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“Fascinating and disturbing . . . with an authority born of rigorous research.” —BusinessWeek
“World on Fire deserves to be widely read. It is a welcome antidote to the recycled mantras of the market-cheering right and the tired rhetoric of the anti-globalization left.” —The American Prospect
"Superb. . . . Encourages us to confront the world as it is, and our actual place in it, with a humane and intellectually formidable imagination." —The New York Observer
"A riveting and original book that challenges key tenets of American political faith." —The Baltimore Sun
“This hard-hitting book should be read by everyone who still imagines that free markets can solve all the world’s ills. Chua’s work is provocative, creative, and important; it turns conventional wisdom on its head, and no one interested in globalization can afford to ignore it.”—Barbara Ehrenreich, author of Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By In America
“Provocative. . . . Shocking. . . . It should make Americans think twice about exporting their political culture wholesale without a thought of who dislikes whom.”—Seattle Times
“[World on Fire] makes for compelling reading and sounds a sobering warning that should be heeded by all supporters and critics of globalization.” —Milwaukee Journal–Sentinel
“A profound book, written in plain English, and challenging the very foundations of some glib—and dangerous—assumptions behind American foreign policy. This book should be read in the highest circles of decision-making, as well as by all those who like to consider themselves ‘thinking people.’ It should provoke some re-thinking—and, for some, really thinking for the first time.”—Thomas Sowell, Hoover Institution, and author of Ethnic America, Race and Culture
“A brilliant, groundbreaking assault on the prevailing wisdom that the American political and economic model is a one-stop solution to the world’s woes.” —Elle
“Grim and thoughtful. . . . A clear-headed incisive diagnosis of the many ethnic ills of the globalizing era.” —Mother Jones
“Clear and persuasive. . . . Chua is a careful, precise writer.” —Salon
“Chua’s book is a lucid, powerfully argued, and important contribution to the debate over the forces and factors shaping the twenty-first century world.” —Strobe Talbott, President, The Brookings Institution, and author of The Age of Terror: America and the World After September 11
“A cogent analysis...convincingly reason[ed].”—The Boston Herald
“Chua offers a fundamentally new perspective on how to help sustain globalization by spreading its benefits while curbing its most destructive aspects. . . . Compelling.” —The Tampa Tribune
“Remarkably illuminating. . . . I cannot think of another work over the past couple of decades that reveals more about the disturbing persistence internationally of racial and ethnic conflicts.” —Randall Kennedy, author of Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word
“Drawing on examples from Burma to Bolivia, Chua paints a nuanced picture of ethnic and national fault lines. . . . [She] fleshes out the idea that globalization is not a magical elixir for developing nations.” —Newsweek
“A barrage of examples supports Chua’s thesis, each described with careful consideration of the different circumstances of different nations. . . . [T]old with a dramatic flair. . .” – The Weekly Standard
“The greatest tribute to any book is the conviction upon closing it that the senseless finally makes sense. That’s the feeling left by Amy Chua’s World on Fire.” —The Washington Post
Rubies and Rice Paddies
Chinese Minority Dominance in Southeast Asia
In Burma,* tattoos are traditionally used to protect against snakebite. In 1930 and again in 1938, enraged Burmans applied these tattoos to achieve invulnerability against bullets and then proceeded to slaughter Indians in an orgy of violence. Even monks were said to have participated. At the time, Indians, along with British colonialists, were a starkly economically dominant ethnic minority in Burma and the object of mass antipathy. Killing Indians was an act simultaneously of revenge and nationalist pride among a long-downtrodden people. As a contemporary observer put it, "The average Burman on the street felt that at least once he had proved his superiority over the Indian."
Today there is only a small community of Indians left in Burma. Hundreds of thousands fled in the sixties, in response to another wave of ethnic violence. But a new market-dominant minority has taken their place, far wealthier than the Indians ever were.
Markets, Junta Style, and the Chinese Takeover
Burma has one of the most repugnant military governments in the world--the State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC,** which seized power in September 1988 after gunning down thousands of unarmed demonstrators. SLORC held multiparty elections in 1990, but then refused to honor the landslide victory of 1991 Nobel Peace laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, placing her instead under house arrest and earning the widespread hatred of the Burmese people.
