World Politics: Interests, Interactions, Institutions / Edition 2

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Overview

A contemporary, problem-oriented approach to international relations.
Why are there wars? Why do countries struggle to cooperate to prevent genocides or global environmental problems? Why are some countries rich while others are poor? Organized around the puzzles that draw scholars and students alike to the study of world politics, this book gives students the tools they need to think analytically about compelling questions like these.
In the Second Edition, two new chapters—one on civil war and terrorism and one on international law—bring the book’s successful approach to additional topics. Added features stress real-world applications and provide extensive study and review help, making the authors’ analytical approach even more accessible and engaging.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780393912388
  • Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 9/15/2012
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 579
  • Sales rank: 181,649
  • Product dimensions: 9.00 (w) x 7.40 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Jeffry A. Frieden is Professor of Government at Harvard University. He specializes in the politics of international monetary and financial relations. Frieden is the author (with Menzie Chinn) of Lost Decades: The Making of America’s Debt Crisis and the Long Recovery. His previous books include Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth Century; Debt, Development, and Democracy: Modern Political Economy and Latin America, 1965–1985; and Banking on the World: The Politics of American International Finance; and he is the co-author or co-editor of many other books on related topics. His articles on the politics of international economic issues have appeared in a wide variety of scholarly and general-interest publications.

David A. Lake is the Jerri-Ann and Gary E. Jacobs Professor of Social Sciences and Distinguished Professor of Political Science at the University of California, San Diego. He is the author, most recently, of Hierarchy in International Relations. Other books include Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in Its Century and Power, Protection, and Free Trade: International Sources of U.S. Commercial Strategy, 1887–1939. In addition, he is co-editor of ten volumes and author of over 80 articles and book chapters on international relations, international political economy, and American foreign policy.

Kenneth A. Schultz is Professor of Political Science at Stanford University. His research examines international conflict and conflict resolution, with a particular focus on the domestic political influences on foreign policy choices. He is the author of Democracy and Coercive Diplomacy, as well as numerous book chapters and articles in scholarly journals. He received the 2003 Karl Deutsch Award, given by the International Studies Association, and a 2011 Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching, awarded by Stanford’s School of Humanities and Sciences.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiv

Introduction xix

What Is World Politics and Why Do We Study It? xxi

Twelve Puzzles in Search of Explanations xxiii

The Framework: Interests, Interactions, and Institutions xxv

Levels of Analysis xxvii

Integrating Insights from Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivism xxviii

