World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms / Edition 2

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Some 2.5 billion human beings live in severe poverty, deprived of such essentials as adequate nutrition, safe drinking water, basic sanitation, adequate shelter, literacy, and basic health care. One third of all human deaths are from poverty-related causes: 18 million annually, including over 10 million children under five. However huge in human terms, the world poverty problem is tiny economically. Just 1 percent of the national incomes of the high-income countries would suffice to end severe poverty worldwide. Yet, these countries, unwilling to bear an opportunity cost of this magnitude, continue to impose a grievously unjust global institutional order that foreseeably and avoidably perpetuates the catastrophe. Most citizens of affluent countries believe that we are doing nothing wrong. Thomas Pogge seeks to explain how this belief is sustained. He analyses how our moral and economic theorizing and our global economic order have adapted to make us appear disconnected from massive poverty abroad. Dispelling the illusion, he also offers a modest, widely sharable standard of global economic justice and makes detailed, realistic proposals toward fulfilling it. Thoroughly updated, the second edition of this classic book incorporates responses to critics and a new chapter introducing Pogge's current work on pharmaceutical patent reform.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"One of the most intellectually rigorous and empiricallywell-informed works of political philosophy yet written on worldpoverty. (A) brilliant work."
James Grant, Australian Journal of Political Science

"A triumph of cosmopolitan argumentation for a global system ofjustice. This book has been, and will remain, a standard for allstudents of poverty and human rights."
Human Rights Review

"If only everyone living in affluent nations were to readWorld Poverty and Human Rights! Pogge's combination ofrigorous moral argument and judicious use of the relevant factscompels us to acknowledge that the existing global economic orderis ethically indefensible. A wonderful book that could do animmense amount of good."
Peter Singer

"One of the very best books known to me on global inequality,the most important moral problem facing the world today. Poggeshows convincingly how we, and the institutions we support, canbest try to make the present world order less unjust. Theseproposals combine, in a remarkable way, moral depth, clearthinking, inventiveness, and practical good sense."
Derek Parfit, All Souls College, Oxford

"Pogge's gift is to recognize as imaginary the boundariesbetween economics and ethics. A striking example is thehistorically derived and currently dysfunctional way we applypatents for medicines. With simplicity and clarity, Pogge offers ananalysis without villains, a remedy without losers and a practicalpath to fundamental reform."
Carl Nathan, Cornell University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780745641447
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/28/2008
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 304
  • Sales rank: 608,648
  • Product dimensions: 6.02 (w) x 9.02 (h) x 1.12 (d)

Meet the Author

Thomas Pogge is Professor of Philosophy and International Affairs at Yale University, Professorial Fellow in the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at the Australian National University, Research Director in the Centre for the Study of Mind in Nature at the University of Oslo, and Adjunct Professor in the Centre for Professional Ethics at the University of Central Lancashire.

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Table of Contents


I Some Cautions About Our Moral Judgements.

II Four Easy Reasons to Ignore World Poverty.

III Sophisticated Defenses of our acquiescence in worldpoverty.

IV Does Our New Global Economic Order Really Not Harm thePoor?.

V Responsibilities and Reforms.

Chapter 1: Human Flourishing and Universal Justice.

1. 0 Introduction.

1. 1 Social Justice.

1. 2 Paternalism.

1. 3 Justice in First Approximation.

1. 4 Essential Refinements.

1. 5 Human Rights.

1. 6 Specification of Human Rights and Responsibilities fortheir Realization.

1. 7 Conclusion.

Chapter 2: How Should Human Rights be Conceived?.

2. 0 Introduction.

2. 1 From Natural Law to Rights.

2. 2 From Natural Rights to Human Rights.

2. 3 Official Disrespect.

2. 4 The Libertarian Critique of Social and Economic Rights.

2. 5 The Critique of Social and Economic Rights as 'ManifestoRights'.

2. 6 Disputes about Kinds of Human Rights.

Chapter 3: Loopholes in Moralities.

3. 0 Introduction.

