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World Transformed :1945 to the Present: A Documentary Reader / Edition 1

World Transformed :1945 to the Present: A Documentary Reader / Edition 1

by Michael H. Hunt

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ISBN-10: 0312402961

ISBN-13: 9780312402969

Pub. Date: 12/28/2003

Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

Designed to accompany The World Transformed, 1945 to the Present, this comprehensive reader offers a wealth of primary sources on the pivotal events that shaped the post-1945 world. Complemented by an editorial apparatus that supports and enhances students’ reading of the documents and helps them to understand the interlocking nature of historical


Designed to accompany The World Transformed, 1945 to the Present, this comprehensive reader offers a wealth of primary sources on the pivotal events that shaped the post-1945 world. Complemented by an editorial apparatus that supports and enhances students’ reading of the documents and helps them to understand the interlocking nature of historical developments, this invaluable collection will appeal to anyone teaching courses on post-1945 world history, international relations, the cold war and globalization.

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Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date:
Edition description:
First Edition
Product dimensions:
6.50(w) x 9.14(h) x 0.63(d)

Table of Contents




1. The Cold War: Toward Soviet-American Confrontation
The United States as the Champion of Liberty
1.1 President Woodrow Wilson on creating a free and democratic world
Address to the U.S. Senate, January 22, 1917

1.2 "The American Century"
Henry R. Luce, Life Magazine Article, February 17, 1941

Soviet Communism on the March
1.3 Joseph Stalin on the Essentials of Soviet Ideology
Lectures on "The Foundations of Leninism," April-May, 1924

1.4 Polish Communist Jakub Berman on Communism's postwar appeal
Teresa Toranska, Interview with Jakub Berman, 1982-1984

The Cold War Takes Shape
1.5 American and Soviet leaders move from war to peace, 1943-1946
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Letter on Postwar Great-Power Relations to George W. Norris, September 21, 1943
Premier Joseph Stalin, Speech on Postwar Great-Power Relations, November 6, 1944
Roosevelt, Stalin, and Winston Churchill, Yalta Conference Discussion of Poland, February 6, 1945
President Harry S. Truman, Conversation with Ambassador to the Soviet Union W. Averell Harriman, April 20, 1945
President Truman, Record of Meeting with Chief Foreign Policy Advisors, April 23, 1945
President Truman, Diary Entry on the First Successful Atomic Bomb, July 25, 1945
Premier Stalin, Telephone Comments to Lavrenti Beria about U.S. Pressure, Probably Late July 1945
Premier Stalin, Radio Address on World War II and Its Aftermath, February 9, 1946

1.6 Two Diplomats Assess the International Situation, 1946
George F. Kennan,"Long Telegram" Analyzing Soviet Policy, February 22, 1946
Nikolai Novikov, Report to Foreign Minister Molotov Analyzing U.S. Policy, September 27, 1946

1.7 Truman Doctrine links defense of freedom worldwide to aid for Greece and Turkey
Harry S. Truman, Address to Congress, March 12, 1947

1.8 Stalin responds to U.S. plans for Europe
Politburo member, Andrei Zhdanov, speech at the inauguration of the Cominform, late September 1947

1.9 Responses to the enemy threat
National Security Council report 68 (NSC 68), on "United States Objectives and Programs for National Security," April 7, 1950
Joseph Stalin, Remarks on the destructive contradictions within capitalism, February 1, 1952

The Cold War at Home
1.10 Soviet Society Feels the Chill
Andrei Zhdanov, Speech in Pravda, September 21, 1946
Dmitry Stonov, "Seven Slashes"

1.11 The "Red Menace" in the United States
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, Testimony before HUAC on the communist threat, March 26, 1947
Report of an investigation of a postal worker under the Federal Loyalty-Security Program, 1954

2.The International Economy: Reform and Revival

The Japanese Cope with the Devastation of War:
2.1 Hiroshima residents remember death and destruction, August 6, 1945
Mr. Katsutani,Account rendered just after the bombing
Wakasa Ikuko, Impression the bombing left on a five-year old
Ryoso Fujie, Recollections of her husband's disappearance in the blast