From its inception, SLORC has been aggressively pro-market. Reversing three decades of disastrous, socialist central planning, SLORC in 1989launched "the Burmese way to capitalism." Apart from enriching corrupt SLORC generals, who are all ethnic Burmans, the ensuing decade of marketization brought virtually no benefits to the indigenous population, the vast majority of whom still engage in traditional agriculture. One group, however, has benefited tremendously.
Since Burma's shift to a market-oriented, open-door economy, both Rangoon, the modern capital, and Mandalay, the ancient City of Gems and royal seat of the last two Burmese kings, have been taken over by ethnic Chinese. Some of these Chinese are from families that have lived in Burma for generations. Like the Indians but to a lesser extent, the Chinese were disproportionately wealthy during the colonial period (1886-1948), which was characterized by essentially laissez-faire policies superimposed on Burma's traditional rural economy. Although much of their wealth was confiscated during the socialist era (1962-88), the Chinese remained active in Burma's black markets and, in a few cases, opium trafficking.
In Burma's new market economy, the Sino-Burmese minority have been transformed almost overnight into a garishly prosperous business community. In addition, tens of thousands of poor but entrepreneurial immigrants from China, sweeping down from nearby Yunnan, have bought up the identity papers of dead Burmans for as little as three hundred dollars, becoming Burmese nationals overnight. Today, ethnic Chinese Burmese--looking uncomfortable in longyis, the traditional Burmese unisex sarongs--own nearly all of Mandalay's shops, hotels, restaurants, and prime commercial and residential real estate. The same is more or less true in Rangoon. Only a tiny, dying handful of Burman-owned establishments (mainly printing houses and cheroot factories) are left, dwarfed by the Chinese-built and Chinese-owned high-rise buildings around them.
Typical of Southeast Asia, the Chinese dominate Burmese commerce at every level of society. Massive joint ventures--such as the Shangri-La Hotel deal between Lo Hsing-han, the Sino-Burmese chairman of the Asia World conglomerate, and Sino-Malaysian tycoon Robert Kuok--have turned Mandalay and Rangoon into booming hubs for mainland Chinese and Southeast Asian Chinese business networks. (Non-Burmese Chinese investors are easy to spot. They're the ones not in longyis but in cowboy boots and sunglasses, walking around with bottles of Johnny Walker Red.) At the humbler end of the spectrum, Chinese hawkers make an excellent living selling cheap bicycle tires from China--often more than thirty thousand tires a month--for rickshaws in Burma. Nor is Chinese dominance only an urban phenomenon. After two years of severe flooding in southern China, large numbers of Chinese farmers--over a million, some estimate--poured into northern Burma. These new Burmese "citizens" now grow rice on the cleared hill country they have taken over. Entire Chinese villages have sprung up in this way.
With the United States boycotting Burma on human rights grounds, globalization for Burma has had a disproportionately Chinese face, although the presence of French and German foreign investors can be felt as well. "Name a large infrastructure project anywhere in Myanmar these days and there is a strong possibility it will be in the hands of Chinese contractors," observed The Economist a few years ago. "Chinese engineers are working on improvements to the highway from Mandalay to Yangon. Chinese companies are developing the railway line from Mandalay to Myitkyina, near the Chinese border, and the line from Mandalay to the capital. With the help of chain gangs from Myanmar's prisons, they are also building a line from Ye to Tavoy in Myanmar's far south-east. . . . Against international competition, Chinese contractors have won the contract to build a big bridge across the Chindwin river. Other Chinese ventures range from a new international airport for Mandalay to housing for the armed forces and 30 irrigation dams. It was the Chinese, in association with Siemens, who last year installed a ground satellite station serving the capital."
The Chinese in Burma dominate not only legitimate trade and business but also more sordid black market activities. Indeed, the line between licit and illicit commercial activity in Burma, as in many developing countries, is often vague. Some of the country's most influential businessmen are former--possibly current--drug kingpins. "Drug traffickers who once spent their days leading mule trains down jungle paths are now leading lights in Burma's new market economy," lamented former U.S. secretary of state Madeline Albright a few years ago.