3. 1 Types of Incentives.

3. 2 Loopholes.

3. 3 Social Arrangements.

3. 4 Case 1: The Converted Apartment Building.

3. 5 Case 2: The Homelands Policy of White South Africa.

3. 6 An Objection.

3. 7 Strengthening.

3. 8 Fictional Histories.

3. 9 Puzzles of Equivalence.

3. 10 Conclusion.

Chapter 4: Moral Universalism and Global EconomicJustice.

4. 0 Introduction.

4. 1 Moral Universalism.

4. 2 Our Moral Assessment of National and Global EconomicOrders.

4. 3 Some Factual Background about the Global EconomicOrder.

4. 3. 1 The Extent of World Poverty.

4. 3. 2 The Extent of Global Inequality.

4. 3. 3 Trends in World Poverty and Inequality.

4. 4 Conceptions of National and Global Economic JusticeContrasted.

4. 5 Moral Universalism and David Miller’sContextualism.

4. 6 Contextualist Moral Universalism and John Rawls’sMoral Conception.

4. 7 Rationalizing Divergent Moral Conceptions Through a DoubleStandard.

4. 8 Rationalizing Divergent Moral Conceptions Without a DoubleStandard.

4. 9 The Causal Role of Global Institutions in the Persistenceof Severe Poverty.

4. 10 Conclusion.

Chapter 5: The Bounds of Nationalism.

5. 0 Introduction.

5. 1 Common Nationalism – Priority for the Interests ofCompatriots.

5. 2 Lofty Nationalism – The Justice-for-CompatriotsPriority.

5. 3 Explanatory Nationalism – The Deep Significance ofNational Borders.

5. 4 Conclusion.

Chapter 6: Achieving Democracy.

6. 0 Introduction.

6. 1 The Structure of the Problem Faced by FledglingDemocracies.

6. 2 Reducing the Expected Rewards of Coups d'Etat.

6. 3 Undermining the Borrowing Privilege of AuthoritarianPredators.

6. 3. 1 The Criterial Problem.

6. 3. 2 The Tit-For-Tat Problem.

6. 3. 3 The Establishment Problem.

6. 3. 4 Synthesis.

6. 4 Undermining the Resource Privilege of AuthoritarianPredators.

6. 5 Conclusion.

Chapter 7: Cosmopolitanism and Sovereignty.

7. 0 Introduction.

7. 1 Institutional Cosmopolitanism Based on Human Rights.

7. 2 The Idea of State Sovereignty.

7. 3 Some Main Reasons for a Vertical Dispersal ofSovereignty.

7. 3. 1 Peace and Security.

7. 3. 2 Reducing Oppression.

7. 3. 3 Global Economic Justice.

7. 3. 4 Ecology/Democracy.

7. 4 The Shaping and Reshaping of Political Units.

7. 5 Conclusion.

Chapter 8: Eradicating Systemic Poverty: Brief for a GlobalResources Dividend.

8. 0 Introduction.

8. 1 Radical Inequality and Our Responsibility.

8. 2 Three Grounds of Injustice.

8. 2. 1 The Effects of Shared Social Institutions.

8. 2. 2 Uncompensated Exclusion from the Use of NaturalResources.

8. 2. 3 The Effects of a Common and Violent History.

8. 3 A Moderate Proposal.

8. 4 The Moral Argument for the Proposed Reform.

8. 5 Is the Reform Proposal Realistic?.

8. 6 Conclusion.

Chapter 9: Pharmaceutical Innovation: Must We Exclude thePoor? .

9.0 Introduction.

9.1 The TRIPS Agreement and its aftermath.

9.2 The argument from beneficial consequences.

9.3 Toward a better way of stimulating research and developmentof essential medicines.

9.4 Differential pricing.

9.5 The public-good strategy for extending access to essentialmedicines.

9.6 A full-pull plan for the provision of pharmaceuticals.

9.7 Specifying and implementing the basic full-pull idea.

9.8 Justifying the plan to affluent citizens and theirrepresentatives.

Last Words.




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