2.2 The Japanese Write from out of the Ruins: Letters to General MacArthur, 1945-1947
From H. K., Tokyo, October 20, 1945
From "the Child of Buddha," Tokyo, October 20, 1945
From "a Mother," Kure City, November 18, 1945
From Shiomi Kitaro, Okayama City, February 18, 1946
From Tachibana Mitsuko, Kochi Prefecture, April 6, 1946
From Mitsuji Yoshiko (A Young Girl Using a Pseudonym), Kyoto, April 1, 1947
From Okumura Kazunori, Probably from Kagawa Prefecture,July 4, 1947

Europe: Here Come the Americans!
2.3 An Austrian youth welcomes the U.S occupation
Historian Reinhold Wagnleiter, From Coca-colonization and the Cold War

2.4 A British intellectual looks across the Atlantic
Bertrand Russell, From The Impact of America on European Culture, 1951

The State and the Free Market
2.5 John Maynard Keynes on state intervention in the economy
From The Collected Works of John Maynard Keynes

2.6 Friedrich Hayek on state economic control as a threat to Political Freedom
The Reader's Digest synopsis of The Road to Serfdom, April 1945

2.7 Karl Polanyi on the state as creator of the free market and the savior of societies
From The Great Transformation, 1944

Reconstructuring the Japanese and European Economies:
2.8 Japan's blueprint for recovery
Foreign Ministry Special Survey Committee, Plans for the Postwar Economy, September 1946

2.9 Secretary of State George C. Marshall makes the case for assisting Europe
Speech at Harvard University, June 4, 1947

3. The Third World: First Tremors in Asia

China's Triumphant Revolution
3.1 Mao Zedong recounts his path to socialism
Edgar Snow, From Red Star over China, 1938

3.2 Mao proclaims "The Chinese People Have Stood Up!"
Address to the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, September 21, 1949

3.3 Peasant perspectives on poverty and village politics
Peter Seybolt, Oral Histories Collected in Houhua Village, Late 1980s and Early 1990s

Vietnam and the Path to National Liberation
3.4 Ho Chi Minh discovers communist anti-colonialism
Recollections in"The Path Which Led me to Leninism," 1960

3.5 Ho declares Vietnamese independence
Statement Read in Hanoi, September 2, 1945

3.6 Vietnamese peasants reflect on the Communist appeal
Nguyen Thi Dinh, 1965 Memoir Recalling Her Road to Revolutionary Politics in the 1930s
Tuan Doanh, 1967 Interview
Pham Van Ha, 1967 Interview

India on the Eve of Independence:
3.7 Jawaharlal Nehru Recounts the Influences That Shaped His Social Outlook and Politics
From Toward Freedom, 1941

3.8 Gandhi and Nehru Exchange Ideas on Development Strategy
Personal Letters, October 1945

3.9 Nehru reacts to communal violence
Letter to Vallabhbhai Patel, November 5, 1946

3.10 Rural life and Gender
Kamala Markandaya, From Nectar in a Sieve, 1954
Women's verses on subordination and independence

4. The Cold War: A Tenuous Accommodation

Reforming the Soviet System
4.1 Nikita Khrushchev recalls life with the elderly Stalin
Khrushchev Remembers

4.2 Khushchev denounces Stalin's crimes
Secret speech to the Twentieth Party Congress, February 25, 1956

4.3 Milovan Djilas Indicts the Stalinist System
From The New Class, 1956

Spreading Nuclear Fear
4.4 The U.S. perspective
U.S. civil defense pamphlet "Facts about Fallout," 1955
Dwight D. Eisenhower, Diary entry, January 23, 1956

4.5 The Soviet perspective
Igor V. Kurchatov, et al., Draft article for Soviet Leaders, 1954
Nikita S. Khrushchev, Report to the Twentieth Party Congress on Peaceful Coexistence, February 14, 1956

4.6 The Western European perspective
The Göttingen Manifesto on the nuclear threat, April 13, 1957
J. B. Priestley, "Britain and the Nuclear Bombs," November 2, 1957

Lyndon Johnson goes to war in Vietnam, 1965
4.7 President Johnson justifies the U.S. Commitment to South Vietnam
Speech at Johns Hopkins University, April 7, 1965

