Written by one of the leading archaeological writers in the world - in a simple, jargon-free narrative style - this brief, well- illustrated account of the major developments in the human past makes world prehistory uniquely accessible to complete beginners. Written by Brian Fagan, World Prehistory covers the entire world, not just the Americas or Europe, and places major emphasis on both theories and the latest archaeological and multidisciplinary approaches. His focus is on four major developments in world prehistory: 1) The origins of humanity. 2) The appearance and spread of modern humans before and during the late Ice Age- including the first settlement of the Americas. 3) The beginnings of food production. 4) The rise of the first civilizations.
Brian Fagan is one of the leading archaeological writers in the world and an internationally recognized authority on world prehistory. He studied archaeology and anthropology at Pembroke College, Cambridge University, and then spent seven years in sub-Saharan Africa working in museums and in monument conservation and excavating early farming sites in Zambia and East Africa. He was one of the pioneers of multidisciplinary African history in the 1960s. From 1967 to 2003, he was Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he specialized in lecturing and writing about archaeology to wide audiences. He is now Emeritus.
Professor Fagan has written six best-selling textbooks apart from this book: Ancient Lives: An Introduction to Archaeology; In the Beginning; Archaeology: A Brief Introduction; People of the Earth;World Prehistory, all published by Prentice Hall—that are used around the world. His general books include The Rape of the Nile, a classic history of Egyptology; The Adventure of Archaeology;Time Detectives;Ancient North America;The Little Ice Age, The Long Summer, and Fish on Friday. He is General Editor of the OxfordCompanion to Archaeology. In addition, he has published several scholarly monographs on African archaeology and numerous specialized articles in national and international journals. He is also an expert on multimedia teaching and has received the Society for American Archaeology’s first Public Education Award for his indefatigable efforts on behalf of archaeology and education.
Brian Fagan’s other interests include bicycling, sailing, kayaking, and good food. He is married and lives in Santa Barbara with his wife and daughter, four cats (who supervise his writing), and, last but not least, seven rabbits.
Chapter 9 Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean World
Chapter 10 Egypt and Africa
Chapter 11 South, Southeast, and East Asia
Chapter 12 Lowland Mesoamerica
Chapter 13 Highland Mesoamerica
Chapter 14 Andean Civilizations
Detailed Table of Contents
A Note on Chronologies and Measurements
About the Author
PART I PREHISTORY
1. Introducing World Prehistory
“In the Beginning”
Prehistory, Archaeology, and World Prehistory
Major Developments in Human Prehistory
Cyclical and Linear Time
Written Records, Oral History, and Archaeology
Studying World Prehistory
Culture History, Time and Space, and “The Myth of the Ethnographic Present”
Analogy and the “Ethnographic Present”
SCIENCE: DATING THE PAST
Cultural Process and Past Lifeways
The Mechanisms of Culture Change
Culture as Adaptation
Multilinear Cultural Evolution
SITE: ANCIENT WAR CASUALTIES AT THEBES, EGYPT
SCIENCE: ANCIENT SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
Cultural Traditions and Cultural Change
Intangibles: Ideology and Interaction
Ideology and Beliefs
PART II THE WORLD OF THE FIRST HUMANS
CHAPTER 2 Human Origins
The Great Ice Age (1.8 million to 15,000 years ago)
Early Primate Evolution and Adaptation
The Order Primates
“Coming Down from the Trees”
The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution (7 million to 1.5 million years ago)
The Earliest Hominin?
SCIENCE: POTASSIUM ARGON DATING
What Is Australopithecus?
From Ardipithecus to Australopithecus
All Kinds of Australopithecines (3 million to 2.5 million years ago)
Gracile Australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus
Robust Australopithecines: A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, and A. robustus
Early Homo: Homo habilis (2.5 million to 2 million years ago)
A Burst of Rapid Change?
Who Was the First Human?
