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Remaining one of the best-selling interdisciplinary composition texts for over twenty-five years, Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum helps readers of all majors and interests learn to write effectively for college.
This rhetoric and reader guides students through the essential college-level writing skills of summary, critique, synthesis, and analysis.
Preface for Instructors
A Note to the Student
How to Write Summaries, Critiques, Syntheses, and Analyses
Chapter 1: Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation
What Is a Summary?
Can a Summary Be Objective?
Using the Summary
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Summaries?
The Reading Process
BOX: Critical Reading for Summary
How to Write Summaries
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Summaries
WILLYOUR JOB BE EXPORTED?—Alan S. Blinder
Read, Reread, Highlight
Divide into Stages of Thought
Write a Brief Summary of Each Stage of Thought
Write a Thesis: A Brief Summary of the Entire Passage
Write the First Draft of the Summary
Summary: Combine Thesis Sentence with Brief Section
The Strategy of the Shorter Summary
Summary 2: Combine Thesis Sentence, Section Summaries, and Carefully Chosen Details
The Strategy of the Longer Summary
How Long Should a Summary Be?
EXERCISE 1.1 : Individual and Collaborative Summary Practice
Summarizing Figures and Tables
EXERCISE 1.2: Summarizing Graphs
EXERCISE 1.3: Summarizing Pie Charts
EXERCISE 1.4: Summarizing Line Graphs
EXERCISE 1.5: Summarizing Tables
BOX: How to Write Paraphrases
EXERCISE 1.6: Paraphrasing
Quoting Memorable Language
BOX: When to Quote
Quoting Clear and Concise Language
Quoting Authoritative Language
Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences
Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence
Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
EXERCISE 1.7: Incorporating Quotations
Using Brackets to Add or Substitute Words
BOX: When to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote
BOX: Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences
EXERCISE 1.8: Using Brackets
BOX: Rules for Avoiding Plagiarism
Chapter 2: Critical Reading and Critique
Question: To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose?
Writing to Inform
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Critiques?
Evaluating Informative Writing
Writing to Persuade
EXERCISE 2.1 : Informative and Persuasive Thesis Statements
Evaluating Persuasive Writing
WE ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL IN EVERYWAY—Joan Ryan
EXERCISE 2.2: Critical Reading Practice
Logical Argumentation: Avoiding Logical Fallacies
EXERCISE 2.3: Understanding Logical Fallacies
Writing to Entertain
Question 2: To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author?
Identify Points of Agreement and Disagreement
EXERCISE 2.4: Exploring Your Viewpoints—in Three Paragraphs
Explore the Reasons for Agreement and Disagreement:
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Critiques
How to Write Critiques
To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose?
To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author?
MODEL CRITIQUE: A CRITIQUE OF “WE ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL IN EVERY WAY”BY JOAN RYAN—Eric Ralston
EXERCISE 2.5: Informal Critique of the Model Critique
BOX: Critical Reading for Critique
The Strategy of the Critique
Chapter 3: Introductions, Theses, and Conclusions
Review of a Controversy
From the General to the Specific
Anecdote and Illustration: From the Specific to the General
Statement of Thesis
EXERCISE 3.1 : Drafting Introductions
Writing a Thesis
The Components of a Thesis
Making an Assertion
Starting with a Working Thesis
Using the Thesis to Plan a Structure
BOX: How Ambitious Should Your Thesis Be?
EXERCISE 3.2: Drafting Thesis Statements
Statement of the Subject’s Significance
Call for Further Research
EXERCISE 3.3: Drafting Conclusions
Chapter 4: Explanatory Synthesis
What Is a Synthesis?
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Syntheses?
Using Your Sources
Types of Syntheses: Explanatory and Argument
Explanation: News Article from the New York Times
PRIVATE GETS 3 YEARS FOR IRAQPRISON ABUSE—David S. Cloud
Argument: Editorial from the Boston Globe
How to Write Syntheses
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Syntheses
The Explanatory Synthesis
Demonstration: Explanatory Synthesis—The Car of the Future?