4.8 The Debate within the Johnson Administration
Lyndon B. Johnson, Telephone remarks to Robert McNamara, June 21, 1965
George Ball, Memorandum on "A Compromise Solution in Vietnam," July 1, 1965
Robert McNamara, memorandum to President Johnson, July 20, 1965

4.9 Lyndon Johnson makes his decision public
Statement at White House press conference, July 28, 1965

4.10 A Marine recoils from his Vietnam War
Phil Caputo, A Rumor of War, 1977

Youth Erupts, 1968
4.11 Stirrings in the United States
Tom Hayden, The Port Huron Statement, June 1962
Stokely Carmichael, Speech at the University of California at Berkeley, October, 1966

4.12 Paris in upheaval, 1968
"How to Train Stuffed Geese," mid-March 1968
Graffiti, 1968

4.13 Massacre in Mexico City, 1968
Pablo Gómez, Prison Interview Reflecting on the Antecedents of the 1968
Carolina Pérez Cicero, Interview Blaming Government Repression for Energizing Students
Daniel Esparza Lepe, Interview Articulating the Economic Issues That Energized Him
Félix Sánchez Hernández, Prison Interview Talking about Support for Protests
outside the Universities
Gilberto Guevara Niebla, Interview Recalling the Night of the Massacre

5. Abundance and Discontent in the Developed World

The Flowering of Consumer Society
5.1 The United States leads the way
Advertisement for consumer loans, circa 1930
Saturday Evening Post Cover, August 15, 1959

5.2 An anthropologist traces changing rural life in France
Laurence Wylie, from Village in the Vaucluse, 1957, 1964, and 1974

5.3 Growing up in 1950's Britain: from scarcity to affluence
Liz Heron, recollections of a working class family in Glasgow, Scotland
Ursula Huws, growing up in a family breaking into the middle class

5.4 Nixon and Khrushchev spar over satisfying the consumer
The "Kitchen Debate," Moscow, July 24, 1959

Economic Culture and the Good Society
5.5 Schuman endorses European cooperation
Robert Schuman, Declaration presented at a press conference, May 9, 1950

5.6 Pope John XXIII on a socially just capitalism
"Mater et Magistra" ("Mother and Teacher"), May 5, 1961

5.7 Morita Akio on the collectivist principles guiding Sony
From Made in Japan, 1986

The Rise of an Environmental Movement
5.8 Rachel Carson heralds a new environmental consciousness from Silent Spring, 1962

5.9 Club of Rome report on the looming environmental crisis
Donella H. Meadows et al.,From The Limits to Growth, 1972

5.10 Indira Gandhi offers a third-world perspective
Address to the U.N. environmental conference, Stockholm, June 14, 1972

Feminism in the North Atlantic World
5.11 Simone de Beauvoir on "What is woman?...She is the Other"
The Second Sex, 1949

5.12 The U.S. campaign for women's rights
NOW statement of purpose, October 29, 1966

5.13 The awakening of the French feminist movement
Anne Tristan, Recollections in "Tales from the Women's Movement", 1977
Cover of Le Torchon Brûle, 1972

6. Third World Hopes at High Tide

Egypt under Nasser
6.1 "We almost lost our balance, but we have not fallen"
Gamal Abdel Nasser, "The Philosophy of the Revolution," 1952

6.2 Nasser proclaims Arab Socialism
"The National Charter," May 21, 1962

6.3 Feminist voices of discontent
Amina Said, editorial in Hawa, 1973

Nkrumah's vision for Ghana and Africa
6.4 Independence on the horizon
Kwame Nkrumah, commentary on colonialism, 1942 and 1945

6.5 Unity for Africa
Kwame Nkrumah, Address to the conference of African heads of government and state, Ethiopia, May 24, 1963

6.6 Socialism for Ghana
Kwame Nkrumah, Speech to the National Assembly, March 11, 1964

6.7 Hopes for a global black-power movement
Kwame Nkrumah, "The Spectre of Black Power," 1968

6.8 Bitter reflections on Nkrumah's failure
Ayi Kwei Armah, The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born, 1969

