.

Alfred Adler.

Karen Horney.

14.3 Learning Theories and Personality.

Social-Cognitive Theory.

Locus of Control.

14.4 Humanistic Personality Theories.

Two Humanistic Theories.


14.5 Trait Theories.

Early Trait Theories.

Factor Models of Personality.

The Situation versus Trait Debate.

14.6 Nature, Nurture, and Personality.

Twin and Adoption Studies.

Neurotransmitters and Personality.

Shared and Nonshared Environments.

Personality and Culture.

14.7 Personality Assessment.

Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales.

Personality Inventories.

Projective Tests.

14.8 Personality Theories: A Final Comment.

Study Guide

Practice Test

15. Psychological Disorders.

15.1 What Is Abnormal?

Defining Mental Disorders.

Prevalence of Psychological Disorders.

Explaining Psychological Disorders.

15.2 Anxiety Disorders.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Panic Disorder.


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

15.3 Mood Disorders.

Major Depressive Disorder.

Culture, Gender, and Depression

Bipolar Disorder.

Causes of Mood Disorders.

Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age.

15.4 Schizophrenia.

Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia.

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia.

Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenics.

Types of Schizophrenia.

Risk Factors in Schizophrenia.

15.5 Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders.

Somatoform Disorders.

Dissociative Disorders.

15.6 Other Psychological Disorders.

Sexual Disorders.

Personality Disorders.

Study Guide

Practice Test

16. Therapies.

16.1 Insight Therapies.

Psychodynamic Therapies.

Humanistic Therapies.

Gestalt Therapy.

16.2 Relationship Therapies.

Interpersonal Therapy.

Family Therapy and Couples therapy.

Group Therapy.

16.3 Behavior Therapies.

Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning.

Behavior Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning.

Participant Modeling.

16.4 Cognitive Therapies.

Rational-Emotive Therapy.

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy.

16.5 Biological Therapies.

Drug Therapy.

Electroconvulsive Therapy.


16.6 Evaluating the Therapies.

16.7 Culturally Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy.

Culturally Sensitive Therapy.

Gender-Sensitive Therapy.

Study Guide

Practice Test

Appendix: Statistical Methods.

Answers to the Study Guide Questions

Answers to the Practice Test

Key for MyPsychLab Assets


17. Social Psychology.

17.1 Social Perception.

Impression Formation.


17.2 Attraction.

Factors Influencing Attraction.

Physical Attractiveness.

Romantic Attraction and Mating.

17.3 Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance.




17.4 Group Influence.

Social Facilitation.

Social Loafing.

Group Polarization and Groupthink.

Social Roles.

17.5 Attitudes and Attitude Change.


Cognitive Dissonance.


17.6 Prosocial Behavior.

Reasons for Helping.

The Bystander Effect.

17.7 Aggression.

Biological Factors in Aggression.

Other Influences on Aggression.

The Social Learning Theory of Aggression.

17.8 Prejudice and Discrimination.

The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination.

Is Prejudice Decreasing?

Study Guide

Practice Test

18. Psychology in the Workplace.

18.1 Personnel Psychology.

Hiring Workers.

Employee Training and Development.

Evaluating Workers.

18.2 Organizational Psychology.

Approaches to Management.


Organizational Culture and Climate.

Ethics in the Workplace.

18.3 Human Factors Psychology.

Workspace Design.

The Quality of Work Life Movement.

Aggression and Violence in the Workplace.

18.4 Gender Issues at Work.

Gender Differences in On-the-Job Coping Styles

Gender Discrimination.

Sexual Harassment.

18.5 Human Diversity in the Workplace.

Race and Ethnicity in the Workplace.

Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.

The Older Worker.

Workers with Disabilities.

Sexual Orientation in the Workplace.

Promoting Diversity.

18.6 Pursuing A Career.

Career Choice and Development.

Job Satisfaction.

A Final Word.

Study Guide

Practice Test

Appendix: Statistical Methods.

Answers to the Study Guide Questions

Answers to the Practice Test

Key for MyPsychLab Assets


Name Index.

Subject Index.



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