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World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction / Edition 7

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Overview

Written by one of the leading archaeological writers in the world--in a simple, jargon-free narrative style--this brief, well-illustrated account of the major developments in the human past (from the origins of humanity to the origins of literate civilization) is ideal for those with no previous knowledge of the subject. Up to date and state of the art in content and perspective, it covers the entire world (not just the Americas or Europe), placing major emphasis on both theories and the latest archaeological and multidisciplinary approaches. The main focus is on four major developments--the origins of humanity; the appearance and spread of modern humans before and during the late Ice Age, including the first settlement of the Americas; the beginnings of food production; and the rise of the first civilizations. Features special boxes on Science (e.g., key dating methods and other scientific approaches), Sites (e.g., sites of unusual importance or interest, and Voices (e.g., quotes from writings of ancient times). Human Origins. African Exodus. Diaspora. The Origins of Food Production. The First Farmers. Chiefs and Chiefdoms. State-Organized Societies. Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean World. Egypt and Africa. South, Southeast, And East Asia. Lowland Mesoamerica. Highland Mesamerica. Andean Civilizations. For anyone interested in Archaeology, World Prehistory, Human Antiquity.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780132257084
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 5/25/2007
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 7.52 (w) x 9.08 (h) x 0.61 (d)

Meet the Author

Brian Fagan is one of the leading archaeological writers in the world and an internationally recognized authority on world prehistory. He studied archaeology and anthropology at Pembroke College, Cambridge University, and then spent seven years in sub-Saharan Africa working in museums and in monument conservation and excavating early farming sites in Zambia and East Africa. He was one of the pioneers of multidisciplinary African history in the 1960s. From 1967 to 2003, he was Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he specialized in lecturing and writing about archaeology to wide audiences. He is now Emeritus.

Professor Fagan has written six best-selling textbooks apart from this book: Ancient Lives: An Introduction to Archaeology; In the Beginning; Archaeology: A Brief Introduction; People of the Earth; World Prehistory, all published by Prentice Hall—that are used around the world. His general books include The Rape of the Nile, a classic history of Egyptology; The Adventure of Archaeology; Time Detectives; Ancient North America; The Little Ice Age, The Long Summer, and Fish on Friday. He is General Editor of the Oxford Companion to Archaeology. In addition, he has published several scholarly monographs on African archaeology and numerous specialized articles in national and international journals. He is also an expert on multimedia teaching and has received the Society for American Archaeology’s first Public Education Award for his indefatigable efforts on behalf of archaeology and education.