EXERCISE 4.1 : Exploring the Topic
THE FUEL SUBSIDYWE NEED—Ricardo Bayon
PUTTING THE HINDENBURG TO REST—Jim Motavalli
USING FOSSIL FUELS IN ENERGY PROCESS GETS US
LOTS OF HOT AIR ABOUT HYDROGEN—Joseph J. Romm
Consider Your Purpose
EXERCISE 4.2: Critical Reading for Synthesis
Formulate a Thesis
Decide How You Will Use Your Source Material
Develop an Organizational Plan
Write the Topic Sentences
BOX: Organize a Synthesis by Idea, Not by Source
Write Your Synthesis
Model Explanatory Synthesis (First Draft)
THE HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL CAR—Janice Hunte
Revise Your Synthesis: Global, Local, and Surface Revisions
Revising the First Draft: Highlights
EXERCISE 4.3: Revising the Explanatory Synthesis
Model Explanatory Synthesis (Final Draft)
THE CAR OF THE FUTURE?—Janice Hunte
BOX: Critical Reading for Synthesis
Chapter 5: Argument Synthesis
What Is an Argument Synthesis?
The Elements of Argument: Claim, Support, and Assumption
EXERCISE 5.1 : Practicing Claim, Support, and Assumption
The Three Appeals of Argument: Logos, Ethos, Pathos
EXERCISE 5.2: Using Deductive and Inductive Logic
EXERCISE 5.3: Using Ethos
EXERCISE 5.4: Using Pathos
The Limits of Argument
Demonstration: Developing an Argument Synthesis—Balancing Privacy and Safety in the Wake of Virginia Tech
MASS SHOOTINGS ATVIRGINIA TECH—Report of the Review Panel
LAWS LIMIT SCHOOLS EVEN AFTER ALARMS—Jeff Gammage and Stacey Burling
PERILOUS PRIVACY ATVIRGINIA TECH—Christian Science Monitor
COLLEGES AREWATCHING TROUBLED STUDENTS—
VIRGINIATECH MASSACRE HAS ALTERED CAMPUS MENTAL
HEALTH SYSTEMS—Associated Press
THE FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT
EXERCISE 5.5: Critical Reading for Synthesis
Consider Your Purpose
Making a Claim: Formulate a Thesis
Decide How You Will Use Your Source Material
Develop an Organizational Plan
Formulate an Argument Strategy
Draft and Revise Your Synthesis
MODEL ARGUMENT SYNTHESIS: BALANCING PRIVACY AND SAFETY IN THEWAKE OFVIRGINIA TECH—David Harrison
The Strategy of the Argument Synthesis
Developing and Organizing the Support for Your Arguments
Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote Supporting Evidence
Provide Various Types of Evidence and Motivational Appeals
Use Climactic Order
Use Logical or Conventional Order
Present and Respond to Counterarguments
BOX: Developing and Organizing Support for Your Arguments
Avoid Common Fallacies in Developing and Using Support
The Comparison-and-Contrast Synthesis
Organizing Comparison-and-Contrast Syntheses
Organizing by Source or Subject
Organizing by Criteria
EXERCISE 5.6: Comparing and Contrasting
A Case for Comparison-and-Contrast: World War I and World War II
Comparison-and-Contrast Organized by Criteria
MODEL EXAM RESPONSE: KEY SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WORLDWARS I AND II
The Strategy of the Exam Response
Summary of Synthesis Chapters
Chapter 6: Analysis
What Is an Analysis?
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Analyses?
When Your Perspective Guides the Analysis
THE PLUG-IN DRUG—Marie Winn
EXERCISE 6.1 : Reading Critically: Winn
MODEL ANALYSIS: THE COMING APART OF A DORM SOCIETY— Edward Peselman
EXERCISE 6.2: Reading Critically: Peselman
How to Write Analyses
Consider Your Purpose
Locate an Analytical Principle
Formulate a Thesis
Part One of the Argument
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Analyses
Part Two of the Argument
Develop an Organizational Plan
Turning Key Elements of a Principle or Definition into Questions
Developing the Paragraph-by-Paragraph Logic of Your Paper
Draft and Revise Your Analysis
Write an Analysis, Not a Summary
Make Your Analysis Systematic
Answer the “So What?” Question
Attribute Sources Appropriately
BOX: Critical Reading for Analysis
Analysis: A Tool for Understanding
An Anthology of Readings
Chapter 7: The Changing Landscape of Work in the Twenty-first Century
DEFINITIONS: WORK, CAREER, PROFESSION,VOCATION
A sociologist, a philosopher, a pope, and others define work and work-related activities as these have evolved over the centuries.