Burma-born, ethnic Chinese tycoon Lo Hsing-han, for example, was an infamous opium warlord in the 1960s, thought to be responsible for much of the heroin that wound up in American veins. According to Burma scholar Bertil Lintner, Lo started off in his native Kokang Province as a lieutenant to the pistol-toting lesbian opium queen, Olive Yang. In 1989, Lo cut a deal with SLORC, persuading fellow ethnic warlords to accept a cease-fire with the junta in exchange for valuable timber and mineral concessions. Today, Lo's "Asia World" commercial empire includes a container shipping business, Rangoon port buildings, and tollbooths on the resurfaced Burma Road. Lo insists that he is now a legitimate businessman. "Since the market economy appeared in Myanmar," he explains, "it is easier to earn money trading vehicles on the Chinese border."6 Whether or not Lo is clean--and most Western officials believe otherwise--Burma's "Chinese underworld" remains as dominant in drug traffic and money laundering as Chinese merchants are in Mandalay's booming, lawful markets.
Chinese Plutocrats, Burman Misery
Ever since SLORC embraced markets, Burma has been hemorrhaging natural resources, especially teak, jade, and rubies. Apart from SLORC generals, the beneficiaries have been almost exclusively ethnic Chinese and a handful of hill tribe smugglers.
Burma's forests hold more than 70 percent of the world's teak. The Burmese teak is a magnificent tree, sometimes reaching 150 feet, with opposing egg-shaped leaves and clusters of white flowers. Its timber is dark, heavy, oily, of unusual strength and durability. Long the wood of Burmese royalty, immortalized by Rudyard Kipling ("Elephints a-pilin' teak / In the sludgy, squdgy creek, / Where the silence 'ung that 'eavy you was 'arf afraid to speak! / On the road to Mandalay . . . "), teak today is America's wood of choice for boat decking and salad bowls.
For over a decade now, Burma's hill tribes, particularly the Shan, have been selling enormous quantities of teak to Chinese buyers at fire-sale prices. Technically these sales are contraband, violating SLORC's official monopoly on timber exports. In reality, SLORC generals struck a deal with hill tribe insurgents a decade ago, granting them economic freedom in exchange for a cease-fire. As a result, since 1989, convoys of trucks loaded with teak logs--sometimes over ten feet in diameter, from trees hundreds of years old--travel daily, snaking along the mountainous old Burma Road across the border into China's Yunnan Province.
Meanwhile, SLORC's official timber policy has been aggressive globally-oriented marketization under government concessions. Insisting that teak logging will facilitate Burma's economic development, SLORC has invited the full support of the private sector in promoting "forestry" (i.e., deforestation), even exempting forestry exports from commercial tax. Along with European and Chinese foreign investors, most of SLORC's business partners are Sino-Burmese tycoons who have close ties to Thai Chinese logging companies. Leading industrialist "May Flower" Kyaw Win, born to a poor Chinese family in the Northern Shan State, is a prominent example. Since moving into the timber business in 1990, Kyaw Win--also the managing director of Yangon Airlines and often spotted with top-ranking generals--has become one of the wealthiest men in Burma.
By contrast, ethnic Burmans have profited almost not at all from the country's market-driven deforestation. Shan tribespeople continue to earn money smuggling teak to Yunnan, but adding insult to injury, the Shan, along with the paid-off Burmese border officials, spend their proceeds almost entirely on coveted consumer goods imported from China and sold by Burmese Chinese. As a result the Chinese end up with both the teak and the money, while the Shan and the Burmans are left with cheap Chinese-made ghetto blasters, Michael Jackson T-shirts, sports shoes, condoms, and beer.
In addition to teak, Burma is famous for her gems: pigeon-blood rubies, ultramarine sapphires, and imperial jade. Prior to 1989, under Burmese-style socialist rule, only the state was permitted to engage in gem mining and gem sales. Thus in the 1980s, when a private miner discovered, and then sold on the black market, a raw ruby weighing an incredible 469.5 carats, he was promptly arrested and imprisoned. SLORC recaptured the ruby in 1990 and proudly proclaimed it the property of the state. Christened Na Wa Ta, or the "SLORC ruby," its picture was displayed across the country in the state-owned Working People's Daily. (Around the same time, the government also announced the discovery of two raw sapphires, one weighing 979 carats, the other around 1,300 carats.) During the socialist period, when all industry was nationalized, the Burmese government sold gems to foreign companies by holding annual "gem emporiums." Private gem sales were conducted underground by hundreds of traders operating largely out of Mandalay's 34th and 35th Street black markets.