The Plan of the Book xxxiii

Part 1 Foundations

Chapter 1 What Shaped Our World? A Historical Introduction 2

The Emergence of International Relations: The Mercantilist Era 5

How Do We Know? Mercantilism and the Thirteen Colonies 7

The Pax Britannica 8

What Shaped Our World? Colonists and the Colonized 9

The Hundred Years' Peace 10

Free Trade 11

The Gold Standard 13

Colonial Imperialism 13

The Thirty Years' Crisis 14

Tension in Europe 15

World War I and Its Effects 15

Interwar Instability 20

World War II 21

The Cold War 22

The Superpowers Emerge 23

The Blocs Consolidate 23

Decolonization 27

The Rise of the Third World 28

The Cold War Thaws 29

After the Cold War 29

The Cold War fends 29

Worldwide Economic Developments 30

New Diplomatic Challenges 32

What Will Shape Our World in the Future? 33

American Predominance and Challenges to It 34

Globalization 35

Looking Ahead 36

Chapter 2 Understanding Interests, Interactions, and Institutions 38

Interests: What Do Actors Want from Politics? 42

Actors and Interests 44

What Shaped Our World? The Rise of the State 45

Interactions: Why Can't Actors Always Get What They Want? 47

Cooperation and Bargaining 49

When Can Actors Cooperate? 52

Who Wins and Who Loses in Bargaining? 58

Institutions: Do Rules Matter in World Politics? 62

How Do Institutions Affect Cooperation? 62

How Do We Know? The International Diffusion of Election Monitoring 65

Whom Do Institutions Benefit? 68

Why Follow the Rules? 69

Conclusion: Thinking Analytically about World Politics 71

Special Topic: A Primer on Game Theory 74

Part 2 War and Peace

Chapter 3 Why Are There Wars? 80

What Is the Purpose of War? 84

What Do States Fight Over? 86

Bargaining and War 88

Compellence and Deterrence: Varieties of Coercive Bargaining 92

Do Wars Happen by Mistake? War from Incomplete Information 93

Incentives to Misrepresent and the Problem of Credibility 96

Communicating Resolve: The Language of Coercion 99

Can an Adversary Be Trusted to Honor a Deal? War from Commitment Problems 105

Bargaining over Goods That Are a Source of Future Bargaining Power 106

How Do We Know?. Bargaining and Conflict over Territory 107

Controversy: Should We Negotiate with Rogue Regimes? 108

Prevention: War in Response to Changing Power 110

Preemption: War in Response to First-Strike Advantages 112

What Shaped Our World'? Prevention and Preemption in World War I 114

Is Compromise Always Possible? War from Indivisibility 115

How Can We Make War Less Likely? 118

Raising the Costs of War 118

Increasing Transparency 118

Providing Outside Enforcement of Commitments 119

Dividing Apparently Indivisible Goods 120

Conclusion: Why War? 121

Chapter 4 Domestic Politics and War 124

Whose Interests Count in Matters of War and Peace? 128

National versus Particularistic Interests 128

Interactions, Institutions, and Influence 130

Do Politicians Spark Wars Abroad in Order to Hold On to Power at Home? 132

What Do Leaders Want? 133

Controversy: Should We Assassinate Leaders Rather Than Fight Their Armies? 134

The Rally Effect and the Diversionary Incentive 136

Do Leaders "Wag the Dog"? 138

The Political Costs of War 140

How Do We Know? War and the Fate of Political Leaders 142

Do Countries Fight Wars to Satisfy the Military or Special Interest Groups? 143

Bureaucratic Politics and the Military 143

What Shaped Our World? The Kargil War and Military Influence in War 146

Interest Groups: Economic and Ethnic Lobbies 147

How Can Small Groups Have a Big Influence on Policy? 149

How Do Domestic Interests Affect International Bargaining? 152

Why Don't Democracies Fight One Another? 154

What Is Democracy? 155

Representation, Accountability, and Interests in War and Peace 156

Democracy and the Bargaining Interaction 161

Domestic Institutions or Strategic Interests? 163

Conclusion: What If All the World Were Democratic? 164

Chapter 5 International Institutions and War 168

Alliances: Why Promise to Fight Someone Else's War? 172

Alliances and Alignments 173

Alliances and the Likelihood of War 176

How Alliances Establish Credibility 179

Why Aren't Alliance Commitments Ironclad? 180

The Success and Failure of Alliances in Europe, 1879-1990 181

What Shaped Our World? NATO after the Cold War 186

Collective Security: Why Can't the United Nations Keep the Peace? 188

How Does Collective Security Work? 189

The Dilemmas of Collective Security 192

Institutional Responses to the Challenges of Collective Security 193

The Experience of Collective Security: The United Nations 195

Controversy: Should the International Community Intervene Militarily in Civil Conflicts? 206