SITE: OLDUVAI GORGE, TANZANIA
The Earliest Human Toolmakers
Hunters or Scavengers?
The Earliest Human Mind
The Development of Language
The Earliest Social Organization
CHAPTER 3 African Exodus
Ice Age Background
Homo ergaster in Africa (c. 1.9 million to c. 600,000 years ago)
Humans Radiate out of Africa
Homo erectus in Europe and Asia
The Lifeway of Homo erectus
Archaic Human Lifeways
SITE: SCHONINGEN, GERMANY
Bamboo and Choppers in Tropical Forests
Archaic Homo sapiens (c. 600,000 to 130,000 years ago)
The Neanderthals (c. 200,000 to 30,000 years ago)
SCIENCE: DNA AND ARCHAEOLOGY
The Origins of Modern Humans (?c. 180,000 to 150,000 years ago)
Continuity or Replacement?
Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens
Ecology and Homo sapiens
Out of Tropical Africa
PART III THE BIRTH OF THE MODERN WORLD
CHAPTER 4 Diaspora
The Late Ice Age World (50,000 to 15,000 years ago)
The Peopling of Southeast Asia and Australia (45,000 to 15,000 years ago)
SITE: EXOTIC ISLANDERS: HOMO FLORESIENSIS
SCIENCE: RADIOCARBON DATING
Late Ice Age Europe: The Cro-Magnons (c. 43,000 to 15,000 years ago)
The World’s First Art
Hunter-Gatherers in Eurasia (45,000 to 15,000 years ago)
SITE: GROTTE DE CHAUVET, FRANCE
East Asia (35,000 to 15,000 years ago)
Sinodonty and Sundadonty
Early Human Settlement of Northeast Siberia (?before 25,000 to 15,000 years ago)
The First Americans (?before 15,000 years ago to 11,000 B.C.)
Settlement before 30,000 Years Ago?
SITE: MONTE VERDE, CHILE
Settlement after 15,000 Years Ago?
The Clovis People (c. 11,200 to 11,000 B.C.)
CHAPTER 5 The Origins of Food Production
The Holocene (after 10,000 B.C.)
Changes in Hunter-Gatherer Societies
Social Complexity among Hunter-Gatherers
Theories of Farming Origins
Early Theories: Oases and Hilly Flanks
The Recovery Revolution
SCIENCE: FLOTATION AND BOTANICAL REMAINS
SCIENCE: ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETRY (AMS) RADIOCARBON DAT-ING
Population and Resources Theories
The Consequences of Food Production
Differing Dates and Why
Changes in Human Life
Nutrition and Early Food Production
CHAPTER 6 The Earliest Farmers
Domesticating Wheat and Barley
Southwest Asian Farmers (c. 10,000 to 5000 B.C.)
SITE: MEN’S AND WOMEN’S WORK AT ABU HUREYRA, SYRIA
SITE: RITUAL BUILDINGS IN SOUTHEASTERN TURKEY
Early Egyptian and African Farmers (earlier than 7000 to 1000 B.C.)
European Farmers (c. 6500 to 3000 B.C.)
SITE: EASTON DOWN AND THE AVEBURY LANDSCAPE, ENGLAND
Early Agriculture in Asia (before 6000 B.C.)
Rice Cultivation in Southern China
First Farmers in Northern China
Early American Agriculture (8000 B.C. onward)
Mesoamerica: Guilá Naquitz and Early Cultivation
CHAPTER 7 Chiefs and Chiefdoms
Reciprocity and “Big Men”
Chiefs and Navigators in the Pacific (2000 B.C. to modern times)
The American Southwest (300 B.C. to modern times)
Hohokam, Mogollon, and Ancestral Pueblo
SCIENCE: DENDROCHRONOLOGY (TREE-RING DATING)
Moundbuilders in Eastern North America (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1650)
Adena and Hopewell
The Mississippian Tradition
SITE: MOUNDVILLE, ALABAMA
PART IV EARLY CIVILIZATIONS
CHAPTER 8 State-Organized Societies
What Is a State-Organized Society?