In a watershed pro-market reversal, the Burmese government in the early nineties privatized much of its gem industry. Since 1995, private mining concessions have been sold on the basis of competitive bidding, costing as much as $83,000 per acre for virgin gem mines. Once again, virtually all the concessionaires have been Sino-Burmese businessmen. One Chinese-owned jewelry company reportedly controls 100 gem mines and produces over 2,000 kilograms of raw rubies a year. Lo Hsing-han's visible holdings, valued at an estimated $600 million, include valuable ruby concessions as well as "a mining stake in the northern 'jade rush' town of Phakent--said to harbor a 300-ton jade boulder, buried so deep in the jungle it can't be moved." Lo's Asia World conglomerate is now the most popular partner for foreigners investing in Burma. Along with private mining, SLORC also legalized private gem sales. Today, Burma's gem industry is dominated by thriving Burmese Chinese at every level, from the financiers to the concession operators to the owners of scores of new jewelry shops that sprang up all over Mandalay and Rangoon. Needless to say, SLORC officials are also handsomely paid off at every level.
It is an understatement to say that, in terms of financial and human capital, the vast majority of indigenous Burmans, roughly 69 percent of the population, cannot compete with the country's 5 percent Chinese minority. Three-quarters of the Burmans live in extreme rural poverty, typically engaging in paddy production or subsistence farming. Despite land reforms during the socialist era, an estimated 40 percent of Burman peasants are landless. For rural Burmans, saving money is virtually impossible; anything earned is spent just to stay alive. As a result, most Burmans have little or no capital and have not profited from economic liberalization.
Lack of financial capital is not the only problem. Since abandoning socialism in 1988, SLORC has slashed real spending on health and education. According to United Nations agencies, nearly 40 percent of Burmese children never enroll in school and up to 75 percent drop out before the fifth grade. Moreover, because of the ruling junta's paranoia about student-led civil unrest, Burma's universities were closed for three-and-a-half years, until July 2000. Human capital levels among indigenous Burmans are thus abysmal. All these factors, along with possible cultural obstacles--some have suggested that there is a native prejudice against "greedy" profit-seeking--make it extremely difficult for Burmans to compete in a market economy.
In urban areas, Burmans may actually have suffered from marketization. Most of the native residents of Mandalay were historically artisans, who made their living weaving tapestry, carving gold leaf, crafting furniture, or polishing precious stones. In recent years, low wages in these traditional industries relative to the skyrocketing prices of consumer goods have pushed the standard of living of thousands below subsistence. Meanwhile, since 1989, the price of rice in Mandalay has been rising steadily--at one point, over 1,000 percent in seven years--with no end in sight. For many Burmans, whose average per capita income is only around $300 a year, this translates into something close to starvation.
Further, as ethnic Chinese developers in the nineties snapped up all the prime real estate in Mandalay--making fast fortunes as property values doubled and tripled in the chaotic new markets--indigenous Burmese Mandalayans were pushed farther and farther away from their native homes. (In 1990, SLORC had already forcibly relocated dissidents and Mandalayan monks.) Today, thousands of poor, displaced Burmans live in satellite shantytowns on the outskirts of Mandalay, within eyeshot of the gaudy, fenced-off mansions of the SLORC generals, many of whom are openly parasitic on Chinese businessmen.
Free markets are supposed to lift all boats, and indeed often do. But this is distinctly not the perception of Burma's roughly 30 million ethnic Burman majority. In their view, markets and economic liberalization have led to the domination and looting of their country by a relative handful of "outsiders," chiefly ethnic Chinese, in symbiotic alliance with SLORC. Mandalay's central business district is now filled with Chinese signs and Chinese music pouring out of Chinese shops. Burmese-made products have been almost entirely displaced by cheaper Chinese imports. Chinese restaurants serving grilled meat and fish overflow with loud Mandarin-speakers. "To go to Mandalay," snaps a character in a local cartoon strip, "you need to master Chinese conversation." When the sun sets, Mandalay's new money heads to Chinese-owned karaoke bars, where young Chinese hostesses sing along to the latest songs from laser discs made in Hong Kong. On weekends, wealthy Chinese relax in the mountaintop resort of Maymyo, where they have bought up as vacation homes the grand Victorian houses left behind by British colonialists.