FIXED AND FOOTLOOSE: WORK AND IDENTITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY —Ursula Huws
In the new economy, writes a professor of international labor studies, corporations distribute work across the globe and laborers cross continents to find work—twin “upheavals” that are
“transforming social identities and structures.”
NO LONG TERM: NEWWORK AND THE CORROSION OF CHARACTER —Richard Sennett
The life of a winner in the new “No long term” economy is chronicled by a sociologist. His conclusion: “The . . . behavior which has brought [this man] success is weakening his own character in ways for which there exists no practical remedy.”
I FEEL SO DAMN LUCKY!—Tom Peters
Here are six “minimal survival skills for the 2 st century office worker” in a business environment of “monumental change and gargantuan opportunity,” according to the up-beat coauthor of an influential business management book.
WORK ANDWORKERS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY—Richard W. Judy and Carol D’Amico
A map that demystifies “the journey America’s labor force is now beginning” into an economy that will enrich some but frustrate others—courtesy of the Hudson Institute, a policy research organization.
THE UNTOUCHABLES—Thomas Friedman
Workers in the new economy had better make themselves “untouchable”—or risk losing their
jobs to automation or competitors overseas—warns the Pulitzer Prize winning journalist in this
excerpt from his best-selling book The World is Flat.
WILLYOUR JOB BE EXPORTED?—Alan S. Blinder
There’s a critical difference between “personal” and “impersonal” jobs in the service economy,
according to this economist and former presidential advisor. Not knowing this difference could cost you a job—no matter how well educated you may be.
INTO THE UNKNOWN—The Economist
Concerned about losing jobs to globalization? Relax: “What the worriers always forget is that the same changes in production technology that destroy jobs also create new ones.”
OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK / TOMORROW’S JOBS—
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Want to know the outlook for any career field you can think of? Two Web sites created by a
division of the United States Department of Labor provide a wealth of information about
hundreds of jobs.
ARE THEY REALLY READY TOWORK?—Jill Casner-Lotto and Linda Barrington
More than four hundred American employers assess the job readiness of new entrants to the
workforce.They aren’t impressed.
ENGINEERING—Richard K. Miller
What do prospective engineers need to know? The president of a new college offers advice that
extends beyond engineering: Pursue basic knowledge, but master the nontechnical as well.
Above all, pursue “those topics that truly fascinate you.”
Prospective lawyers take note: An intense drive for profits is transforming the profession. Many
veterans, as well as young associates, don’t much like what they see.
Regular hours. No nighttime calls. No weekend calls. And, of course, a terrific salary.
Some doctors have it made.
Chapter 8: Green Power
GLOBALWARMING: BEYOND THE TIPPING POINT—Michael D. Lemonick
Why some climate change scientists believe that things may be even worse than we feared.
205 EASYWAYS TO SAVE THE EARTH—Thomas L. Friedman
Actually, there are no easy ways to save the earth, declares this Pulitzer Prize- winning New York Times columnist. Rescuing the planet from the effects of climate change will be the biggest industrial task in history
THE CLIMATE FOR CHANGE—Al Gore
The former vice president issues a challenge to “repower America with a commitment to producing 00 percent of our electricity from carbon-free sources within 0 years.”
THE DANGEROUS DELUSIONS OF ENERGY INDEPENDENCE—Robert Bryce
Americans may love the idea of independence; but energy independence is an idea whose
time has not come. “From nearly any standpoint—economic, military, political, or
environmental—energy independence makes no sense,” declares the author of Gusher of Lies.
NATIONAL SECURITY CONSEQUENCES OF U.S. OIL DEPENDENCE— Report of an Independent Task Force
“The lack of sustained attention to energy issues is undercutting U.S. foreign policy and U.S.
national security,” claims a blue ribbon energy task force.The panelists urge the country to reduce its dependence upon foreign oil.