Brian Fagan’s other interests include bicycling, sailing, kayaking, and good food. He is married and lives in Santa Barbara with his wife and daughter, four cats (who supervise his writing), and, last but not least, seven rabbits.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii
A Note on Chronologies and Measurements xvi
Part I Prehistory 1
Chapter 1 Introducing World Prehistory 3
Prologue 4
"In the Beginning" 4
Pseudoarchaeology 6
Prehistory, Archaeology, and World Prehistory 7
Major Developments in Human Prehistory 9
Cyclical and Linear Time 10
Written Records, Oral History, and Archaeology 14
Studying World Prehistory 15
Culture History, Time and Space, and "The Myth of the Ethnographic Present" 17
Cultural Process and Past Lifeways 22
The Mechanisms of Culture Change 24
Culture as Adaptation 26
Intangibles: Ideology and Interaction 30
Summary 32
Part II The World of the First Humans 35
Chapter 2 Human Origins 37
Prologue 8
The Great Ice Age (1.8 million to 15,000 years ago) 39
Early Primate Evolution and Adaptation 41
The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution (4 million to 1.5 million years ago) 44
All Kinds of Australopithecines (3 million to 2.5 million years ago) 50
Early Homo: Homo habilis (2.5 million to 2.0 million years ago) 52
Who Was the First Human? 56
The Earliest Human Technology 57
Hunters or Scavengers? 61
The Earliest Human Mind 63
The Development of Language 65
The Earliest Social Organization 66
Summary 67
Chapter 3 African Exodus 68
Prologue 69
Ice Age Background 69
Homo erectus (c. 1.9 million to after 200,000 years ago) 72
The Lifeway of Homo erectus 76
Archaic Homo sapiens (c. 400,000 to 130,000 years ago) 81
The Neanderthals (c. 150,000 to 30,000 years ago) 82
The Origins of Modern Humans (?c. 180,000 to 150,000 years ago) 88
Out of Tropical Africa 93
Summary 94
Part III The Birth of the Modern World 95
Chapter 4 Diaspora 97
Prologue 98
The Late Ice Age World (50,000 to 15,000 years ago) 99
The Peopling of Southeast Asia and Australia (45,000 to 15,000 years ago) 101
Late Ice Age Europe: The Cro-Magnons (40,000 to 15,000 years ago) 103
Hunter-gatherers in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 years ago) 109
East Asia (35,000 to 15,000 years ago) 112
Early Human Settlement of Siberia (?before 20,000 to 15,000 years ago) 114
The First Americans (?before 15,000 years ago to 11,000 B.C.) 114
The Clovis People (c. 11,200 to 11,000 B.C.) 118
Summary 120
Chapter 5 The Origins of Food Production 121
Prologue 122
The Holocene (after 10,000 B.C.) 125
Changes in Forager Societies 125
Social Complexity among Foragers 127
Theories of Farming Origins 129
The Recovery Revolution 130
Multicausal Theories 131
The Consequences of Food Production 134
Nutrition and Early Food Production 139
Summary 140
Chapter 6 The Earliest Farmers 141
Prologue 142
Domesticating Animals 143
Domesticating Wheat and Barley 144
Southwest Asian Farmers (c. 10,000 to 5000 B.C.) 146
Early Egyptian and African Farmers (earlier than 6000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.) 149
European Farmers (c. 6500 to 3000 B.C.) 151
Early Agriculture in Asia (before 6000 B.C.) 154
Early American Agriculture (8000 B.C. onward) 158
Summary 163
Chapter 7 Chiefs and Chiefdoms 165
Prologue 166
Reciprocity and "Big Men" 167
Navigators and Chiefs in the Pacific (2000 B.C. to modern times) 169
The American Southwest (300 B.C. to modern times) 173
Moundbuilders in Eastern North America (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1650) 180
Summary 187
Part IV Early Civilizations 189
Chapter 8 State-Organized Societies 191
Prologue 192
What Is a State-Organized Society? 192
Cities 194
Theories of the Origins of States 196
Social Approaches: Power in Three Domains 202
People as Agents of Change 206
The Collapse of Civilizations 207
Summary 209
Chapter 9 Mesopotamia and the Eastern Mediterranean World 210
Prologue 211
Origins (5500 to 3000 B.C.) 212
Sumerian Civilization (c. 3100 to 2334 B.C.) 218
Akkadians and Babylonians (2334 to 1650 B.C.) 221
Hittites and Sea Traders (1650 to 1200 B.C.) 222
Minoans and Mycenaeans (1900 to 1200 B.C.) 224
Sea Peoples and Phoenicians (1200 to 800 B.C.) 229
Assyrians and Babylonians (900 to 539 B.C.) 229
Summary 230
Chapter 10 Egypt and Africa 232
Prologue 233
Predynastic Egypt: Ancient Monopoly? (5000 to 3100 B.C.) 233
Dynastic Egyptian Civilization (c. 3000 to 30 B.C.) 237
Egypt and Afrocentrism 247
Nubia: The Land of Kush (3000 to 633 B.C.) 247
Meroe and Aksum 249
Ancient African Kingdoms 251
Summary 256
Chapter 11 South, Southeast, and East Asia 257
Prologue 258
South Asia: The Harappan Civilization (c. 2700 to 1700 B.C.) 258
South Asia after the Harappans (1700 to 180 B.C.) 264
The Origins of Chinese Civilization (2600 to 1100 B.C.) 264
The War Lords (1100 to 221 B.C.) 268
Southeast Asian Civilization (A.D. 1 to 1500) 270
Summary 275
Chapter 12 Lowland Mesoamerica 276
Prologue 277
Beginnings: Preclassic Peoples in the Lowlands (2000 B.C. to A.D. 300) 277
The Olmec (1500 B.C. to 500 B.C.) 279
Classic Maya Civilization (A.D. 300 to 900) 285
The Classic Maya Collapse 290
Postclassic Maya Civilization (A.D. 900 to 1517) 293
Summary 295
Chapter 13 Highland Mesoamerica 297
Prologue 298
The Rise of Highland Civilization: The Valley of Oaxaca (2000 to 500 B.C.) 298
Monte Alban (500 B.C. to A.D. 750) 300
Valley of Mexico: Teotihuacan (200 B.C. to A.D. 750) 301
The Toltecs (A.D. 650 to 1200) 305
Aztec Civilization (A.D. 1200 to 1521) 306
Summary 314
Chapter 14 Andean Civilizations 315
Prologue 316
The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization 318
Coastal Foundations (2500 to 900 B.C.) 319
The Early Horizon and Chavin de Huantar (900 to 200 B.C.) 320
The Initial Period 321
The Moche State (200 B.C. to A.D. 700) 326
The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari (A.D. 600 to 1000) 328
The Late Intermediate Period: Sican and Chimu (A.D. 700 to 1460) 330
The Late Horizon: The Inca State (A.D. 1476 to 1534) 331
The Spanish Conquest (A.D. 1532 to 1534) 336
Summary 337
Epilogue 338
Glossary of Technical Terms 341
Glossary of Archaeological Sites and Cultural Terms 345
Guide to Further Reading 353
References in Text 362
Photo Credits 363
Index 365
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Preface

