A World Without Time: The Forgotten Legacy of Godel and Einsteinby Palle Yourgrau
In 1942, the logician Kurt Godel and Albert Einstein became close friends; they walked to and from their offices every day, exchanging ideas about science, philosophy, politics, and the lost world of German science. By 1949, Godel had produced a remarkable proof: In any universe described by the Theory of Relativity, time cannot exist. Einstein endorsed this result reluctantly but he could find no way to refute it, since then, neither has anyone else. Yet cosmologists and philosophers alike have proceeded as if this discovery was never made. In A World Without Time, Palle Yourgrau sets out to restore Godel to his rightful place in history, telling the story of two magnificent minds put on the shelf by the scientific fashions of their day, and attempts to rescue the brilliant work they did together.
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Meet the Author
Palle Yourgrau is a Professor of Philosophy at Brandeis University. His 1999 monograph Gödel Meets Einstein, the only book-length work on Gödel's cosmological ideas, has caused a resurgence of interest among philosophers in Gödel's ideas about time and relativity. He lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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Found this book to be interesting and engaging. The relationship between einstein and godel is rarely mentioned and its interesring to see how the two interacted.
From New Scientist,April 14 2007, 'Axis of evil a cause for cosmic concern'. Some believe it is just a figment of overactive imaginations. But evidence is growing that the so-called 'axis of evil'-a pattern apparently imprinted on the radiation left behind by the big bang-may be real, posing a threat to standard cosmology. According to the standard model, the universe is isotropic,.. The first sign that this might not be the case came in 2005.... in the map of cosmic microwave background created by NASA's WMAP satellite. It seemed to show that some hot and cold spots in the CMB are not distributed randomly, as expected, but are aligned along what Magueijo dubbed the axis of evil. .... .... The Quasar finding has support from another study, however. Michael Longo of the Univeristy of Michigan in Ann Arbor analysed 1660 spiral galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and found that the axes of rotation of most galaxies appear to line up with the axis of evil. According to Longo, the probability of this happening by chance is less than 0.4 percent.....
Beyond the apocalyptic sense, we might be running out of time not the 'time' handed down from a Homeric Cronos or from Ecclesiastes (For everything there is a season...) or Prufrockian events (There will be time, there will be time. To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet...). Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) introduced a much more elemental, modern and, at least for some of us, counter-intuitive idea of 'time' that melded a constant (the speed of light) and a mass-curved geometry into spacetime, whose effect was, nevertheless, relative! In GTR, the temporal space from 'here' to 'there,' from 'now' to 'then,' massively complicated, shrinks and expands in a tangled warp. At least it did until Kurt Godel in his searing analysis added new, astonishing gyrations befitting his place as a preeminent mathematician, erstwhile physicist and the most celebrated logician since Aristotle. Palle Yourgrau, the Henry A. Wolfson Professor of Philosophy at Brandeis University has devoted a great deal of his academic career to understanding Godel and particularly what most of us take for granted - the concept of time - which Godel believed was THE key issue of philosophy (p. 111). In a World Without Time, Yourgrau continues the explication of Godel's insights into GTR that he explored earlier with his Godel Meets Einstein: Time Travel in the Godel Universe (Open Court Press, 1999). Godel and Einstein were colleagues and close friends at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, NJ, where both had been given safe haven from the Nazi scourge of the 1930s. Together, they walked to and from their offices talking philosophy, politics and especially relativity theory. As Yourgrau describes it, on one of these walks Godel pushed beyond Einstein arbitrary conception of a relativistic universe and then later expanded on this in an Einstein Festschrift [P.A. Schilpp (Ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, Open Court, 1949/18]. Godel proposed that in GTR there could be a universe whose rotation on its axis would make time stand still. Yourgrau provides fascinating detail about the lives of both men, describing their academic roots in mathematics, physics and philosophy with particular emphasis on the cross currents between Kantian (epistemological) and Leibnitzian (ontological) fundaments Newtonian theory the work of Russell and Whitehead, Wittgenstein and Hilbert and Husserl the development of Positivism in the heady atmosphere of Viennese culture the Einstein-Godel preference for the Platonic tradition the elements in the development of GTR Godel's logical system the vexing concept of time in the history of philosophy from Parmenides to Heidegger the Einstein-Godel special relationship in Princeton. Yourgrau does a wonderful job of presenting this rich intellectual background while, at the same time, bringing Einstein and Godel, 20th Century titans, down to earthy, everyday circumstance. Particularly, there is Einstein's loosey-goosey lifestyle and the pathetic contrast between Godel's soaring intellectual achievements and lifelong paranoiac fears resulting in delusional, fatal self-starvation. (In this connection, see also A.R. Cellura's The Genomic Environmennt and Niche-Experience, Cedar Springs Press, 2005). Rebecca Goldstein's recently published Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Godel (W.W. Norton, 2005) is also well worth reading. But, A World Without Time's denouement is the exegesis of a Godelian Universe where time freezes, like winter's ice, into a place one might visit just as possibly as a trip you might take to Chicago, if you could go fast enough! In a rarely recognized subtlety, Godel's idea also challenges the bedrock of science - the concept of causality. As Yourgrau points out, Godel preferred fairy tales (his favorite: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs) to prosaic accounts of experience. Yet, a Godelian Universe that permits time travel, though obviously con
Question: If a rotating universe is truly rotating, what context is it rotating within ? Whatever the context, it too must contain a description of time, perhaps separate from the relativistic concept of time. If so, perhaps the limitations of time cirticized by Godel, are a result of an incomplete description of time in relativistic terms. The text is very good. However, important descriptions of items in the book leave me vacant. I still don't know what an 'A' series description of time is. The author tries to explain it in one paragraph. Come on. Isn't it the authors job to tell you clearly what he is describing ? No, I won't accept the retort, if you need to ask you didn't understand. I don't have to take a test on this stuff. It's the authors job to explain it to me. I think only Phoilosophers worry about 'Positivism etc.' any more. Why ? I would like to know. The sniping described by the other philosophers on Goedels' work seems like typical academia and the importance of his discoveries about time are well concieved, and illustrated in the book. Why are physicists dead silent on the issue? Even vibrating strings need time to vibrate within... The authors description of Godels' work is really neat. Makes me want to start measuring Galaxy spin vectors. Stay tuned....