BALANCE SHEETS AND THE CLIMATE CRISIS: HOW AMERICAN BUSINESSES CAN HELP— Mindy S. Lubber
Can green consciousness be profitable? The head of an organization that works with companies and investors worldwide to address climate change and sustainable economies argues that such efforts can be good for business as well as good for the earth.
STOP THE ENERGY INSANITY—Mortimer B. Zuckerman
Our special-interest-driven energy policies are betraying “the promise of America,” writes a news magazine publisher. We need to both reduce our oil consumption and drill for more oil.We need to both fix our mass transit system and pursue alternative energy technologies.
G.M. AT 00: IS ITS FUTURE ELECTRIC?—Don Sherman
Will the electric Chevrolet Volt help save both General Motors and the environment? Stay tuned.
WHY THE GASOLINE ENGINE ISN’T GOING AWAY ANY TIME SOON—J oseph B. White
Those who believe that plug-in hybrids, electric cars, and fuel cell vehicles are the wave of the near future are indulging in wishful thinking. An automotive reporter explains that the internal
combustion engine has lasted as long as it has for good reasons.
THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST NUCLEAR POWER—Michael Totty
Can nuclear power help us reduce our dependence on fossil fuels like coal? Perhaps. But questions about the economics and safety of nuclear power plants have long stalled their construction, notes a Wall Street Journal reporter.
THE ISLAND IN THEWIND—Elizabeth Kolbert
Some years ago the residents of the Danish island of Samsø decided to generate all of the electricity used in their homes and farms from wind power. They succeeded.
WIND POWER PUFFERY—H. Sterling Burnett
A skeptic argues that the power—and appeal—of wind is considerably less than it appears.
STATE SOLAR POWER PLANS ARE AS BIG AS ALL OUTDOORS—Marla Dickerson
After the state of California mandated that 20 percent of its electrical power be generated from renewable sources by 20 0, solar projects began transforming the landscape: “Rows of gigantic mirrors covering an area bigger than two football fields have sprouted alongside almond groves
near California 99.”
ENVIRONMENTALISTS AGAINST SOLAR POWER—Peter Maloney
You might assume that all environmentalists love solar power .You’d be wrong.
Chapter 9: Marriage and Family in America
A POP QUIZ ON MARRIAGE; THE RADICAL IDEA OF MARRYING FOR LOVE— Stephanie Coontz
A historian of marriage first poses a few questions on how much we really know about the sacred institution. (Expect to be surprised.) Then she investigates when—and why—men and women began to marry for the “radical” idea of love.
THE STATE OF OUR UNIONS—David Popenoe and Barbara Dafoe Whitehead
Americans are less likely to marry than they were in the past, they marry older, and they divorce more frequently. Is modern marriage in crisis?
A DEBATE ON GAY MARRIAGE—Andrew Sullivan/William J. Bennett
Why defenders of traditional values should support—or oppose—gay marriage. Two prominent spokespersons on opposite sides debate the issue.
THE SATISFACTIONS OF HOUSEWIFERY AND MOTHERHOOD/
PARADISELOST (DOMESTIC DIVISION)—Terry Martin Hekker
A housewife celebrates her role as a traditional mother. Almost thirty years and one divorce later, she has a different perspective.
A MOTHER’S DAY KISS-OFF—Leslie Bennetts
Are we living in an age of gender equality? “Most husbands still view child care and household chores as women’s work, even when those women are working full time,” argues the author of The Feminine Mistake.
UNDERSTANDING MOM—Deborah Tannen
A well-known linguist tries to see things from the perspective of her mother, who doesn’t understand why her daughter didn’t just stay married so she wouldn’t have to return to school in pursuit of a professional career.
AMERICAN MARRIAGE IN TRANSITION—Andrew J. Cherlin
Before the 950s most American marriages were defined by traditional roles in which the husband was the breadwinner and the wife was the homemaker. The next two decades witnessed two shifts that radically redefined the behavior of marital partners.
THE MYTH OF CO-PARENTING: HOW ITWAS SUPPOSED TO BE. HOW ITWAS.—Hope Edelman
An angry wife writes of the “stalled revolution”—the continued failure of men to share equally in the housework: “It began to make me spitting mad, the way the daily duties of parenting and home ownership started to rest entirely on me.”