Theories of the Origins of States
The “Urban Revolution”
Early Ecological Models
Technology and Trade
SCIENCE: OBSIDIAN SOURCING
Cultural Systems and Civilization
Social Approaches: Power in Three Domains
Factionalism and Ideology
People as Agents of Change
The Collapse of Civilizations
CHAPTER 9 Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean World
Origins (5500 to 3000 B.C.)
SITE: THE TEMPLE AT ERIDU, IRAQ
The First Cities: Uruk
Writing and Metallurgy
Sumerian Civilization (c. 3100 to 2334 B.C.)
VOICES: THE SUMERIANS
Akkadians and Babylonians (2334 to 1650 B.C.)
Hittites and Sea Traders (1650 to 1200 B.C.)
Uluburun and Maritime Trade
Minoans and Mycenaeans (1900 to 1200 B.C.)
Minoan Civilization (1900 to 1400 B.C.)
Mycenaean Civilization (1600 to 1200 B.C.)
Sea Peoples and Phoenicians (1200 to 800 B.C.)
Assyrians and Babylonians (900 to 539 B.C.)
CHAPTER 10 Egypt and Africa
Predynastic Egypt: Ancient Monopoly (5000 to 3100 B.C.)
SCIENCE: ANCIENT WINE AT ABYDOS
Dynastic Egyptian Civilization (c. 3000 to 30 B.C.)
Archaic Egypt and the “Great Culture” (3000 to 2575 B.C.)
Old Kingdom (c. 2575 to 2134 B.C.)
SITE: THE STEP PYRAMID AT SAQQARA, EGYPT
Middle Kingdom (2040 to 1640 B.C.)
New Kingdom (1530 to 1075 B.C.)
VOICES: THE WARRIOR AHMOSE, SON OF ABANA
Late Period (1070 to 30 B.C.)
Egypt and Afrocentrism
Nubia: The Land of Kush (3000 to 633 B.C.)
Meroe and Aksum
Meroe (593 B.C. to A.D. 330)
Aksum (A.D. 100 to 1000)
Ancient African Kingdoms
The Spread of Iron (c. 500 B.C. to A.D. 250)
The Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay (c. A.D. 800 to 1550)
Great Zimbabwe (A.D. 1100 to 1500)
CHAPTER 11 South, Southeast, and East Asia
South Asia: The Harappan Civilization (c. 2700 to 1700 B.C.)
Mature Harappan Civilization
South Asia after the Harappans (1700 to 180 B.C.)
The Origins of Chinese Civilization (2600 to 1100 B.C.)
The War Lords (1100 to 221 B.C.)
Southeast Asian Civilization (A.D. 1 to 1500)
SITE: THE BURIAL MOUND OF EMPEROR SHIHUANGDI, CHINA
The Angkor State (A.D. 802 to 1430)
SITE: ANGKOR WAT, CAMBODIA
CHAPTER 12 Lowland Mesoamerica
Beginnings: Preclassic Peoples in the Lowlands (2000 B.C. to A.D. 300)
The Olmec (1500 to 500 B.C.)
SITE: MAYA PAINTINGS AT SAN BARTOLO, GUATEMALA
The Origins of Maya Civilization (before 1000 B.C. to A.D. 300)
San Bartolo, Nakbé, and El Mirador (c. 1000 to 300 B.C.)
Kingship, Glyphs, and Political Cycles
Classic Maya Civilization (A.D. 300 to 900)
The Rise of Tikal and Uaxactún
Caracol and Calakmul
Palenque and Copán
The Classic Maya Collapse
SITE: A TRAGEDY AT CERÉN, SAN SALVADOR
SCIENCE: STUDYING THE MAYA COLLAPSE AT COPÁN, HONDURAS
Postclassic Maya Civilization (A.D. 900 to 1517)
CHAPTER 13 Highland Mesoamerica
The Rise of Highland Civilization: The Valley of Oaxaca (2000 to 500 B.C.)