Three thousand, four thousand years maybe, have passed and gone since human feet last trod the floor on which you stand, and yet, as you note the signs of recent life around you-the half-filled bowl of mortar for the door, the blackened lamp, the finger-mark on the freshly painted surface, the farewell garland dropped on the threshold-you feel it might have been but yesterday . . . . Time is annihilated by little intimate details such as these, and you feel an intruder.
– Egyptologist Howard Carter, notebook entry on Tutankhamun's tomb, November 26, 1922

Golden pharaohs, lost cities, grinning human skeletons: Archaeology is the stuff of romance and legend! Many people still think of archaeologists as adventurers and treasure hunters, like Indiana Jones of Hollywood movie fame seeking the elusive Holy Grail. This enduring image goes back to the late nineteenth century, when archaeologists like Heinrich Schliemann could still find lost civilizations like Troy and excavate three royal palaces in a week. Today, few, if any, archaeologists behave like Indiana Jones. They are scientists, not adventurers, as comfortable in an air-conditioned laboratory as they are on a remote excavation. The development of scientific archaeology from its Victorian beginnings ranks among the greatest triumphs of twentieth-century science. Archaeology has changed our understanding of the human experience in profound ways. A century ago, most scientists believed humans were no more than 100,000 years old. Today we know that our origins go back at least 5 million years. Our predecessors assumed the Americas were settled in about 8000B.C. and that farming began around 4000 B.C. New excavations date the first Americans to at least 12,000 B.C. and the beginnings of agriculture to about 10,000 B.C. Most important, archaeology has changed our perceptions of ourselves, especially of our biological and cultural diversity. Welcome to the fascinating world of archaeology!

The fifth edition of World Prehistory continues a long tradition of providing an interesting, jargon-free journey through the 5million-year-old landscape of the human past. I hope you enjoy your sojourn in its pages.

Highlights of the Fifth Edition

The fifth edition of World Prehistory has been revised throughout to reflect the latest advances in the field, and it includes suggestions by dozens of archaeologists and students who have taken the trouble to contact me after using previous editions.

This is an exciting time to be writing about archaeology. Many scientific advances are changing our perceptions about the past. Accordingly, the fifth edition is somewhat longer than its predecessors, with expanded coverage of major theoretical issues and the early civilizations. The fifth edition contains important new discoveries about early human evolution, the late Ice Age, and the origins of agriculture. New and updated coverage of the field appears in every chapter, with an up-to-date Guide to Further Reading at the end of the book along with a glossary of technical terms and one of archaeological sites and cultural names.