MY PROBLEM WITH HER ANGER—Eric Bartels
A husband responds to complaints such as Edelman’s: “For women of my generation, anger appears to have replaced the quiet desperation of the past.”
WILLYOUR MARRIAGE LAST?—Aviva Patz
Short of a crystal ball, how can we predict whether marriages will succeed or fail? A researcher who tracked 68 married couples over 3 years believes that he has found the key.
THE ARBUS FACTOR—Lore Segal
In this poignant short story a man and woman meet for a date at a restaurant, where they ponder the past, the present, and the future.
Chapter: 10 To Sleep
A THIRD OF LIFE—Paul Martin
“Sleep: a state so familiar yet so strange. It is the single most common form of human behaviour and you will spend a third of your life doing it—25 years or more, all being well.”
IMPROVING SLEEP—Lawrence Epstein,MD, Editor
A Harvard Special Health Report explains the mechanics of sleep and the internal “circadian” clock that governs our patterns of waking and sleeping.
AMERICA ’S SLEEP-DEPRIVED TEENS NODDING OFF AT SCHOOL, BEHIND THEWHEEL—National Sleep Foundation
Findings of a recent poll: “Many of the nation’s adolescents are falling asleep in class, arriving late to school, feeling down and driving drowsy because of a lack of sleep that gets worse as they get older.”
WHENWORLDS COLLIDE: ADOLESCENT NEED FOR SLEEP VERSUS SOCIETAL
DEMANDS—Mary A. Carskadon
A renowned researcher explains the biological, behavioral, and social forces that converge to make getting a good night’s sleep so difficult for so many adolescents.
SLEEP DEBT AND THE MORTGAGED MIND—William C. Dement and Christopher Vaughan
How much sleep do you owe your internal “sleep bank”? What happens to your brain when you fail to repay your sleep debt? (Hint: The collector demands his due.)
THE PITTSBURGHSLEEP QUALITY INDEX—Daniel Buysse
How well do you sleep? Take and score this test, a standard tool in the field of sleep research.
HOW SLEEP DEBT HURTS COLLEGE STUDENTS—June J. Pilcher and Amy S.Walters
So you think you can pull an “all-nighter” and ace an exam the next morning? Think again.
ADOLESCENT SLEEP, SCHOOL START TIMES, AND TEEN MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES— Fred Danner and Barbara Phillips
What happens to the sleep habits and auto crash rates of teenagers when school start times are delayed one hour? Two researchers conducted a study designed to answer this question.
POETRY OF SLEEP—John Keats, Lord Byron, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Three Romantic poets offer nonscientific views of sleep.
Chapter 11: New and Improved: Six Decades of Advertising
ADVERTISING’S FIFTEEN BASIC APPEALS—Jib Fowles
“[A]n advertising message contains something primary and primitive, an emotional appeal,
that in effect is the thin edge of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind.” Advertisements
are designed to appeal to the “unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of our
MAKING THE PITCH IN PRINT ADVERTISING—Courtland L. Bovée, John V.Thill, George P. Dovel, Marian Burk Wood
Is copywriting an art? If so, it’s “art in pursuit of a business goal.” Here are the main types of
headlines and body copy in the hundreds of ads we see every week.
SELLING HAPPINESS: TWO PITCHES FROM MAD MEN
A great ad campaign can create nostalgia (“the twinge in your heart more powerful than memory alone”) or can convince consumers that deadly products are perfectly safe.
A PORTFOLIO OF PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS
Presenting, for your consideration, a series of striking magazine advertisements produced over the past six decades. No obligation to buy.
A PORTFOLIO OF TV COMMERCIALS
From the Energizer Bunny to text-messaging nuns, Madison Avenue has created an often-funny alternative consumer universe that compels viewing.Tune up your YouTube and get ready to laugh.
Chapter: 12 Fairy Tales: A Closer Look at Cinderella
WHAT GREAT BOOKS DO FOR CHILDREN—Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.
The Pulitzer Prize winning historian and biographer shares his love of the classic tales and explains why he prefers them to “[a]pproved children’s books today”: these “classic fantasies may well be more realistic than the contemporary morality tales.”
UNIVERSALITY OF THE FOLKTALE—Stith Thompson
A folklorist, exploring the significance of telling tales, finds them to be “far older than history, and . . . not bounded by one continent or one civilization.”