|Introduction: Globalization and Ethnic Hatred||1|
|Pt. 1||The Economic Impact of Globalization|
|1||Rubies and Rice Paddies: Chinese Minority Dominance in Southeast Asia||23|
|2||Llama Fetuses, Latifundia, and La Blue Chip Numero Uno: "White" Wealth in Latin America||49|
|3||The Seventh Oligarch: The Jewish Billionaires of Post-Communist Russia||77|
|4||The "Ibo of Cameroon": Market-Dominant Minorities in Africa||95|
|Pt. 2||The Political Consequences of Globalization|
|5||Backlash against Markets: Ethnically Targeted Seizures and Nationalizations||127|
|6||Backlash against Democracy: Crony Capitalism and Minority Rule||147|
|7||Backlash against Market-Dominant Minorities: Expulsions and Genocide||163|
|8||Mixing Blood: Assimilation, Globalization, and the Case of Thailand||177|
|Pt. 3||Ethnonationalism and the West|
|9||The Underside of Western Free Market Democracy: From Jim Crow to the Holocaust||189|
|10||The Middle Eastern Cauldron: Israeli Jews as a Regional Market-Dominant Minority||211|
|11||Why They Hate Us: America as a Global Market-Dominant Minority||229|
|12||The Future of Free Market Democracy||259|
Posted March 8, 2003
While I found the subject of Ms. Chua's book of interest, I found far too many factual errors. While almost all of the factual errors I found were small and did not dispute her main message, they did cause me to question all other facts that she presented. Also, I was struck by what seemed to be a minimal level of research by Ms. Chua, largely what she noticed on her short trips to various countries either to visit friends/relatives or to lecture. A book attempting to address a world wide issue ought to involve far more actual research, and far fewer impressions. I believe that facts do matter and the more factual errors the less one will believe. Having lived/worked in/visited over seventy countries I am more likely to spot such factual errors, and to be untrusting of books with so many factual errors. I have shared part of my list of factual errors with Ms. Chua.
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Posted May 11, 2003
Amy Chua's World On Fire is clearly and poignantly written unlike many other books on globalization. Amy Chua is on to something big - really big - in her book: the transition to capitalism in third world countries has brought about the rise of a 'market dominant ethnic minority' that is able to capture most of the wealth and power resulting in a violent backlash by other ethnic groups. Chua starts out the book writing about the tragic story of the 'revenge' murder of her own wealthy aunt by her chauffer in the Philippines and then expands her story to discuss how ethnic conflict and genocide is created by economic dominance of the Chinese in Asia, Croatians in old Yugoslavia, Jews in post communist Russia, Whites in South Africa, etc. All of the reviews of the book seem to miss that this is an unoriginal thesis originally made by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels over 150 years ago as the world was industrializing. Chua seems to use different terms to mean the same thing as Karl Marx: 'market dominant minority' means 'bourgeoise,' the 'poor' means the 'proletariat,' 'dominance' means 'control over the modes of production,' and 'ethnic conflict' is similar to Marx's 'the Jewish Question.' Chua states she is not an anti-globalist or a Marxist, but is pro-market. Chua says 'markets' lead to ethnic conflict. But she uses the terms market and laissez faire to mean their opposite: cabals, cartels, monopolies, and even caste. But man doesn't live by bread alone. Society is held together not simply by needs and interests, but by meaning structures and ideology as well. Chua states that capitalism results in the subjugation of the mass of poor people by a small ethnic elite. She fails to mention that totalitarianism also has the same result. A half-baked book that, nonetheless, can be easily swallowed.