Castro's drive to create a new Cuba
6.9 Fidel Castro: "History will absolve me"
Address to the presiding trial judges, October 16, 1953

6.10 Fidel Castro on resisting the United States
Declaration issued in Havana, February 4, 1962

6.11 A popular perspective on revolutionary Cuba
Gabriel Capote Pacheco, Oral History on Life in revolutionary Cuba, 1970

Sweeping Visions and Bold Strategies
6.12 Frantz Fanon: liberation and violence
From The Wretched of the Earth, 1961

6.13 Lin Biao: the Maoist appeal
"Long Live the Victory of the People's War!," September 3, 1965
Foreword to Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, December 16, 1966

6.14 Che Guevara: the insurrectionary impulse
"Message to the Tri-Continental," April 16, 1967

7. The Cold War Comes to a Close

The Struggle over Détente
7.1 West German Chancellor Willi Brandt proposes bridging the two Germanies and the two Europes
Statement to the West German Bundestag, October 28, 1969

7.2 President Richard Nixon argues for a policy of détente
Remarks to media executives, Kansas City, July 6, 1971

7.3 Ronald Reagan dubs the Soviet Union "the focus of evil"
Remarks at the Annual Convention of the National Association of Evanglicals, March 8, 1983

7.4 Mikhail Gorbachev reassesses Soviet foreign policy, 1986
Report to the 27th Congress of the Communist Party, Februry 25, 1986

Gorbachev's Reforms
7.5 Gorbachev outlines glasnost and perestroika
Report to the Central Committee of the Communist Party, January 27, 1987

7.6 Elite supporters reflect on the reform program, June 1987 - April 1989
Stephen Cohen and Katrina vanden Heuvel, Interview with Tatyana Zaslavskaya
Cohen and vanden Heuvel, Interview with Fyodor Burlatsky

7.7 Mikhail Gorbachev resigns
Televised speech, December 25, 1991

The Revolutions of '89 in Europe:
7.8 A Critique of the Polish Communist Party
Workers' Self-Defense Committee (KOR), Appeal to Society, October 10, 1978

7.9 A Czech dissident explores the moral basis for national renewal
Václav Havel, "Power of the Powerless," 1979

7.10 East German workers on the socialist regime and national reunification
Dirk Philipsen, Interviews with Industrial Workers, August 1990

8. Global Markets: One System, Three Centers

Championing Free market Orthodoxy
8.1 Milton Friedman on the critical relationship between economic and political freedom
From Capitalism and Freedom, 1962

8.2 Margaret Thatcher promises free market prosperity for Britain
Speech to the Zurich Economic Society, March 14, 1977

8.3 Worker Anxiety in Reagan's Free Market America
Studs Terkel, Interview with Brian Devlin, Mid-1980s

8.4 President Bill Clinton endorses NAFTA and praises international free trade
Public Remarks, Washington D.C., November 9, 1993

8.5 A critical Mexican perspective on NAFTA
Jorge G. Castañeda and Carlos Heredia, "Another NAFTA: What a Good Agreement Should Offer," 1992

From the EC to the EU: Tightening European Bonds
8.6 Margaret Thatcher Defines the Limits of European Integration
Speech to the College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium, September 20,1988

8.7 Jacques Delors offers his vision for European integration
Speech to the College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium, October 17, 1989

8.8 François Mitterand reflects on the prospects for an integrated Europe
Speech to the European Parliament,Strasbourg, France, January 17, 1995

8.9 Citizens of the European Union reflect on life in an integrated Europe at the end of the 1990s
The values of Europeans
Identity: European, national, or mixed?
Support for European community membership, 1981-99
Support for European community membership by country in 1999
Decisions best made at the EU or national level?
The worries of Europeans
Elite vs. general public on support for EU membership and on resulting national benefits

China's Authoritarian Capitalism, 1989
8.10 Deng Xiaoping champions market reforms
Speech at a party forum on theoretical work, March 30, 1979
Interview, August 21 and 23, 1980
Talk to state officials involved in economic affairs, January 12, 1983
Talk to leading members of the party Central Committee, July 8, 1983
Speech at a session of the party's Central Advisory Commission, October 22, 1984
Talk with a Chinese university professor, May 20, 1985
Remarks to leading members of the party Central Committee, December 30, 1986