SEVEN VARIANTS OF“CINDERELLA”
The much-loved “Cinderella” is found in all parts of the world. More than 700 versions exist; we include seven of them here.
CINDERELLA —Charles Perrault
ASHPUTTLE —Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm
A CHINESE“CINDERELLA”—Tuan Ch’êng-shih
THE MAIDEN, THE FROG, AND THE CHIEF’S SON (AN AFRICAN “CINDERELLA”)
OOCHIGEASKW—THE ROUGH-FACED GIRL (A NATIVE AMERICAN “CINDERELLA”)
WALT DISNEY’S“CINDERELLA”—Adapted by Campbell Grant
CINDERELLA —Anne Sexton
THE RISE OF PERRAULT’S“CINDERELLA”—Bonnie Cullen
How did Charles Perrault’s “Cinderella” emerge as the “standard” version among so many variants?
“CINDERELLA”: A STORY OF SIBLING RIVALRY AND OEDIPAL CONFLICTS— Bruno Bettelheim
A psychoanalytic reading of “Cinderella”: “Every child believes at some period in his life . . . that because of his secret wishes, if not also his clandestine actions, he deserves to be degraded, banned from the presence of others, relegated to a netherworld of smut.”
CINDERELLA: NOT SO MORALLY SUPERIOR—Elisabeth Panttaja
This analysis of “Cinderella” finds our heroine a crafty liar who “hides, dissembles, disguises herself, and evades pursuit.” She’s no better, morally, than her stepsisters.
I AM CINDERELLA’S STEPMOTHER AND I KNOW MY RIGHTS—Judith Rossner
A novelist lets Cinderella’s stepmother speak for herself.The first order of business: Sue the Disney Corporation for grotesquely misrepresenting her and her daughters in the 950 animation classic.
THE PRINCESS PARADOX—James Poniewozik
Contemporary Cinderella movies “seek to inject some feminist messages into the age-old fantasy. But can you really wear your tiara while spurning it too?”
CINDERELLA AND PRINCESS CULTURE—Peggy Orenstein
What happens when a feminist’s daughter asks to dress like a princess? In this article, writer Peggy Orenstein delves into the merchandising of Cinderella and her sister princesses to discover a robust, $3 billion industry more than 25,000 products strong.
Chapter 13: Obedience to Authority
DISOBEDIENCE AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MORAL PROBLEM— Erich Fromm
“If mankind commits suicide,” argues this psychologist and philosopher,“it will be because people will obey those who command them to push the deadly buttons; because they will obey the archaic passions of fear, hate, and greed; because they will obey obsolete clichés of State sovereignty and national honor.”
THE POWER OF SITUATIONS—Lee Ross and Richard E. Nisbett
Could you predict whether or not a student walking across campus will stop to help a man slumped in a doorway? Don’t bet on it.
THE PERILS OF OBEDIENCE—Stanley Milgram
A psychologist devises an experiment to test the extent to which people will obey immoral orders. His startling conclusion: “ordinary people . . . without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process.”
REPLICATING MILGRAM: WOULD PEOPLE STILL OBEY TODAY?—Jerry M. Burger
Nearly fifty years after Milgram, a researcher replicates the original obedience experiments. Little has changed.
The intense reaction to Milgram’s experiment made him famous—and ruined his career.
GROUP MINDS—Doris Lessing
The flattering picture we paint of ourselves as individuals leaves most of us “helpless against
all kinds of pressures . . . to conform.”
OPINIONS AND SOCIAL PRESSURE—Solomon E. Asch
How powerful is group pressure upon the individual? A landmark experiment demonstrates that most people will deny the evidence of their own eyesight sooner than risk appearing out of step with the majority.
THE STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT—Philip G. Zimbardo
A psychologist at Stanford University designs an experiment in which college-age men take on the roles of guard and prisoner—with surprising results.“Can it really be,” asks Zimbardo,“that intelligent, educated volunteers could have lost sight of the reality that they were merely acting a part in an elaborate game that would eventually end?”
FROM ATONEMENT (A NOVEL)—Ian McEwan
Looking for someone to blame for the deaths of their comrades, British soldiers at Dunkirk morph into a deadly mob and surround an RAF airman.