Monte Albán (500 B.C. to A.D. 750)
Valley of Mexico: Teotihuacán (200 B.C. to A.D. 750)
SITE: LIFE IN TEOTIHUACÁN’S BARRIOS
The Toltecs (A.D. 650 to 1200)
Aztec Civilization (A.D. 1200 to 1521)
SITE: THE AZTEC TEMPLO MAJOR AT TENOCHTITLÁN
The World of the Fifth Sun
VOICES: AZTEC THOUGHTS ON HUMAN EXISTENCE
The Aztec State
The Spanish Conquest (A.D. 1517 to 1521)
CHAPTER 14 Andean Civilizations
The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization
Coastal Foundations (2600 to 900 B.C.)
The Early Horizon and Chavín de Huántar (900 to 200 B.C.)
The Initial Period
The Coast (after 1800 B.C.)
Lake Titicaca Basin: Chiripa and Pukara (1000 B.C. to A.D. 100)
The Moche State (200 B.C. to A.D. 700)
SITE: THE LORDS OF SIPÁN, PERU
The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari (A.D. 600 to 1000)
The Late Intermediate Period: Sicán and Chimu (A.D. 700 to 1460)
The Late Horizon: The Inca State (A.D. 1476 to 1534)
SITE: CUZCO, THE INCA CAPITAL
The Spanish Conquest (A.D. 1532 to 1534)
Glossary of Technical Terms
Glossary of Archaeological Sites and Cultural Terms
Guide to Further Reading
References in the Text
Three thousand, four thousand years maybe, have passed and gone since human feet last trod the floor on which you stand, and yet, as you note the signs of recent life around you-the half-filled bowl of mortar for the door, the blackened lamp, the finger-mark on the freshly painted surface, the farewell garland dropped on the threshold-you feel it might have been but yesterday . . . . Time is annihilated by little intimate details such as these, and you feel an intruder. Egyptologist Howard Carter, notebook entry on Tutankhamun's tomb, November 26, 1922
Golden pharaohs, lost cities, grinning human skeletons: Archaeology is the stuff of romance and legend! Many people still think of archaeologists as adventurers and treasure hunters, like Indiana Jones of Hollywood movie fame seeking the elusive Holy Grail. This enduring image goes back to the late nineteenth century, when archaeologists like Heinrich Schliemann could still find lost civilizations like Troy and excavate three royal palaces in a week. Today, few, if any, archaeologists behave like Indiana Jones. They are scientists, not adventurers, as comfortable in an air-conditioned laboratory as they are on a remote excavation. The development of scientific archaeology from its Victorian beginnings ranks among the greatest triumphs of twentieth-century science. Archaeology has changed our understanding of the human experience in profound ways. A century ago, most scientists believed humans were no more than 100,000 years old. Today we know that our origins go back at least 5 million years. Our predecessors assumed the Americas were settled in about 8000B.C. and that farming began around 4000 B.C. New excavations date the first Americans to at least 12,000 B.C. and the beginnings of agriculture to about 10,000 B.C. Most important, archaeology has changed our perceptions of ourselves, especially of our biological and cultural diversity. Welcome to the fascinating world of archaeology!
The fifth edition of World Prehistory continues a long tradition of providing an interesting, jargon-free journey through the 5million-year-old landscape of the human past. I hope you enjoy your sojourn in its pages.
Highlights of the Fifth Edition
The fifth edition of World Prehistory has been revised throughout to reflect the latest advances in the field, and it includes suggestions by dozens of archaeologists and students who have taken the trouble to contact me after using previous editions.