8.11 Students criticize the Communist regime and its market reforms, 1989
A Student from Beijing Industrial University, Poster Placed in Tiananmen
Square, Circa April 15-22, 1989
Handbill at Beijing University, Circa April 15-23, 1989
Poster at People's University in Beijing, April 24, 1989
Poster at Beijing Normal University, April 24, 1989

8.12 Deng's Response to the Protests
Remarks to Military Commanders, June 9, 1989

8.13 Peasants approve of market reforms and stability
Nicholas D. Kristof, Report from the Countryside, November 14, 1989

9.Divergent Paths in the Third World

The Iranian Revolution
9.1 Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi reflects on the problems of his regime
Asaadollah Alam, The Confidential Diary of the Minister of Court,1970-1977

9.2 Ayatollah Rhollah Khomeini's Islamic challenge
Sermons and Writings, 1963-1980

9.3 The villagers of Deh Koh come to terms with the Islamic revolution
From Erika Friedl, Women of Deh Koh

Guatemala's Brutal Civil War
9.4 Mayan women reflect on poverty and cultural autonomy
Oral histories from Margaret Hooks, From Guatemalan Women Speak

9.5 Ladina elites reflect on their privileged world
Oral histories from Margaret Hooks, From Guatemalan Women Speak

9.6 A Government Torturer Describes His Work
Jennifer Schirmer, Interview with A G-2 Investigator

Israelis and Palestinians in "a Fatal Embrace"
9.7 The Arab case against a Jewish state
Statement of Arab views to the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Jerusalem, March 1946

9.8 Zionist claim to land and political identity
Israel's Provisional State Council, Declaration of independence, issued in Tel Aviv, May 14, 1948

9.9 Palestine Liberation Organization asserts a national identity and the imperative of armed struggle
The Palestinian National Charter, July 1968

9.10 The Likud coalition commitment to redeem occupied land
Platform for Prime Minister Menachem Begin's re-election campaign, March, 1977

9.11 The Islamic Resistance Movement promotes the first intifada
Hamas bulletin, leaflet no. 1, January 1988

9.12 Hanan Ashrawi's Challenge to Those Responsible for the "Fatal Embrace"
"Challenging Questions," December 11, 2001

9.13 Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on the Palestinian threat
Address to the 34th Zionist Congress, Jerusalem, June 20, 2002

10. Conclusion: Globalization Ascendant: The 1990s and Beyond

The Backlash against Globalization
10.1 On inequality
Three families, three worlds, 1993 and 1994

10.2 On fundamental structural flaws
The International Forum on Globalization, The Siena Declaration,
September 1998

10.3 On environmental damage
The University of Washington's WTO History Project, Interviews with Activists

An Emerging Clash of Civilizations?
10.4 Osama bin Laden Blames the "Western Crusaders"
Al-Jazeera Television Interview, December 1998

10.6 Edward W. Said Rejects the Clash Thesis and the Call to Jihad
"The Clash of Ignorance," October 2001

10.7 Elite opinion around the world following the September 11 attacks
Pew polls, December 2001

The HIV/AIDS Crisis
10.8 Grim statistics on a global contagion
UN statistics, end of 2002

10.9 The human face of an epidemic
Johanna McGeary, "Death Stalks A Continent," TIME, February 12, 2001

10.10 A U.N. Official on saving societies under stress
Stephen Lewis, remarks at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C., October 4, 2002

Defining Freedom/Debating Rights:
10.11 The United Nations embraces human rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, December 10, 1948

10.12 Debating women's rights
Platform for Action from the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, September 1995
Statement by the Vatican Press Office,"To promote women's equal dignity," August 25, 1995
Sayyid Qutb, From Social Justice in Islam, 1964

10.13 Singapore's case for respecting regional differences
Foreign Minister Wong Kan Seng, statement at the Second World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, June 16, 1993

10.14 "A Duty to Protect and Preserve the Environment"
"Draft declaration on "Principles on Human Rights and the Environment," May 1994

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