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Posted July 31, 2003
Amy Chua¿s book should be required reading High School as well as College students. Information such as this is too important for voluntary reading. Part of America¿s ¿Why Do They Hate Us¿ attitude is attributable toward a lack of understanding in U.S. Foreign Policy, especially in its promotion of Globalization. Sorry CNN, your coverage is not adequate, nor objective enough, and only serves to reinforce the America is Great mentality. Amy Chua does a superb job in presenting the reader with the notion that perhaps the world doesn¿t really need our prepackaged brand of Democracy. An excellent example were the cultural differences and family values between East and West. From a personal perspective, I dare also say North America (USA) and South America (Latin). Imagine America¿s reaction if China imposed its cultural dynamics in America, and for those who have difficulty in picturing this need only travel to Miami and curse themselves for not paying more attention in Spanish class. Many of her examples were brilliant, however, I was surprised she omitted China¿s own Boxer Rebellion, who¿s market dominant minorities were the legations of France, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy and the USA. In closing, I was disappointed Ms. Chua didn¿t cover more information on Cuba. I personally am pleased that Cuba¿s market dominant minority are comfortably living in Miami.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted June 2, 2003
With her breathtaking analysis of world economic issues Amy Chua recasts the globalization debate and provides a new understanding of the post 9/11 world.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted June 11, 2003
Author Amy Chua knows that her thesis will clash with the prevailing view in the USA...that all the world needs now is more capitalism and democracy ... and most of their problems will go away. But as Chua logically conveys, most developing countries are not prepared for instant democracy (US foreign policy promotes national elections as the 'stamp' of democracy... it took the USA nearly 140 years to include 50 % (women) in our national elections....and we expect others to do it within months! Chua's evidence of select few people controlling the economy of most developing countries is accurate and they are the ones who benefit from IMF, World Bank and other financial institutions loan conditions. One message, not mentioned explicitly in Chua's book, is that the USA should carefully examine its current condition of capitalism (Enron, Arthur Anderson and all the other corporations) and democracy (only fifty percent participate in national elections)where our election of executive and legislative members of govt. are financed by corporations.... Think outside of the box and examine what Chua is really saying...Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted May 28, 2003
The wide divergence between the scholarly and layperson¿s online opinions of the highly acclaimed book World On Fire reminds me of sociologist Peter L. Berger¿s apt observation that the difficult thing to understand about globalization is not Islamic mullahs, but the views of American University Professors. World on Fire asserts that the disproportionate economic success attained by ¿market dominant minorities¿ in third-world nations foments ethnic hatred and genocide. Democracy, coupled with capitalism, provides the catalyst that paradoxically sparks the backlash of ¿indigenous majorities¿ against wealthy ethnic minorities. Amy Chua, professor of law at Yale University, is the offspring of the dominant Chinese commercial class of the Philippines. As sociologist Peter L. Berger who has pointed out that there are ¿four faces,¿ or carriers, of global culture: (1) the Davos culture comprised of world-traveling business elites (i.e., Davos, Switzerland); (2) the Faculty Club Culture of elite American schools; (3) the McWorld Culture of popular food, music, and fashion spreading around the world; and (4) Evangelical Protestantism. Clearly, Chua¿s views come out of the elitist culture of the American university. Chua, herself a member of the ¿New Class¿ of lawyers and knowledge elites, casts a blind eye to the fact that the type of egalitarian state she advocates results in a wealthy class of lawyers, instead of an ethnic group, as the new privileged elites of redistribution. As sociologist Peter L. Berger has written, the new ¿knowledge class¿ in Western societies is a major antagonist to capitalism, due in part that this class finds employment and subsidization in the welfare state. Greater scrutiny should be given to the claims of book reviewers (Salon, Business Week Online, and Publisher Doubleday) that Chua¿s ¿argument is quite new.¿ All of the praise for World On Fire misses that the thesis of the book is highly unoriginal and was addressed by the infamous Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels over 150 years ago when the First World was undergoing a similar wave of industrialization. Substitute such terms as ¿bourgeoise¿ for Chua¿s ¿market dominant minority,¿ ¿the proletariat¿ for Chua¿s ¿the poor,¿ ¿control over the mode of production¿ for ¿market dominance,¿ ¿ethnic conflict¿ for the ¿Jewish Question,¿ and ¿backlash¿ for ¿dialectical conflict¿ and you have a new lexicon of Marxism.. With the impeccable credentials of Chua one can only wonder how she wrote a book paralleling Marxist diagnostics so closely without even once citing Marx in her book? Chua is mostly right to warn about the exportation of American majoritarian democracy into developing nations, but has got it wrong about markets. Chua¿s use of the term ¿market¿ is a misnomer. Chua¿s uses the term ¿market dominating minority¿ to mean the converse of a market: a cartel, a cabal, a monopoly, a ruling class. Despite the constant denials in her book that she is not against democracy, globalization, or markets, World On Fire is less of a book on globalization or social science as it is an incendiary device that throws fuel onto the fire of the global culture wars.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.