How Do We Know? Does Peacekeeping Keep the Peace? 209

Conclusion: Are Poor Police Better Than None? 211

Chapter 6 Violence by Nonstate Actors: Civil War and Terrorism 214

Why Does War Occur within States? 219

Why Rebel? 220

Controversy: Should Every Group Have a State of Its Own? 222

When Does Dissatisfaction Lead to Armed Opposition? 224

How Do We Know? Why Civil Wars Cluster Together 230

Civil War As a Bargaining Failure 233

The Strategies of Civil War 237

What Can Be Done about Civil War? 240

Terrorism: Why Kill Civilians? 242

Are Terrorists Rational? 243

Why Terrorism? 245

What Shaped Our World? The Rise of Al Qaeda 247

Terrorism As a Bargaining Failure 248

How Can Terrorists Hope to Win? Strategies of Violence 252

Can Terrorism Be Prevented? 256

Conclusion: A Challenge to States? 261

Part 3 International Political Economy

Chapter 7 International Trade 264

What's So Good about Trade? 268

Why Do Countries Trade What They Do? 270

Trade Restrictions Are the Rule, Not the Exception 273

Why Do Governments Restrict Trade? The Domestic Political Economy of Protection 276

Winners and Losers in International Trade 278

Economic Interests and Trade Policy 278

Domestic Institutions and Trade Policy 281

How Do We Know? The Political Economy of American Sugar Protection 283

Costs, Benefits, and Compensation in National Trade Policies 285

How Do Countries Get What They Want? The International Political Economy of Trade 287

Strategic Interaction in International Trade Relations 288

What Shaped Our World? The Creation of a Single European Market 289

International Institutions in International Trade 293

Explaining Trends and Patterns in International Trade 298

Why, within a Country, Are Some Industries Protected and Some Not? 298

Controversy: Does the WTO Hurt the Global Poor? 300

Why Have National Trade Policies Varied over Time? 302

Why Do Some Countries Have Higher Trade Barriers Than Others? 302

Why Has the World Trading Order Been More or Less Open at Different Times? 303

Conclusion: Trade and Politics 303

Special Topic: Comparative Advantage and the Political Economy of Trade 306

Chapter 8 International Financial Relations 312

How and Why Do People Invest Overseas? 316

Why Invest Abroad? Why Borrow Abroad? 317

What's the Problem with Foreign Investment? 319

Concessional Finance 320

Why Is International Finance Controversial? 322

Who Wants to Borrow? Who Wants to Lend? 322

Debtor-Creditor Interactions 325

Institutions of International Finance 327

Controversy: Is the IMF Unfair? 330

Recent Borrowing and Debt Crises 332

What Shaped Our World? The Latin American Debt Crisis 333

A New Crisis Hits the United States-and the World 334

Foreign Direct Investment: What Role Do Multinational Corporations Play? 337

Why Do Corporations Go Multinational? 337

Why Do Countries Let Foreign Multinationals In? 339

How Do We Know? Who's Afraid of MNCs, and Who Likes Them? 340

Host-Country Interactions with MNCs 341

Why Aren't There International Institutions Related to FDI? 343

International Migration: What Happens When People-Rather Than Capital-Move across Borders? 344

Conclusion: The Politics of International Investment 347

Chapter 9 International Monetary Relations 350

What Are Exchange Rates, and Why Do They Matter? 354

How Are Currency Values Determined? 355

Allowing the Exchange Rate to Change 356

Who Cares about Exchange Rates, and Why? 357

Governments 357

Consumers and Businesses 361

Can There Be World Money without World Government? 363

When and Why Do Governments Agree on the Monetary Order? 364

International Monetary Cooperation and Conflict 365

International Monetary Regimes 366

A Short History of International Monetary Systems 367

What Shaped Our World? The Wizard of Oz and the Gold Standard 369

Regional Monetary Arrangements: The Euro 371

How Do We Know? Who Wanted the Euro? 372

What Happens When Currencies Collapse? 375

Effects on Government 376

International Repercussions 377

Containing Currency Crises 381

Conclusion: Currencies, Conflict, and Cooperation 381

Controversy: Should Currency Traders Be Permitted to "Attack" Weak Currencies? 382

Chapter 10 Development: Causes of the Wealth and Poverty of Nations 386

If Everyone Wants Development, Why Is It So Hard to Achieve? 390

Geographic Location 390

What Shaped Our World? Paths to Development 391

Domestic Factors 392

Domestic Institutions 397

How Do We Know? Explaining Developmental Differences: North and South America 398