This is an exciting time to be writing about archaeology. Many scientific advances are changing our perceptions about the past. Accordingly, the fifth edition is somewhat longer than its predecessors, with expanded coverage of major theoretical issues and the early civilizations. The fifth edition contains important new discoveries about early human evolution, the late Ice Age, and the origins of agriculture. New and updated coverage of the field appears in every chapter, with an up-to-date Guide to Further Reading at the end of the book along with a glossary of technical terms and one of archaeological sites and cultural names.
Updating and Rewriting
New perceptions of world prehistory. Chapter 1 includes important discussions of archaeology and alternative perspectives on the past, reflecting new thinking on this important topic.
Early human evolution. Chapter 2 discusses the latest advances in the study of human origins, including the latest fossil discoveries in Ethiopia and Kenya, among them Australopithecus garhi, a confusing and still enigmatic predecessor of humanity.
Origins of modern humans. Chapter 3 covers new research into the controversial issue of the earliest modern humans and fresh perceptions of Neanderthal ancestry and behavior.
Origins of food production. Chapter 5 incorporates expanded coverage of the latest theories on the origins of agriculture and animal domestication. Chapter 6, which describes the first farmers, incorporates new dates for early agriculture obtained from accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates and the results of new researches into the early farming village at Abu Hureyra, Syria, currently the earliest agricultural settlement in the world.
Origins of states and civilization. Chapter 8 has been expanded to include current theoretical debates on the origins of state-organized societies, including the issues of factionalism and charismatic leadership. Chapters 9 to 14 offer an up-to-date description and analysis of the first civilizations, with expanded coverage of ancient Egyptian civilization and of south and southeast Asian states. Chapters 12 and 13 offer more comprehensive analysis of highland and lowland Mesoamerican civilizations than in previous editions.
Revision and updating throughout. The entire text and Guide to Further Reading have been revised and updated on a page-by-page basis.
Three types of in-text boxes enhance the book, designed to amplify the narrative:
Science. These boxes introduce key dating methods and other scientific approaches, such as radiocarbon and AMS dating, and also environmental reconstruction.
Sites. Each chapter includes one or more boxes describing sites of unusual importance, and some aspects of unusual interest.
Voices. The Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and highland Mesoamerican chapters include special boxes that quote from writings of ancient times, giving each an unusual "voice."
New and Revised Art Program
The fifth edition's art program has been expanded with new photographs and fresh or revised line art. The new illustrations provide additional background on recent discoveries, amplify the narrative, or replace older art with new pictures. Some expanded captions serve to integrate the illustrations more closely into the text.
The entire book has been completely redesigned to make it more user-friendly.
The ancillary materials that accompany this textbook have been carefully created to enhance the topics being discussed.
Instructor's Manual with Tests. For each chapter in the text, this manual provides a detailed outline, list of objectives, discussion questions, classroom activities, and additional resources. The test bank includes multiple choice, true-false, and essay questions for each chapter.
Companion Website®. In tandem with the text, students and professors can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of archaeology. The Fagan Website correlates the text with related material available on the Internet. Features of the Website include chapter objectives and study questions, as well as links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that can reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. Address:
Anthropoloy on the Internet 2001: Evaluating Online Resources. This guide introduces students to the origin and innovations behind the Internet and provides clear strategies for navigating the complexity of the Internet and World Wide Web. Exercises within and at the end of the chapters allow students to practice searching for the myriad of resources available to the student of anthropology. This supplementary book is free to students when shrinkwrapped as a package with World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction, 5/E.
Many colleagues, too numerous to list here, have advised me on this revision. I am deeply grateful for their encouragement and assistance. I would like to thank the following reviewers for their help in revising this new edition. I appreciate their frank comments: Elliot M. Abrams, Ohio University; Mary C. Beaudry, Boston University; Katina Lollios, Ripon College; and John M. O'Shea, University of Michigan.
Lastly, my thanks to my editor Nancy Roberts and her colleagues at Prentice Hall. They have turned a complex manuscript into an attractive book and done all they can to minimize unexpected difficulties.
As always, I would be most grateful for criticisms, comments, or details of new work, sent to me c/o Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 .