Updating and Rewriting
  • New perceptions of world prehistory. Chapter 1 includes important discussions of archaeology and alternative perspectives on the past, reflecting new thinking on this important topic.
  • Early human evolution. Chapter 2 discusses the latest advances in the study of human origins, including the latest fossil discoveries in Ethiopia and Kenya, among them Australopithecus garhi, a confusing and still enigmatic predecessor of humanity.
  • Origins of modern humans. Chapter 3 covers new research into the controversial issue of the earliest modern humans and fresh perceptions of Neanderthal ancestry and behavior.
  • Origins of food production. Chapter 5 incorporates expanded coverage of the latest theories on the origins of agriculture and animal domestication. Chapter 6, which describes the first farmers, incorporates new dates for early agriculture obtained from accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates and the results of new researches into the early farming village at Abu Hureyra, Syria, currently the earliest agricultural settlement in the world.
  • Origins of states and civilization. Chapter 8 has been expanded to include current theoretical debates on the origins of state-organized societies, including the issues of factionalism and charismatic leadership. Chapters 9 to 14 offer an up-to-date description and analysis of the first civilizations, with expanded coverage of ancient Egyptian civilization and of south and southeast Asian states. Chapters 12 and 13 offer more comprehensive analysis of highland and lowland Mesoamerican civilizations than in previous editions.
  • Revision and updating throughout. The entire text and Guide to Further Reading have been revised and updated on a page-by-page basis.
Boxes

Three types of in-text boxes enhance the book, designed to amplify the narrative:

  • Science. These boxes introduce key dating methods and other scientific approaches, such as radiocarbon and AMS dating, and also environmental reconstruction.
  • Sites. Each chapter includes one or more boxes describing sites of unusual importance, and some aspects of unusual interest.
  • Voices. The Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and highland Mesoamerican chapters include special boxes that quote from writings of ancient times, giving each an unusual "voice."
New and Revised Art Program

The fifth edition's art program has been expanded with new photographs and fresh or revised line art. The new illustrations provide additional background on recent discoveries, amplify the narrative, or replace older art with new pictures. Some expanded captions serve to integrate the illustrations more closely into the text.

Complete Redesign

The entire book has been completely redesigned to make it more user-friendly.

Ancillary Materials

The ancillary materials that accompany this textbook have been carefully created to enhance the topics being discussed.

Instructor's Manual with Tests. For each chapter in the text, this manual provides a detailed outline, list of objectives, discussion questions, classroom activities, and additional resources. The test bank includes multiple choice, true-false, and essay questions for each chapter.

Companion Website®. In tandem with the text, students and professors can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of archaeology. The Fagan Website correlates the text with related material available on the Internet. Features of the Website include chapter objectives and study questions, as well as links to interesting material and information from other sites on the Web that can reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter. Address:

Anthropoloy on the Internet 2001: Evaluating Online Resources. This guide introduces students to the origin and innovations behind the Internet and provides clear strategies for navigating the complexity of the Internet and World Wide Web. Exercises within and at the end of the chapters allow students to practice searching for the myriad of resources available to the student of anthropology. This supplementary book is free to students when shrinkwrapped as a package with World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction, 5/E.

Acknowledgments

Many colleagues, too numerous to list here, have advised me on this revision. I am deeply grateful for their encouragement and assistance. I would like to thank the following reviewers for their help in revising this new edition. I appreciate their frank comments: Elliot M. Abrams, Ohio University; Mary C. Beaudry, Boston University; Katina Lollios, Ripon College; and John M. O'Shea, University of Michigan.

Lastly, my thanks to my editor Nancy Roberts and her colleagues at Prentice Hall. They have turned a complex manuscript into an attractive book and done all they can to minimize unexpected difficulties.

As always, I would be most grateful for criticisms, comments, or details of new work, sent to me c/o Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 .

Brian M. Fagan

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