Are Rich Countries Responsible for the Problems of the Developing World? 400

Did Colonialism Hamper Development? 401

Is the International Economy Biased against LDCs? 403

Are International Institutions Biased against LDCs? 404

Development Policies and Development Politics 406

Import Substituting Industrialization 407

Export-Oriented Industrialization 409

The Turn toward Globalization 410

Attempts to Remedy the Bias of International Institutions 411

Is Foreign Aid an Answer? 413

Controversy: What Responsibilities Do Rich Countries Have to the Global Poor? 414

Globalization and Its Discontents 416

Conclusion: Toward Global Development 417

Addressing International Factors 417

Addressing Domestic Factors 418

Part 4 Transnational Politics

Chapter 11 International Law and Norms 420

What Is International Law? 425

How Does International Law Get Made? 426

What Shaped Our World? Crimes against Humanity 427

Is All International Law the Same? 428

How Do We Know? The European Court of Justice and the Integration of Europe 430

Does International Law Matter? 431

What Are International Norms? 434

How Are International Norms Created? 437

Controversy: Toys Made for Children, by Children 440

Do Norms Matter? 443

Beyond Norms: TANs and International Cooperation 446

Conclusion: Is the State Obsolete? 448

Chapter 12 Human Rights 452

What Are International Human Rights? 456

What Shaped Our World? The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 457

Why Are Human Rights Controversial? 459

Are Some Rights More Important Than Others? 462

Why Do Individuals and States Care about the Human Rights of Others? 463

Controversy: Should Economic Sanctions Be Imposed on Governments That Violate Human Rights? 464

Why Do States Violate Human Rights? 466

Why Do States Sign Human Rights Agreements? 468

Why Don't States Observe International Human Rights Law? 473

Does International Human Rights Law Make a Difference? 476

How Do We Know? Human Rights Abuses around the Globe 477

What Can Lead to Better Protection of International Human Rights? 480

When Do States Take Action on Human Rights? 482

Will Protection of Human Rights Improve in the Future? 483

Conclusion: Why Protect Human Rights? 489

Chapter 13 The Global Environment 492

Why Are Good Intentions Not Good Enough? 496

Collective Action and the Environment 497

Solving Collective Action Problems 500

What Shaped Our World? The Campaign to Save the Whales 501

Why Do Polluters Usually Win? 505

Domestic Winners and Losers 505

International Winners and Losers 507

Controversy: Who Should Bear the Costs of Addressing Global Climate Change? 508

How Do We Know? Patterns of Environmental Performance 514

Bargaining over the Future Environment 515

How Can Institutions Promote International Environmental Cooperation? 517

Setting Standards and Verifying Compliance 518

Facilitating Decision Making 520

Resolving Disputes 521

Conclusion: Can Global Environmental Cooperation Succeed? 522

Special Topic: The Science of Ozone Depletion and Global Climate Change 526

Part 5 Looking Ahead

Chapter 14 The Future of International Politics 534

Can the Spread of WMD Be Stopped? 538

What Do Theory and History Tell Us? 539

What Shaped Our World? The Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 540

Preventing the Spread of WMD 543

Will China and the United States Fight for Global Leadership? 548

What Do Theory and History Tell Us? 551

A Coming Showdown or Peaceful Engagement? 554

What Will the United States Do? 556

Will Economic Globalization Continue? 557

What Do Theory and History Tell Us? 559

Resistance to Globalization in the Developed World 562

How Do We Know? Is Globalization Increasing Inequality? 564

Resistance to Globalization in the Developing World 565

Backlash and the International Trading System 566

Will Globalization Lead to Global Government? 568

What Do Theory and History Tell Us? 569

Coming Conflicts over Global Governance 571

Who Will Set the Rules? 573

Conclusion: Can Our Common Interests Prevail? 577

Glossary A-1

Credits A-8

Index A-9

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